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in 2013 


Connecticut Magazine 

Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of 

History, Literature, Picturesque Features, 

Science, Art and Industry 


Francis Trevelyan Miller 


Copyrighted by The Connecticut Magazine Company 





C. A. Quincy Norton 
Francis Trbvelyan Miller 
C. H. Smith. L.L.D. 
Mrs. John M. Holcombe, . 
Francis Trevblyan Miller 
Clara Emerson-Bickford 
Francis Trevblyan Miller 
Susan E. W. Jocelyn 
Francis Trevblyan Miller 

Herbert Randall . 
Charles Hbnry Smith 

Fannie M. Olmsted 

George V. Smith 
Sara Thomson Kinney 
Frederick Calvin Norton 



















josefh roswell hawley, op hartford 

James Edward English, of New Haven 

Marshall Jewell, of Hartford 

Charles Roberts Ingersoll, of New Haven 

Richard Dudley Hubbard, of Hartford 

Charles Bartlett Andrews, of Litchfield 

Hobart B. Bigelow, of New Haven, . 

Thomas McDonald Waller, of New London 

Phineas C. Lounsbury, of Ridgefield 

Morgan Gardner Bulkeley, of Hartford 

Luzon Burrett Morris, of New Haven 

Owen Vincent Coffin, of Middletown 

Lorrin Alanson Cooke, of Winsted 

George Edward Lounsbury, of Ridgefield 

George Payne McLean, of Simsbury . 

Abiram Chamberlain, of Meriden 



Clara Emerson-Bickford 

C. A. Quincy Norton 
C. A. Quincy Norton 

Margaret Ellen Jackson 


















Neltje DeG. Doubleday . 

Francis Wayland . 

H. Clay Trumbdll, S.T.D. 

Judge Martin Smith 
Ellen D. Larned . 

MacGregor Fiske . 
Judge Lyman E Munson . 
II. A. Warren 
Francis Trevblyan Miller 

Joel N. Eno, A.M. . 

Dr. Melancthon W. Jacobus 

H. Louise Parker . 

H. Clay Trumbull, S.T.D. 

Ernest Chadwick . 

Ex-Governor O. Vincent Coffin 

205, 817 
. 444 
























Awakening of the Historical Spirit . 
Not a Perfect Book, but a Good Book 




FROM . • 






Robinson Travers . 

F. G. Markham 

Hon. Frederick J. Kingsbury 

Arlon Taylor Adams 

Theodore Sedgwick Gold 

Arlon Taylor Adams 

Charles Clark Munn 

Judge L. E. Munson 
Lovell Hall . 
John Gaylord Davenport 
Florence May Abbe 
Ellen Bessie Atwater . 
Francis E. Howard 

H. Clay Trumbull, S.T.D. 
Judge Epaphroditus Peck 
Mrs. Charles H. Smith . 
Charles E. Benton 
F. G. Markham 


Joel N. Eno, A.M. . 
Francis Trevelyan Miller 

. Ml 

. m 

. 803 

. 448 

33, 289, 475 

. 285 

Alice M. Pinney 

Ex-Gov. George P. McLean 

H. Clay Trumbull, S.T.D. 

Gov. Abiram Chamberlain 
Gen. George H. Ford 
William J. Long 

Grover Cleveland 

H. C. Warren 
Julia Lansing Hull 






Julian H. Sterling 
Edward Bailey Eaton 
Charles F. Olin 
Rev. R. H. Gesner . 
Malcolm Day Rudd 

Edward Bailey Eaton 
U. G. Church 
Robert S. Hulbert. 
Edward Bailey Eaton 



Singing Stream in the Wildwood at Colebrook 

Fertile Acres at Lakeville 

Summer Time in the Connecticut Hills 

Old Stone Bridge and Dam 

A Little Village in the Valley 

Mountain Scenery in the Litchfield Hills 

On an Old Farm at Colebrook . 

A Cattle Pasture in the Canaan Valley 

An Old Familiar Scene at the Cross Roads 

Buttermilk Falls at Norfolk . 

The Running Brook .... 

Civilization Made Thrifty the Fields 

Near Twin Lakes at Salisbury . 

Scene on the Farmington . 

Paths Led Through the Forest . 

Scene on the Farmington . 

A Connecticut Lake Scene 

Scene on the Farmington . 

(Benealogicai flnbey 


Sybil, 812, 817 

Mehitable, 813 

Cephas, 813 

Uriah, 813 


Stephen, 813 

Diadamia, 814 

Thomas., 814 

John, 815 

Susannah, 815 

Mary, 815 

Rebecca, 815, 

Abigail, 549 

Daniel, 546 

Amasa, 546 

William, 546 

Betsy, 546 

Hannah, 546 

John, 546 

Mary, 546 

Hannah, 546 

Sarah, 550 

Phebe, 544 

Desire, 547 

Bezaleel, 547 

David, 159 

Joshua, 159 

Dinah, 153 


Content, 153 

Sarah, 154 

Joseph, 154 

Aaron, 154 

Messrs. 154 

Sarah, 156 

Joseph, 156, 160 

John, 158, 159, 407 

Elesabeth, 158, 159 

Mary, 160 

Hannah, 156 

Samuel, 156 

Elizabeth, 156 

Joseph, 156 

Anne, 156 

Jonathan, 156 
William, 156 
Benjamin, 159 
Hezekiah, 159 
Jonathan, 159 

Joseph, 156 

John, 157, 161 
Hannah, 161 
Elizabeth, 159 
John, 159 

Margaret, 402 

Elisha, 404 
Silas, 404 
Philander, 404 
Thaddeus, 404 
Graham, 404 
Jemima, 406 
Jeremiah, 406 
Alice Hine, 406 
Thomas, 406 
Phebe, 406 
Azariah, 406 
Zeriah, 406 
Mary, 406 
Samuel, 406 
Zerubbabel, 406 
Joseph, 406 
Phebe, 550 

Huldah, 404 

Moses, 405 


Emery, 812 
James, 812 


William A., 812 

Abigail, 812, 813 


Elijah, 814 
Statira, 814 
Iva, 814 
Candace. 814 
Elizabeth, 814 
John, 814 
Rhoda, 814 
Lucy, 814 

William, 814 
William, 546 
Samuel, 546 

Sarah, 814 
John, 814 

Abraham, 815 
Isaac, 815 


Abigail, 815 


Mary, 815 
Robert, 815 


John, 817 

Mary, 817 

Phebe, 550 

Elizabeth, 547 

Nicholas, 547 

Sarah, 550 

Ann or Anne, 546, 550 

John, 550 

Mary, 550 

Elizabeth, 549 

John, 550 

Sarah, 550 

Mary, 550 

Hannah, 550 

Stephen, 550 

Benjamin, 550 

Thomas, 550 

Samuel, 550 

Prudence, 550 

Eunice, 550 

Joshua, 153 

Israel, 153 

Mary, 155, 156 

Daniel, 155 

Leonard, 156, 158 

Benjamin, 157 

John, 157 

Charles, 158 

Samuel, 156, 157, 158, 160 

Katharine, 156, 160 

Lois, 156 

Eunice, 156 

Nathaniel, 156, 157, 

John, 157, 158, 160 

Hezekiah, 157 

Noadiah, 157, 159 

Elisha, 157 

Elias, 157 

Isaac, 157, 160 

David, 157, 159 

Sarah, 158 

Gideon, 158 

James, 158 

William, 158, 160 

Daniel, 158 

Mary, 159 

Dudley, 159 

Hannah, 160 

Isaac, 160 

Hon'h, 160 

Abigail, 161 

Susannah, 156 


(genealogical fln&ey 

Joseph, 156, 157 
Sarah, 157 
Jonathan, 157 
Hezekiah, 157 
Lois, 813 

William, 160 

Mary, 814 
Roger, 815 
Lydia, 815 
Pelatiah, 815 
Abigail, 815 
Reuben, 815 
Hezekiah, 544 
Abraham, 544 
Mary, 544 
Hepzabah, 544 

(Gov.,) 813 

Timothy, 816 

Mary, 549 

John, 813 
Sarah, 157 
Joseph, 157 
Francis Hon'r, 157 
Joseph, 161 
Rebecca, 161 
William, 158 
Robert, 157, 158, 160 
John, 160 
Thomas, 160 
Timothy, 160 

Abigail, 158 
Daniel, 158 

Thomas, 159 

. 159 


Amy, 403 

Edmond, 814 
Sarah, 814 
Elmira, 814 
Cordelia, 814 
James, 814 
Charlotte, 814 

Desire, 547 
Susannah, 550 
Samuel (Hon.), 550 

Thomas (Gov.), 546, 549, 

Elizabeth, 546, 549, 550 
Mehitable, 546 
Ebenezer, £46 
John (Dr.), 546 
Hannah, 546 

Lydia, 546 

Messrs., 154 
Josiah, 156, 157 
Abigail. 156 
David (Capt), 156 
Susannah, 156 
Ephraim, 156 
John, 157 
Sarah, 157, 161 
Rebecca, 157 
Moses, 157 
Stephen, 159 
Jacob, 159, 161 
Jerusha, 160 
Isaac, 160 
Keziah, 156 
Michael, 156 
Jeremiah, 156 
Samuel, 156 
G., 157, 
Mabel, 158 
Josiah, 158, 159, 161 
Caleb, 159 
John, 159 
Ephraim, 160 
Lydia, 160 
Jonathan, 161 
Caleb, 161 
Jacob, 161 
Sarah, 157 
Isaac, 157 
Ozias, 159 
Ebenezer, 159 
Betsy, 405 

, 405 


Francis Congdon. Si 2 
Stephen, 812 
Hannah, 812 
John, 815 
James, 815 
Joanna, 815 
Walter, 815 

Sarah, 814 
Abigail, 406 
Samuel, 406 

John. 406 
William, 406 
Sarah, 549 

William, 549 

Deborah, 546 

Nathan, 546 

Martha, 546 

Giles, 547 

Mary, 156 

John, 15s, 157, 159, 160,161 

Sarah, 159 

Ann, 160 

Abigail, 161 

Mr., 154 

Mary Clark, 403 

Joseph 403 

John, 155 

Samuel, 155 

Thomas, 155, 546 

Daniel, 156 

Mary, 546 

Nathan, 156 

Thankful, 156 

Peter, 157 

Elias, 157 

William, 157 

Prudence, 158 

John, 159 

Elizabeth, 159 

Sarah, 161 

Freelove, 550 

Nathaniel, 157 

Hezekiah, 157 

Jonathan, 15S 

Mary, 15S 

Ann, 158, 159 

Thomas, 158, 159. 161 

, 401 


Charles Adolphus, 401 

Hannah. 402 

Lydia, 402 

Joseph, 402 

Lydia, 40 - 

Cynthia. 40 a 

Joseph. 403, 

Thomas, 406 

Genealogical flnbey 


Abram, 405 

Lewis, 405 

Mary, 406, 548 

Anthony, 406, 547, 548 

Elizabeth, 406 

Ruth, 548 

Ann, 548 

, 406 

Joseph, 406 

John, 406 

Thomas (Capt.), 407, 548 

Ruth, 548 

Anthony ( Capt.), 407 

Ruth, 407 

, 811 


George, 812 

Daniel, 812, 817 

Lucy, 812 

Hannah, 813 

Anna, 549 

Stephen, 544 

John, 544 

Dorcas, 544 

Keziah, 813 

Heziah, 549 

Sarah, 815 

Joseph, 816 

Ann, 817 

Eli, 546 

George, 546 

Hannah, 546 

Seth, 546 

Joseph, 546 

Plynn, 546 

Richard, 546 

Prudence, 546 

Obadiah, 546 

Betty, 546 

Anthony, 547 

Isabel, 547 

Martha, 546 

Judith, 404 

Joshua, 154 

John, 154 

Joseph, 154 

Michael, 154 

Matthew, 154 

Horace, 154 


Mary, 154 

Elizabeth, 154 

Nicholas, 154 

William, 154 

Thomas, 406 

William, 406 

Elizabeth, 406 

Benjamin, 406 

John, 406 

Mary, 406, 548 

Ruth, 406 

Philip, 406 

Samuel, 406 

Anthony, 406 

Amos, 406 

Ithiel, 406 

Lydia, 406 

Phineas. 406, 549 

John, 406, 548 

Susanna, 406 

Francis, 811 

Lucinda, 812 

Thomas, 812 

Jabez, 812 

Ann, 812 

William, 813 

Sarah, 549, 813 

Stephen, 815 

Samuel, 815 

Mary, 550 

Lydia, 816 

Henry, 157, 159 

Nathanael, 159 

Joseph, 158 

Martyn, 158, 160 

Rebecca, 160 

George, 161 

Hezekiah, 161 

Thomas, 814 

John, 815 

Elizabeth, 815 

Susanna, 815 
Kitelle, 815 

Betty, 546 

Elizabeth, 156 

Luther, 156 

Abigail, 156 

Ebenezer, 156 

Solomon, 156 

Bezaleel, 156, 158, 161 

John, 161 

Ichabod, 156 


Richard, 157, 158, 159 

Elisha, 157 

Ruth, 158 

Epaphras, 160, 161 

Samuel, 161 

Daniel, 549 

Elizabeth, 549 

Isaac, 403 

Ann, 403 

Elihu, 403 

Norman, 403 

Amy, 403 

Martha, 812, 813 

John, 8 12 

John, 814 

John, 815 

Joseph, 547 

Tyler, 547 

Hephzibah, 547 

Lois, 547 

John, 547 

Bethuel, 546 

Hannah, 546 

Mary, 54+ 

Messrs., 154 

James, 160 

Stephen (Rev.), diary, 156 

Catharine, 402 

Katharine, 548 

Thomas, 548 

Rebecca, 548 

Samuel, 548 

George, 548 

Robert, 156, 158 

George, 157 

Mary, 158 

Mary, 157 

Richard, 157, 158, 160 

Hannah, 160 

Hezekiah, 157, 158, 160 

Elizabeth, 158 

Eleazer, 160 

Jonathan, 158 

Abigail, 158 

Rebecca, 160 

Joseph, 160 

William, 159, 160 

Margaret, 160 

Aaron, 401 

(Senealoatcal flnfcey 


Abigail, 401 

William, 402 

, 405 


John, 812, 813 

Benjamin, 812, 813 

James, 813 

Hannah, 813 

Hannah, 549 

James, 549 

Sarah, 815 

Hannah, 816 

Mary, 817 

Hugh, 817 

Martha, 817 

Nathaniel, 549 

David, 546 

Lydia, 546 

John, Jr., 546 

Ann, 547 

Hannah, 548 

Thomas, (Capt.) 548 

Hannah, 546 

Nicholas, 153 

Elizabeth, 153 

Isaac, 153 

Joseph, 153 

Solomon, 153 

Gershom, 158, 160 

Prudence, 158 

Mehetabel, 160 

John, 160 

Isaac, 403 

Caleb, 403 

Mary, 403 

Abraham, 403 

Samuel, 403 

Abigail, 403 

Phebe, 403 

Hannah, 403 

Dwight, 547 

Lucina, 547 

Olive, 547 

Edmund, 547 

Edna Badger, 547 

Anthony, 547 

Ann, 547 

Frederick, 547 

John, 547 


James 547 

Sarah, 547 

Mary, 550 

Samuel, 816 

William, 816 

Sarah, 816 

Susan, 816 

Esther, 154 

Stephen, 154 

Lydia, 154 

Thomas, 811 

Mary, 811 

Isaac, 811 

Amy, 811 

Thomas, 811 

Samuel, 812 

Samuel, 814 

Sarah, 814 

Lois, 547 

John, 815, 816 

Thomas, 815 

Perrin, 815 

Hannah, 816 

Rebecca, 548 

Elizabeth, 548, 549 

Ann, 547 

Eunice, 156 

Joseph, 156 

Mehetabel, 156 

Samuel, 156, 157 

Elisha, 157 

Sarah, 158 

Jonathan, 158 

William, 158 

Daniel, 158, 161 

Joshua, 158, 161 

Elizabeth, 158 

Hezekiah, 161 

Jonathan, 161 

Elizabeth, 157 

John, 157, 159 

Elijah, 159 

Jonathan, 159 

Mabel, 159 

Rebecca, 160 

Samuel, 160 

Jonathan, 160 

Ashbel, 161 

Isaac, 161 


Chloe, 161 

Josiah, 160, 161 

Hezekiah, 160 

Ann, 160 

James, 160 

Susannah, 160 

Jonathan, 160 

Hannah, 161 

John, 160, 161 

Mabel, 403 

Abigail, 404 

Abel, 405 

Nehemiah, 811 

Amelia, 813 

Nehemiah, 544, 549, 813 

Robert, 549, 813 

Phineas, 544, 549 

Keziah, 544, 549 

Mehetabel, 544 

Elizabeth, 544, 549 

Phineas (Jr.), 544 

Samuel, 544 

Anna, 544, 549 

Sarah, 544, 549 

Lois, 544 

Hannah, 549 

John, S15 

Sybil, 544 

Abigail, 544 

Andrew, 549 

Elizabeth, 549, 550 

Samuel, 549 

Abigail, 549 

Samuel, 546, 549 

Elizabeth, 546, 550 

James, 549, 550 

"Nehemiah, 550 

Freelove, 5 so 

Mary, 550 

Fitch, 550 

Moses, 550 

Susannah. 550 

Henry, 550 

Esther, 5.50 

Sarah, 153 

Deborah. 153 

John, 156, 158, 159. l61 

Martha, 156 

Martin, 156 

Mabel. 158, 161 

James, 159 

(Benealogical flnbey 




Grace, 401 

John, 812 

Samuel, 156 

Richard, 402 

Samuel, 546 

Ziba, 156 

Noah, 812 

Hannah, 546 

Esther, 160 

Mary, 816 

Ezekiel, 546 




Noadiah, 156 

Avis, 153 

Elias, 813 

John, 156, 157, 16a 


Mary, 813 

Jonathan, 161 

Messrs., 154 

Thomas, 813 

Ruhamah, 812 



Nathan, 814 

Samuel, 156, 158 

Beriah, 813 

Tyral, or Tryon, 

Christian, 156 

Thomas, 813 

John, 157, 158, 161 

Hannah, 158 

Timothy, (Rev.) 550 

Prudence, 158 

Esther, 159 

Eunice, 550 


Thomas, 159 


Charles, 159 


Jesse, 813 


Sarah, 157 


Mary, 160, 550 

John, 157, 159, 160 

Mehitable, 813 

James, 160, 161, 550 

Benjamin, 158, 159 


John, 160, 161 

George, 158 

Elizabeth, 814 

Joseph, 160 

Elisha, 159 


Sarah, 161 

Samuel, 159 

Rebecca, 815 

Bethuel, (Capt.) 546, 55a 

Allyn, 159 

Isaac, 815 

Robert (Gov.) 546 

Nathaniel, 159, 161 


Anne or Anna, 546 

Abigail, 160 

Lydia, 815 

Jemima, 530 
Prudence, 550 

Anna, 161 



Sylvia, 815 

Phebe, 550 

James, 402 




Mary, 815 

Margaret, 401 

Asa, 403 



Jessie, 403 

Mary, 816 

Asa, 402 

Eunice, 403 

Thomas, 816 

Gershom, 402 

Abigail, 549 


Hannah, 548 


John, 816 

Asa, 548 

Abijah, 404 

Justus, 816 


Sarah, 404 

Joseph, 816 

Ezekiel, 402 

Abigail, 404 

Lydia, 816 

Samuel, 402 

John, 404 
Jonathan, 404 

Antoinette, 816 

John, 402 
Levi, 402 
Anna, 402 

Ebenezer, 816 

Elizabeth, 405 


George, 405 

Mary, 544 

Lydia, 402 

Lasell, 811 

Lydia, 544 

Eliphaz, 811 
Ozias, 811 

Andrew, 549 

Patience, 403 
John, 403 

Nathaniel, (Capt.) 548 
Rebecca, 548 


Sophia, 812 
Emeline, 812 
Lydia, 812 

Sarah, 549 
Elizabeth, 548, 549 

Roxy, 812 

Thomas, 548 
Katharine, 548 

. 550 


Joseph, 549 


Joshua, 812 


Martha, 812 

St. John, 

Mr., 154 


Noah, 405 

Samuel, 157, 161, 816 

Peter, 812 

Jacob, 812 

Elizur, 157 



Israel, 159 

Mary, 813 

Rhoda, 405 

Josiah, 159 


William, 405 

Ebenezer, 159 

Hannah, 813 

Mary, 405 

Samuel, 159 

John, 813 


Sarah, 160 

Stiles, 813 

Samuel, 406 

Joseph, 160 

Lydia, 815 

Elikim, 406 

Mary, 161 

Anthony, 815 

Jonathan. 407 

Hannah, 550 

Sybil, 817 

Sarah, 547 


Bartholomew, 817 


Elizabeth, 155 

Caleb, 817 

Esther, 811 

Peter, 155 

Rebecca, 817 

Huldah, 811 

William, 155 

Thomas, 538 

(BenealoQical flnbey 


Gershom, 548 

Anne, 549 

Edmund, 549 

Ebenezer, (Dr.) 547 

Ann, 547 

Elizabeth, 549 


Elizabeth, 548 

Thankful, 544 

Phebe, 547 

Katharine, 548 

William, 548 

Joseph, 548 

Hannah, 548 

Noah, 544 

Hepzibel, 544 

Mary, 154 

, 154 

Samuel, 156, 401 

Sarah, 156 

Elisha, 156 

Elias, 156 

Ephraim, 156, 157, 160,161 

Katharine, 157 

Daniel, 157, 160 

David, 157, 159, 160, 161 

George, 159 

Prudence, 160, 161 

Solomon, 160 

Jaheel, 160 

Absalom, 161 

Robert, 401 

Oliver, 401 

Christopher, 401 

Lucy, 401 

Esther, 401 

Isaac, 402 

Judah, 813 

Nathan, 813 

Charles, 813 


Mr., 154 

Mr., 154 

William, 156 

Ennath, 156 

Goodrich, 156 

Mary, 156 

John, 156, 157 

Thomas, 157 

Joseph, 156 

Ebenezer, 157 

Josiah, 157 

Lucy, 157 

Samuel, 157, 159, 160 

James, 157 

Moses, 157 

Timothy, 157, 160 

Martha, 157 

Nathaniel, 158 

Gideon, 158 

Moses, 159 

Elijah, 161 

Timothy, 161 

John, 157 

James, 157 

Martha, 157 

Robert, 157, 159 

Gideon, 159 

Hannah, 159 

Judith, 159 

Thomas, 407, 546, 548. 55° 

, 157 


Christopher, 158 

Joseph, 158 

Mary, 813 

Sarah, 546, 55o 

Ann, 548 


Joshua, 158, 160 
Esther, 160 


Ephraim, 160 

Bathsheba, 403 

Timothy, 4c 4 

Betsy, 405 

Guidon, 405 

Susannah, 406 

John, 813 

Ann, 813 

Sarah, 813 

Sarah, 813 

David, 813 

Bathsheba, 816 

Prudence, 546, 816 

John, 816 

Ebenezer, 816 

Joseph, 817 

Nathaniel, 817 

Elizabeth, 817 

Temperance, 813 

Richard, 813 

Jubee, 814 

Elizabeth, 814 


Thomas, 815 


Abner, S16 

Hannah, S16 

Anna, 816 

Betsy, 546 

John, 55° 

Mary, 55° 

Simon, 550 

Sarah, 55° 

Incorporated under the Laws of the State of Connecticut for the purpose of collecting in per- 
manent form the various phases of History, Literature, Art, Science, Genius, Industry and all 
that pertains to the maintenance of the honorable record which this State has attained— For 
this commendable purpose the undersigned are associated as members of the re-organized 
Connecticut Magazine Company, invitingthe co-operation of the home patriotic. 

GEORGE V. SMITH, President 

HERBERT RANDALL, Vice-President and Treasurer 

EDWARD B. EATON, Member Board of Directors and Field Manager 
EDWIN E. RING, Advertising Representative 
DAN McGUGIN, Western Representative, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

George P. McLean, ex-Governor of Connecticut; Prof. Henry W. Farnum, Yale Univer- 
sity; George S. Godard, State Librarian; William B. Clark, president ^tna Insurance Co. ; 
Jacob L. Greene, president Conn. Mutual Life Insurance Co.; Edwin S. Greeley, vice presi- 
dent Yale National Bank; Chas. A. Jewell, treasurer Jewell Belting Co.; Hon. Chas. M. 
Jarvis, vice-president P. & F. Corbin Co. ; Judge Lynde Harrison, formerly president New 
Haven Colony Historical Society; Rev. Samuel Hart, president Connecticut Historical 
Society; Albert C. Bates, Librarian, Connecticut Historical Society; James Nichols, president 
National Fire Insurance Co. ; Atwood Collins, president Security Co. ; John M. Holcomb, vic- 
president, Phoenix Mutual Life Ins. Co. ; William H. Watrous, manager S. L. & G. H. Rogers 
Co. ; Hon. Frederick A. Betts, former Insurance Commissioner; Dr. Gurdon W. Russell, Park 
Commissioner; Henry T. Blake, president Park Commissioners, New Haven; John G. Root, 
ex-Mayor of Hartford; Daniel R. Howe, sec'y and treas. Hartford Street Railway Co. ; Frank 
C. Sumner, sec'y and treas. Hartford Trust Co. ; Francis H. Richards, Patent Attorney; Car- 
not O. Spencer, School Fund Commissioner; Hon. Henry Roberts, Lieut. -Governor of Conn. ; 
Joseph G. Woodward, historian Conn. Soc. Sons of Am. Rev. ; Judge Dwight Loomis, ex- 
Associate Judge Supreme Court of Errors; Rev. Francis Goodwin, Park Commissioner Hart- 
ford, Commissioner of Sculpture ; Mary Elizabeth Wright Smith, vice-president at large, 
Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association ; Mrs. Samuel Colt, president Connecticut Branch 
Womans Auxiliary Board of Missions; James J. Goodwin, vice-president Conn. Historical 
Society; Lewis E. Stanton, president, Hartford Bar Library Association; estate Henry C. 
Robinson, John T. Robinson and Henry S. Robinson; Joseph H. King, president American 
National Bank; Dwight C. Kilbourn, clerk of courts, Litchfield County; Eli Whitney, presi- 
dent New Haven Water Co. ; P. Henry Woodward, former secretary Hartford Board of 
Trade ; Francis R. Cooley, banker ; Appleton R. Hillyer, vice-president ^Etna National Bank ; 
Samuel E. Elmore, president Connecticut River Banking Co. ; Thomas J. Boardman, presi- 
dent Wm. Boardman &Sons Co. ; William Newnham Carlton, librarian Trinity College ; Judge 
Edwin B. Gager, Judge of the Superior Court; Theodore Lyman, Attorney at law; Kate E. 
Griswold, publisher Profitable Advertising; Richard O. Cheney, vice-president State Board 
of Trade; Henry S. Goslee, Attorney at Law; Ernest B. Ellsworth, Attorney at Law; William 
H. Richmond, B. M. Des Jardins, H. Phelps Arms, Charles W. Frey, Mrs. Josephine E. S. 
Porter, Herbert Randall, Mrs. C. R. Forrest, Hon. Stephen Walkley, Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, 
Edwin Stanley Welles, Charles E. Thompson, Franklin Clark, Mary B. Brainard, Mrs. Frank- 
lin Farrel, E. J. Carroll, Francis Trevelyan Miller, Edward B. Eaton, Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr., 
Mrs. Antoinette Eno Wood, Dr. Henry Putnam Stearns, Rev. Lewis W. Hicks, Edwin Cone 
Hunt, A. H. Randell, Dr. Charles C. Beach, William F. J. Boardman, Howard C. Buck, 
Daniel D. Bidwell, The Smith-Linsley Co. ; Geo. V. Smith. 



Volume VIII 


Series of 




I ft THE 





>* s .'*$/, 







D. W. C. SKILTON, President. J. H. MITCHELL, Vice-President. 
EDW. MILLIGAN* Secretary. JOHN B. KNOX, Ass't Secretary. 

Agencies throughout the United States, Canada and the 

Old World. 



THE strength and quality of this 
first number of Volume VIII 
of The Connecticut Magazine 
is remarkable. It must be conceded 
that no publication devoted to the in- 
terests of one State has ever presented 
more valuable collection of writings 
by distinguished men. I am person- 
ally, not only gratified but happily 
surprised for I could not conceive 
how the two preceding numbers could 
be excelled. It is insisted, however, 
that every issue must establish a new 
literary record and that there can be 
no standing still. The beauty of the 
preceding- magazines under the re- 
organization has received compliment 
in the appreciative comment from the 
bibliophile throughout the country 
and has i. „ded to establish the literary 
reputation of Connecticut more sol- 
idly than any other factor in many 
years. Through to the Pacific coast 
the reviews have been especially con- 
gratulatory. It is bringing our pro- 
gressive State to the forefront with a 
tremendous rapidity. The last edi- 
tion sold in every state in the Union 
and abroad ; while the ode "Niagara," 
was pronounced the poem of the year 
and republished in booklet form for 
a western edition. 

Mr. Miller is tending toward per- 
manent literary values and in this is- 
sue develops through acknowledged 
authorities several new phases of his- 

tory and 1 Connecticut achievement. 
Believing that the intellectual people 
of the Commonwealth prefer the best 
literary quality presented in artistic 
and concise form, it has been consid- 
ered more advisable to increase the 
size, and present Volume VIII with a 
greater total number of pages and il- 
lustrations than ever before, in four 
editions de luxe. This gives oppor- 
tunity for research and investigation, 
for careful compilation, and with 
marked increase in total pages for 
year adds materially to the value 
which I believe will be appreciated in 
the homes of culture, where the publi- 
cation is an indispensable educational 
factor. Number two of this volume 
is now in preparation and will intro- 
duce decidedly pleasing innovations 
"I desire the magazine to become a 
character-builder and to inculcate 
principles that will lead to the best 
citizenship," says Mr. Miller, and it 
is certainly being accomplished. 
All who have an interest in this 
achievement for our Commonwealth 
are cordially invited to become sub- 
scribers to this volume at the excep- 
tionally low price of $2.00 yearly, con- 
sidering the size the volume will attain 
on completion and the priceless edu- 
cational value. Renewals and new 
patrons to be recorded promptly 
should be mailed immediately 


The Connecticut Magazine 

Volume VIII Number I 

An illustrated Bi-Monthly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its 
various phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius 
and Industry. Hereafter to be published Four Editions de Luxe yearly 

Art Cover Designed in purple and gold by E. A. Sherman 

Title Page Designed in two colors i 

Prologue 3 

Frontispiece— The Dawn of the Golden Age ........ 4 

Drawing by Louis Orr. 

An Allegory . . . Introductory by editor 5 

"State of Which We are All Proud" .... abiram chamberlain 6 

Governor of Connecticut 

" Qui Transtulit Sustinet ** GEORGE p. mc lean 7 

Ex-Governor of Connecticut 

"The Emblem of Liberty" . 0. vincent coffin 8 

Ex-Governor of Connecticut 

The Song of the Ship louis ransom 10 

Tribute to a Connecticut Hero grover Cleveland 14 

Ex-President of the United States 

The Historic Old Town of Windsor . . . . Charles f. olin 18 

Thirty-three Illustrations by H. W. Benjamin, W. Irving Morse and 

In the Courts of the Kings . ...... elsie bessie atwater 33 

University of Chicago 

The Beginning of American Democracy. . . Fragment from john fiske 48 

Comparative Study of Jefferson and Lincoln . lyman e. munson 49 

Former United States Judge of Montana 

Recollections of Distinguished Men h. clay Trumbull 57 

Little Journeys to Ancestral Firesides Charles e. benton 62 

In the Summer-Sweetin' Time — Poem HERBERT rand all 64 

Country Life in Connecticut 64 

The Singing Stream in the Wildwood at Colebrook .... 65 

The Fertile Acres at Lakeville 66 

Summer-time in the Connecticut Hills 67 

The Old Stone Bridge and Dam 68 

A Little Village in the Valley— New Hartford 69 

Five Illustrations by K. T. Sheldon and others. 

The Birthplace of Genius editor 70 

Illustrated by Photograph of Field Homestead at Haddam. 

Around the Old-Time Fireside Editor 71 

Illustrated by photograph from Wilson House at Milford. 

Lake Regions of Connecticut Editor 72 

The Falls at Simsbury y$ 

A June Day on the Lake 74 

The Sparkling Waters of Twin Lakes 75 

Three Illustrations by K. T. Sheldon and others. 

April-May Edition, 1903— Entered at Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of second class 

The Connecticut Magazine 

Beginning New Series of 1903 

Marketed in June, combining months April-May, intervening since close 
of Volume VII 

Historic Old Houses of Early Connecticut 76 

Davenport Homestead at Stamford 76 

Bevin Homestead at Chatham - . 76 

Governor Treat House at Milford ... ... 76 

Governor Law House at Milford 76 

The Wilson House at Milford 

The Olney House in Southington 

Old School House at Chatham 77 

The Regicide House at Milford 

Eight Illustrations from Photographs. 
The Homes of Our Forefathers .-,"". . • • clara emerson bickford 78 

Illustrated by four drawings and three photographic reproductions. 

The Song of the Seven Spirits dr. Frederick h. wiluams 

The Struggle for Liberty general george h. ford 86 

Leaving the Old Place— Poem ....... Louis E. thayer 00 

Heredity— Verse eulu whedon mitchell 90 

The Ghost of Old Tim Buck ...... Charles clark munn 91 

The Lights and Lamps of Early New England c a. quincy Norton 

Correspondent National Museum at Washington. 
Five Illustrations from photographs 

Some Old Mattabeseck Families Margaret ELLEN jackson ioi 

Five Illustrations from photographs. 

Connecticut Artists and Their Work Herbert randall 108 

Paintings by Charles Noel Flagg, Gedney Bunce, Walter Griffin and 
Allen B. Talcott, reproduced from photographs by Randall. 

Art Notes m 

Illustration Memorial Window by Joline Smith. 

A Typical Connecticut Street Scene— Danbury— Illustration 

The Governors of Connecticut Frederick calvin Norton 114 

Five Illustrations— Reproduction by Herbert Randall, from paintings. 
Loyal to the Crown, Moses Dunbar, Tory . Epaphroditus peck 

Associate Judge of Court of Common Picas 

Old Home Week— Poem frank walcott HUTT 

Age of the Humanitarian .... Francis wayl and 

Former Dean Law School of Yale University. 

Criticism of Connecticut Naturalists— Reply to John Burroughs Kin tor 145 

The School of the Woods wii.uam 1. I 

Studies in Ancestry . . . Department Edited by Edwin Stanley Wku 

Were the Puritans Fatalists Julia LANSING BUU 162 

The Quill of the Puritan 

Awakening of the Historical Spirit . Francis trkvki van miller 
Financial History of Danbury RDWAM B. RATON 

Illustrations from photographs. 

Publishers' Announcements 

Industrial Notes Kinvix K. ring 

Hartford— Meriden— Bristol—New Britain. 

Subscription $2.00 Yearly. Single Copies, 50 Cents. 

Address all communications and manuscript to the Connecticut Maga.-ine Company. Hartfo: 
Copyright 1903— By the Connecticut Magazine Company 


EDWARD B. EATON, President, FRANCIS T. MILLER, Secretary, 

EDWIN E. RING, Advertising Manager 

Incorporated under the Laws of the State of Connecticut for the purpose of collecting in 
permanent form the various phases of History, Literature, Art, Science, Genius, Industry 
and all that pertains to the maintenance of the honorable record which this State has 
attained— for this commendable purpose the undersigned are associated as members of the 
reorganized Connecticut Magazine Company, inviting the co-operation of the home patriotic. 

George P. McLean, ex-Governor of Connecticut ; Prof. Henry W. Farnam, Yale 
University; George S. Godard, State Librarian; William B. Clark, president, Aetna In- 
surance Co. ; Jacob L. Greene, president Conn. Mutual Life Insurance Co. ; Edwin S. 
Greeley, vice-president, Yale National Bank; Charles A. Jewell, treasurer, Jewell Belting 
Co. ; Hon. Charles M. Jarvis, vice-president, P. & F. Corbin Co. ; Judge Lynde Harrison, 
formerly president, New Haven Colony Historical Society; Rev. Samuel Hart, president, 
Connecticut Historical Society; Albert C. Bates, Librarian, Connecticut Historical So- 
ciety ; James Nichols, president, National Fire Insurance Co. ; Atwood Collins, president, 
Security Co. ; Jonn M. Holcombe, vice-president, Phoenix Mutual Life Ins. Co. ; William 
H. Watrous, manager, S. L. & G. H. Rogers Co. ; Hon. Frederick A. Betts, former Insur- 
ance Commissioner; Dr. Gurdon W. Russell, Park Commissioner; Henry T. Blake, presi- 
dent, Park Commissioners, New Haven ; John G. Root, ex-Mayor of Hartford ; Daniel 
R. Howe, secretary and treasurer Hartford Street Railway Co. ; Frank C. Sumner, secre- 
tary and treasurer Hartford Trust Co. ; Francis H. Richards, Patent Attorney ; Carnot 
O. Spencer, School Fund Commissioner ; Hon. Henry Roberts, Lieut-Governor of Con- 
necticut ; Joseph G. Woodward, Historian Connecticut Society Sons of American Revolu- 
tion ; Judge Dwight Loomis, ex-Associate Judge, Supreme Court of Errors ; Rev. Francis 
Goodwin, Park Commissioner, Hartford, Commissioner of Sculpture ; Mary Elizabeth 
Wright Smith, vice-president at large, Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association; Mrs. 
Samuel Colt, president, Connecticut Branch Woman's Auxiliary Board of Missions; 
James J. Goodwin, vice-president, Connecticut Historical Society ; Lewis E. Stanton, 
president, Hartford Bar Library Association ; Estate Henry C. Robinson, John T. Robin- 
son and Henry S. Robinson; Joseph H. King, president, American National Bank; 
Dwight C. Kilbourn, clerk of Courts, Litchfield County ; Eli Whitney, president, New 
Haven Water Co.; P. Henry Woodward, former secretary Hartford Board of Trade; 
Francis R. Cooley, banker; Appleton R. Hillyer, vice-president, Aetna National Bank; 
Samuel E. Elmore, president, Connecticut River Banking Co.; Thomas J. Boardman, 
president, William Boardman & Sons Co.; William Newnham Carlton, librarian, Trinity 
College; Judge Edwin B. Gager, Judge of the Superior Court; Theodore Lyman, Attor- 
ney at Law; Kate E. Griswold, publisher, Profitable Advertising; Richard O. Cheney, 
vice-president State Board of Trade; Henry S. Goslee, Attorney at Law; Ernest B. Ells- 
worth, Attorney at Law; William H. Richmond, B. M. Des Jardins, H. Phelps Arms, 
Charles W. Frey, Mrs. Josephine E. S. Porter, Herbert Randall, Mrs. C. R. Forrest, 
Hon. Stephen Walkley, Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, Edwin Stanley Welles, Charles E. 
Thompson, Franklin Clark, Mary B. Brainard, Mrs. Franklin Farrell, Francis Trevelyan 
Miller, Edward B. Eaton, Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr., Mrs. Antoinette Eno Wood, Dr. 
Henry Putnam Stearns, Rev. Lewis W. Hicks, Edwin Cone Hunt, A. H. Randell, Dr. 
Charles C. Beach, William F. J. Boardman, Howard C. Buck, Daniel D. Bidwell, The 
Smith-Linsley Co. 





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Allegorical Drawing of the migration into Con- 
necticut two hundred and sixty-seven years ago 



Connecticut Magazine 


Volume VIII A M- ^gffl| Number I 


Ti HIS June marks the two hundred and sixty-seventh anniversary of 
the first emigration into Connecticut. Through forests primeval ; 
through woodlands dense and almost impassable, came the sturdy 
and courageous pioneers, the builders of a noble commonwealth, 
where breadth of character, sympathetic fellowship, moral and 
intellectual culture were to be the idealistic principles of living and doing. 
It was in the true spirit of democracy, the heart interest in humanity, that 
these hundred or more makers of a nation braved the wilderness. Strong 
in mentality, stalwart in physique, the creators of a new land came down 
through the pathless valley driving their hundred and sixty head of cattle 
before them. 

Thus every month has its historic significance and in thes^ beautiful 
June days is recalled this migration into the new homeland, whose essential 
foundation was the love of God and the infusion of education. It was in 
this enchanting summer-time that Connecticut extended its welcome to the 
wayfarers. The stately oaks and graceful elms spread their protecting 
branches over the verdant meadows while the river reflected the deep blue 
of the noonday sun. The curling smoke rose dreamily from the Indian 
wigwams, and wild beast and wild man trod alike single file through the 
glen. But with a faith in God, and an insatiable longing for freedom oi 
thought and religious worship, the colonial founders perceived in the golden 
rays of the June sun the gleaming shafts of prosperity. The mountain 
heights in defying strength were tinged with the golden hues of thrift, 
while the tall pines lifted their towering branches heavenward, teaching 
the lesson of fortitude ; and the patient brook rippling through the flowering 
fields sang the ballad of abundant promise and overflowing prosperity. 
This was the beginning of the golden age in Connecticut two hundred and 
sixty-seven years ago. 


UR endeavor should be to render such service as will reflect 

credit upon the good old State of Connecticut we love so well 

and which has honored us in so signal a manner. Connecticut 

is a State of which we are all proud. Its foundation was laid 

by men whose memories we cherish. From them we have 

received a legacy such as no other people has inherited, and it is our duty 

to guard it well, that we may transmit to our children our own goodly 


We have great reason to be thankful for the abundant prosperity 
which prevails not alone within our own borders, but throughout this 
great country. Let us therefore rejoice and give thanks to the Almighty 
Ruler of the Universe for the great blessings which He has bestowed upon 
this State and Nation. 

Connecticut has an established reputation for schools, and it is to her 
credit that she maintains a high standard in matters pertaining to education. 
Our splendid universities have given us a world-wide renown. The 
modern high school and normal school, together with our district school- 
houses located in every town in the State, bear witness to the value which 
our people place upon education. 

Governor of Connecticut 


THE State of Connecticut is, by the testimony of all her loyal 
sons, as good a State to live in as there is in the Union. 

Many of her blessings are due to the wealth and variety of 
her natural endowments, but many more are due to the wisdom 
of the fathers who laid the foundations of her government in 
the adamant of morality and justice. 

For more than two centuries the fundamental law of Connecticut has 
been the admiration and inspiration of the representative republics of the 
world. And if the citizens of Connecticut have preferred stability to uncer- 
tain change, their choice has brought them great prosperity and the reputa- 
tion of being a people of steady habits, which, with God's help, may they 
long retain. 

We can readily believe that the achievements of the nineteenth century 
are but the foothills of the sublime ranges of the possible that lie above and 

We stand in the battle line of a new century. Qui transtulit sustinet of 
the fathers floats triumphant over us. In our defense of this beloved stan- 
dard, let us ever be mindful that it is the signature of a Republic and the 
seal of a government by the people. 


Governor of Connecticut, iqci-i<joj. 

w w & 


THE value and beauty of this piece of bunting are not to be 
estimated by what it is of itself. Certainly these yards of 
cloth carrying a field of star bedecked blue and lines of beauty 
in red and white, make an object of attractive appearance; 
but they are not what make us love the flag. There are many national 
flags in the world, of choice material and exquisite design, and if the 
question were simply one of texture, taste and skill, we might not all feel 
certainly assured that the stars and stripes should hold primacy. The 
royal colors of Great Britain and Ireland, the French standard, the 
Prussian and many others, may be, by some, considered as of higher 
artistic merit than our own. 

It is neither the cloth, fine as it is, nor the design, beautiful as that is, 
that so commends this flag to the minds and hearts of the people, that 
when the hour of danger comes millions stand ready to devote all they 
have and are, even life itself, to its defense. But when we remember what 
it symbolizes, that it is the emblem of liberty ; the sign of free government, 
the zeal and signal of great sacrifices made for principles, the proper 

W W Vv 


operation of which lifts every member of the national community, the 
humblest equally with the highest, into religious freedom and civil sover- 
eignty, then we understand and appreciate its significance. 

It is an inspirer of hope and a harbinger of blessing to all mankind. 
We do well to embrace every proper opportunity, and adopt all appropriate 
methods, to familiarize our children with its deep meaning, that, as 
population, wealth and power increase, there may be in the long procession 
of coming generations more than a corresponding increase in strength of 
loyality to it and to the deathless principles for which it testifies. 

May it wave in safety through coming years, the voiceless teacher 
of patriotism, the mute yet eloquent witness to our love of country, of 
our fellow countrymen, and of God. 


Governor of Connecticut, t9gs-i9g/J 


We'll begin the song where the ship was born 

'Mid the twilit worlds of pine, 
'Hid oaks that grow on a mountain's horn 

And the gloom of the iron mine. 


Through gloomy months of storm and cold 

They filled the still domain. 
With axes' sound, the teamsters' scold 

And woods' prolonged refrain. 

The axe lashed deep and mortal scars 

On the king of the forest realm, 
They swayed on their thrones of recorded years, 

And fell with a vast o'erwhelm. 

Great oaks which from their crowns had flung 

Whole centuries of storm, 
Through all their frozen fibres rung, 

Low moaned each quiv'ring form. 

And pines which had sighed the threnody 

Of a hundred summers' wane 
Down rushed from the wintery canopy 

With a sound like the driving rain. 

So these men of the columned, crooning wood, 

These toilers among the snow, 
Through somber months in a somber mood 

Laid the forest empire low. 

Yet when crackling high the night fire blazed 

A jovial band were they, 
As each some woodman's daring praised, 

Or sang a hunter's lay. 

When the tales were fierce of a hunter's feat, 

Each feels his own are told, 
And high their iron pulses beat 

When townsmen's blood ran cold. 

Down in the world's deep catacombs 

Two giants long have lain, 
One is sunshine turned to stone, 

The other iron grain. 



Touch one with flecks of Hying fire, 

He springs to Instant life. 
The other, 'roused by his fervent ire, 

Awakes to the world's old strife. 

Strong men in delving, toiling throngs 
Seek these where'er they lay, 

They break their old and brittle bones, 
And heave them to the day. 

Their lamps upon the mine cap's perch, 

Aflittlng the dismal coast, 
Seemed like stars in wandering search 

For constellations lost. 

And there they delve, in the caverns old, 
In dark like the nether sea, 

Among the slags and cinders cold 
Of some burned-out eternity. 

For such the bones of the giants were 
When broken and despoiled, 

They broke them down, they cast them where 
Great blasting engines toiled. 

Then resurrection strong and blare 
Their stony slumber broke. 

One's eye had conflagration's glare, 
The other's power awoke. 

That one smote red the welkin blues 

And one cried from the murk, 

"Again ye give me giant thews, 

Now give me giant work." 

They cast him headlong in the flame 
And made him welding red, 

They shaped him for the ship's great frame, 
For the hamper overhead. 


They draw him into masses vast, 

To the firm set, rigid brace, 
They make him step each stalwart mast, 

And chain the shrouds in place. 

They joined strong the cables long, 

With links like a giant's fist, 
They forge the anchor's fluking prong, 

And weld it to the wrist. 

Bar on massive bar is bound 

And laid in the furnace heat, 
Then cyclop derricks swing it round 

Where engine sledges beat. 

With blows like tumbling crags they wrought 
The shanks, the spreading flukes, 

Until 'twould hold when the brave ship fought 
The maddest sea's rebukes. 

So by dint of head and hammer stroke, 
These men of brain and brawn, 

Deft timber workers and the folk 
Who forge the world along, 

Erect a monarch on the strand 
To rule the billowed world, 

Where soft, Pacific zephers fanned, 
Or cyclone's fury whirled. 

{To be continued.) 





President of the United States, 1885-1889; 1893-1897- 

Ninety years ago the twenty-fourth of this June, occurred the birth of Henry Ward Beecher, at 
Litchfield, "Connecticut. Ninety-two years ago the fourteenth of this same month Harriet Elizabeth 
Beecher (Stowe) was born at the old Beecher homestead in Litchfield. The father, Rev. Lyman Beecher, 
D. D., was pastor of the Congregational Church in that town. The two children attended the village 
school, the former having a strong predilection for a seafaring life. The daughter became the dis- 
tinguished author of " Uncle Tom's Cabin," which did more than any other literary agency to rouse the 
public conscience against slavery, and died in Hartford, July 1, 1896. The son was graduated from 
Amherst College in 1834. and devoted himself to the study of theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of his father, who was then president of that institution. He became pastor at Lawrenceburg, 
Indiana (1837-1839) ; then at Indianapolis, Indiana, until 1847, when he was installed as pastor of Plymouth 
(Congregational) Church in Brooklyn, where his genius and remarkable eloquence continued to attract 
one of the largest congregations in the United States. He was equally successful as a lecturer and a 
popular orator. He was editor of the Independent from 1861 to 1863, when he visited Europe for the 
benefit of his health. His earnest addresses to large audiences on the subject of the Civil War in the 
United States appear to have had considerable influence in turning the current of-public opinion in Great 
Britain in favor of the Union cause. Mr. Beecher was also long a prominent advocate of anti-slavery 
and of temperance reform, and at a later period of the rights of women. He delivered three courses of 
lectures on Preaching (1872-1874) at the Yale Divinity School, on the " Lyman Beecher" foundation. 
Among his principal works are Lectures to Young Men (1850) ; Star Papers (1855) ; Life Thoughts (1858) ; 
Royal Truths (1864) ; a novel, Norwood (1864); Life of Christ (vol. i, 1871); Evolution and Revolution (1884); 
Sermons on Evolution and Religion (1885) ; and about twenty other volumes of sermons. He was founder 
and editor of the Christian Union (1870-1881). Henry Ward Beecher died in Brooklyn, New York, 
March 8, 1887. 

Within a few months will be erected a memorial in New York in honor of this distinguished son of 
Connecticut. At a recent assembly the oration was delivered by Ex-President Cleveland, and it is here 
produced in full by his permission from the original manuscript. It is a significant fact that Ex-President 
Cleveland is also from Connecticut ancestry, and the old Cleveland homestead is in Norwich. His great 
grandfather Aaron Cleveland, was a business man and politician in Norwich in post-Revolutionary days, 
and took a lead in opposing slavery, introducing the first bill for its abolition, being dissatisfied with the 
gradual emancipation measures adopted in 1790. Later he became a Congregational minister. He died 
leaving thirteen children, one of whom was Father Cleveland, the venerated city missionary of Boston ; 
another the wife of Rev. Samuel Hanson Cox. The second son, William (ex-presidents's grandfather), 
married Margaret Falley, a Norwich lady, and was a deacon in the Congregational Church for twenty- 
five years. The deacon s business was that of a silversmith, watch and clock maker, and like many a 
Yankee boy of his period he learned a trade, and the workshop where he and his apprentices were sent 
is typical of many others that subsequently developed into extensive manufacturing concerns. 

There is in existence in Norwich several clocks and a few silver spoons that came from his modest 
little factory. He was a pupil of Thomas Harland, who came here from London in 1773, William 
Cleveland at that time being in his twenty-third year. Just before one comes to the turn in the road, by 
the Methodist meeting-house that fronts the common, is the Cleveland homestead. It is a comfortable- 
looking two-story dwelling about 40 feet square. Grover Cleveland's father was Rev. Richard Falley 
Cleveland, a Presbyterian clergyman. — Editor 

I' T is now more than forty- 
nine years ago, that I heard 
in Plymouth Church, a ser- 
mon whose impressiveness 
has remained fresh and 
bright in my mind during all the time 
that has since passed. In days of 
trial and troublous perplexity its re- 
memberance has been an unfailing 
comfort ; and in every time of depress- 
ion and discouragement the lesson it 
taught has brought restoration of hope 

and confidence. I remember as if it 
were but yesterday the fervid elo- 
quence of the great preacher as he 
captivated my youthful understanding 
and pictured to my aroused imagina- 
tion, the entrance of two young men 
upon the world's jostling activities — 
one laden like a beast of burden with 
avaricious plans and sordid expecta- 
tions, and the other with a light step 
and cheerful determination, seeking 
the way of duty and usefulness and 


striving for the reward promised to 
those who love and serve God, and 
labor for humanity. I have never for 
a moment lost the impression made 
upon me by the vivid contrast thrill- 
ingly painted in words that burned, 
between the two careers ; nor have I 
ever failed to realize the meaning of 
the truths taught by the description 
given of the happy compensations 
in life and the peace and solace in 
death, of the one, and the racking dis- 
appointments in life and the despair 
in death of the other. What this ser- 
mon has been to me in all these years, 
I alone know. I present its recollec- 
tion to-day as a personal credential of 
my own, especially entitling me repre- 
sentation among those who meet to 
recall and memorialize the fame and 
usefulness of Henry Ward Beecher. 

I am not here, however, for the 
purpose of only giving voice to a grate- 
ful recollection, nor solely to acknowl- 
edge the personal benefit and service 
I have received from the teaching of 
the illustrious dead. I have come to 
join in the kind of hero worship which 
is but another name for a reverent 
recognition of that greatness which 
manifests itself when humble faith and 
trust in God inspires sincere and brave 
service in the cause of humanity's ele- 
vation and betterment. 

It has been wisely said that hero 
worship will endure while man endures. 
Let us accept this as a pleasant truth 
— upon the condition that the man or 
qualities worshipped and the manner 
of their worship are of the very 
essence of the matter. Let us believe 
that there is no sadder symptom of a 
generation's bad moral health, than its 
lack of faith in its great men and its 
loss of reverence for its heroes ; but 

let this belief be coupled with reser- 
vation that those called great shall be 
truly great, and that the heroes chal- 
lenging our reverence shall be truly 
heroic, measured by standards adjust- 
ed to the highest moral conditions of 
man's civilization. 

We cannot have the least misgiving 
concerning the completeness of the 
Hero whose name is on our lips to- 
night and whose memory is in our 
hearts. Should a hero's aims and 
purposes be high and noble? Our 
Hero devoted his life to teaching the 
love of God and pointing out to his 
fellow men the way of their soul's sal- 
vation. Should he be unselfish, self- 
sacrificing and generous ? The self- 
sacrifice of our Hero shone out con- 
stantly and brightly ; and his life will 
be searched in vain for a selfish, un- 
generous act. Should he be courage- 
ously and aggressively a lover of his 
country and a champion of freedom ? 
Our Hero, in the days of his country's 
danger and trial, challenged all comers 
in defense of our National safety and 
unity. He stood like a rock against 
doubters at home ; and he confronted 
angry, threatening throngs abroad 
with a steady, unyielding courage 
which wrought triumphs for his coun- 
try and for its consecration to man 
hood freedom, not less important than 
those of an army with banners. 
Should he be brave and patient under 
personal suffering and affliction ? 
Our Hero, when afflictions came from 
Heaven, submissively continued to 
praise God ; and when he felt the cruel 
stings of man's ingratitude and malice, 
he serenely looked towards his Heaven- 
ly Father's face and kept within the 
comforting light of a pure conscience. 
Should a hero crown all his high 



moral attributes with great and bene- 
ficient achievements ? Our Hero led 
thousands upon thousands to the way 
of eternal life ; he surrounded religion 
with cheerful brightness, and taught 
that it grows best, not in the darkness 
of terror, but in the constant sunshine 
of God's unfailing love ; he performed 
the highest service to his country in a 
spirit of absolutely pure patriotism and 
self-effacement. His daily life and 
influence were blessed benefactions to 
his countrymen far and near ; and by 
no means the least of all he did, he 
created Plymouth Church, and kindled 
there a light of Christian faith and 
hope, whose unwavering and unwan- 
ing warmth and light have in every 
corner of our land, dispelled the chill 
and gloom of doubt and fear. 

What do we here ? Do we seek to 
put in the way of constant remernber- 
ance the civic virtues of our Hero, his 
contribution to the fame of the city he 
loved, and his distinguished life among 
his townsmen? This has already 
been done ; and an impressive monu- 
ment recalls to those who pass along 
your streets the strong and loved per- 
sonality of Henry Ward Beecher. It 
is fitting that such a monument should 
stand in your midst, not only as a re- 
minder of the personality of our Hero, 
but as evidence that in its erection 
there has been stimulated and cultivat- 
ed a wholesome appreciation of the 
greatness of genuine usefulness. 

We desire also to establish a memo- 
rial to our Hero. We know that there 
is no need of duplicating a reminder 
that Henry Ward Beecher has lived 
and is no longer with us in the body. 
We know that neither monument nor 
memorial avails to the dead ; and we 
know that nothing more than the 

monument our Hero has himself 
erected in the hearts of men, is nec- 
essary to his remembrance. And yet, 
in loving honor to his name, we would 
erect a memorial through which the 
living will be quickened and strength- 
ened in the emotions and sentiments 
so much a part of his life and death. 
We would make our memorial an 
agency for the continuation of the 
mission which he undertook when he 
consecrated himself to the service of 
God and the elevation and improve- 
ment of his fellow men ; and by the 
love he bore towards God and man, we 
would invoke his approval of our work. 
We seek to build a memorial which 
,shall be a shrine, surrounded and per- 
vaded by our Hero's influence and 
spirit, inspiring all who worship there 
to noble deeds. We would invite to 
his shrine from near and far, those 
whose hearts have been touched by 
his earnest tones, if haply they might 
hear again his words of love and com- 
fort ; and we would invite those who 
have never known his ministrations, 
to come, and, standing within the in- 
fluence of that sacred place, to feel its 
gentle leading to a better and more 
useful life. Our Hero has himself de- 
clared in what manner his shrine 
should be approached : 

"When I fall and am buried in 
Greenwood, let no man dare to stand 
over the turf and say 'Here lies 
Henry Ward Beecher " ; for God 
knows that I will not lie there. Look 
up ! If you love me, and if you feel 
that I have helped you on your way 
home, stand with your feet on my turf 
and look up ; for I will not hear any- 
body who does not speak with his 
mouth towards Heaven." 

It would savor of hardihood, if we 



who knew Mr. Beecher and his works, 
and who now contemplate the build- 
ing of a memorial of the spirit and in- 
spiration of his labors, should be con- 
tent with a mere idle token of re- 
membrance. Assuredly if it is to 
typify his lofty intents and purposes, 
and if it is to memorialize his unsparing, 
constant usefulness, and his fidelity in 
interpreting to his fellow men the 
messages of God, our memorial must 
be a centre of work which shall 
redound to the glory of God and the 
good of humanity. It should never be 
forgotten that as truly as the life and 
labors of Henry Ward Beecher were 
devoted to serving God and making the 
condition and destiny of his fellow men 
better and happier just so truly should 
our work, undertaken in his name, be 
entered upon with the same high in- 
tent and purpose. 

We must look up, as we build a 
shrine to our Hero ; and if we would 
have him hear us as we invoke his 
favor we must speak with our mouths 
toward Heaven. 

It is also entirely manifest that we 
can build no memorial shrine to our 
Hero, which will attract his favor and 
the presence of his spirit, without 
making Plymouth Church a part of it. 
No place on earth is so pervaded by 
his spiritual influence ; and his love 
and affection for earthly things has no 
abiding place more sure than this. 
Plymouth Church was created by and 
for him. During more than forty 
years, and even to the day of his death, 
it was an engrossing object of his de- 
votion, and the scene of his anxious 
self-sacrificing labors and joyful tri- 
umphs. Living, his name and fame 
could never be separated from it ; and 
dead he has sanctified it. 

Let us learn how completely and 

with what high motives he gave him- 
self to Plymouth Church, from the 
words he addressed to its members on 
the completion of twenty-five years of 
its life and his pastorate : " My su- 
preme anxiety therefore in gathering 
a church, was to have all its members 
united in a fervent, loving disposition ; 
to have them all in sympathy with 
men ; and to have all of them desirous 
of bringing to bear the glorious truths 
of the Gospel upon the hearts and con- 
sciences of those about them. I bless 
God when I look back. I have lived 
my life, and no man can take it from 
me. The mistakes I have made — and 
they are many — none know so well as 
I. My incapacity and insufficiency, 
none can feel so profoundly as I ; and 
yet I have this witness ; that for 
twenty-five years I have not with-held 
my strength, and have labored in sym- 
plicity and with sincerity of motive, for 
the honor of God and for the love that 
I bear to you, and for the ineradicable 
love that I have for my country and 
for the world." 

If our work of building a memorial 
to our Hero is prosecuted in the spirit 
that characterized his work on earth. 
and if we mingle with the love we have 
for his memory, a sincere purpose to 
emulate his love for humanity, our 
hero worship will be inspiring and 
elevating. If, invoking his approval 
and in his name, we extend his life 
work, we shall not only exemplify our 
affection for him, but shall follow the 
designs of God as they were revealed 
to him ; and if at the shrine we erect, 
humanity shall look up and shall cast 
off its burden of sin and selfishness 
and uncharitableness, we shall know 
that our Hero is there, and that through 
his intercession our efforts have re 
ceived a Divine blessing. 


Photo by H. W. Benjamin 





Editorial Staff of the Bristol Press 

OLD Windsor in its stately at- 
mosphere of culture, with 
its towering maples and 
elms and its broad streets 
lined with its colonial homes, is of 
much antiquarian interest. It is most 
entertaining while sojourning in these 
old Connecticut villages to stroll leis- 
urely along the country thoroughfares 
and to return in imaginative retrospect 
to the olden scenes of romance days 
when the booted Puritan fathers trod 

these same paths and the quaint old 
houses domiciled the Puritan matrons, 
the makers of the first American 

Standing on the broad, expansive 
lawn of the old palisado one pictures 
the return of the gallant soldiers from 
the Pequot War, two hundred and six- 
ty-six years ago. In the protection of 
their homes they went into the wilder- 
ness to meet the treachery of the hos- 
tile Indians, leaving their little house- 


l 9 

holds and all that was dear to their 
courageous hearts, to the trusting 
guidance of the God whom they served. 
What a feeling of elation must have 
passed through these quiet homesteads 
and what earnest prayers of thanks- 
giving must have arisen from the lips 
of these devoted and prayerful women 
when the message arrived of the de- 
cisive victory on that twenty-sixth day 
of May, away back in 1637, and the 
victorious little army started on its 
homeward march in joy and gratitude 
for a success such as they had hardly 
dared to hope. As Dr. Stiles says, 
<l We may well imagine that wonder- 
ing childhood crept closer to the knee 
of manhood, and that woman's fair 
cheek alternately paled and flushed as 

On this site Parson Warham ground corn for the 
colonists during the week— Mill was presented to 
clergyman as part of his support 

the marvelous deeds and hair-breadth 
escapes of the Pequot fight were re- 
hearsed within the palisado homes of 
Windsor. Nor were they without 
more tangible proofs. The Pequots 
were so th 01 ^^!^ ,sJLih&J£ d that they 






Purchased in 1865 

were hunted down like wild 
beasts, by small parties of 
those very river Indians, 
to whom, but a few days 
before, the very name had 
been a terror; and for a 
long time their ghastly 

of them in the center of the village 
and they had a large fo: t a little north 
of the plat on which the first meeting 
house was erected." Dr. Stiles, how- 
ever, believes this number to be 
largely over-estimated. But in speak- 
ing of the subject says, " We believe 
.that the Indians in this vicinity were 
once numerous. Arrow heads, stone 
axes and parts of stone vessels are 
often met with, particularly near the 
river. Indian skeletons are often dis- 
covered in making excavations, or by 

• . ; 


One of the old taverns in Windsor 
the time of Washington 

the breaking away of the 
river's bank." 

The story of the founding 
of the historic town was 
told in the November-Dec- 
ember (1900) number of The 
Connecticut Magazine and 
therefore in this article will 

grinning heads were brought into 
Windsor and Hartford and there ex- 
hibited as trophies." 

Dr. Trumbull tells us that within the 
the town of Windsor there were ten 
distinct tribes and that about the year 
1670 their bowman were reckoned at 
two thousand. "At that time it was 
the general opinion that there were 
nineteen Indians in the town to one 
Englishman. There was a great body 

A Colonial Tavern in the stage coach days 


2 I 

iT : "'V" 




Home of descendants of John Sill— Birthplace 
of Edward Roland Sill, educator and author 


One of the finest examples of the architecture 

of the Revolutionary Period 

simply be recalled a few of the old 
homesteads and the patriotic residences 
in the early days. Dr. Stiles says, 
'• The dwellings of the first settlers 
were undoubtedly dug-outs, succeeded 
soon by log-cabins, such as the western 
emigrant of today erects on his new 
claim. These were followed, as the 
circumstances of their owners im- 
proved, by a better class of houses, 
two stories high, containing two 
square large rooms above and be 
low, with a chimney in the center, 
and steep roofs. Some of these 
houses had a porch in front, about ten 
feet square, of the same height as the 
main part of the building. This porch 

formed a room overhead, and the 
lower part was either enclosed or left 
open, and supported by pillars, accord- 
ing to the fancy of the occupant. Of 
this description was the house of Rev. 
Mr. Hooker, of Hartford, and of Rev. 
Timothy Edwards, of East Windsor. 
At a later period, as the necessities 
of growing families increased, and 
they needed more room, the scant or 
lean-to was added to the rear of the 
house, leaning towards the upright 
part, and continuing the roof down to 
the height of the first story. This 
afforded a kitchen, buttery, and bed- 
room. This, with an addition to the 
chimney of a fireplace, for a kitchen, 

Where Honorable Roger Newberry, member 
of the council for thirty-nine terms, resided 


Another type of architecture in early 



' He made a great hole for the great 

cat to go thro', 
A little hole made, for the little 

cat too.' 

In every door of the old Moore man- 
sion was a passage for puss, that she 
might pursue her vocation from garret 
to cellar without let or hindrance." 

Historians tell us of the ancient 
custom just preceding a marriage of 
erecting the homestead. It was a 
social occasion and all the neighbors 

Destroyed a few years ago by lightning — Bolt 
struck large tree which fell on the house 
crushing in roof Photo by W. Irving Morse 

Built by the first Squire Allyn— Considered in its day the grandest house 
in Windsor, if not in the " Universal Yankee Nation" Center oJ the first 
society of the the times— Where justice was dispensed by the Squire 

Plate front Stiles History oj Wit 

became the established order of do- 
mestic architecture. There was the 
door for the cat, as at that early day 
it was considered a very necessary 
accommodation to so important and 
privileged a member of the household. 
The old song sings of him, who, when 




Upon this site will be erected an educational institute, fund representing combined estates 
of last five lineal descendants of Joseph Loomis, emigrant ancestor of the name in America 

and friends were invited and the work 
was succeeded by games and feasting. 
It was the custom for the bride-elect 



Prominently identified with municipal 
interests in Windsor during last century 

Who established Young Ladies Institute in 
1866. Also incorporator of Loomis Institute 







Recently died in Chicago and left estate of more 
than a million dollars for founding" of Loomis 


Whose death occurred in New York City in 1S7S. 
was one of the incorporators of the Loomis 


An artist who died in New York City in :89s- 
Estate left to educational institution 

I \mks C. I OOMIS 
Prominent lawyer in Bridgeport who died in 
is—, leaving wealth to project of Learning 



to drive one of the pins in the frame 
of her future home. 

Aside from the old church and the 
Ellsworth mansion, described in pre- 
vious articles, there is probably no 
building- in Windsor of so great in- 
terest as the Lewis saw and grist- 
mill, a short walk west of the center 
and right on the trolley line to Po- 
quonnock, standing- on the bank of 
Mill Brook. This interest arises, 
not because of the present mill, but 
the unique associations of the site 
with the earliest days of the town. 
Here the Colonists brought timber 
from the forests about, and in due 
time erected a mill and presented it 
— equipped with a ponderous water- 
wheel, hand-wrought grinding- stones 
and crude machinery — to the Rev. 
Mr. Warham, "as a part of his sup- 
port." It was the only mill for miles 
around, and the reverend miller, we 
are told, was kept so busy grinding 
corn for the Colonists, that he found 
little time to prepare his sermons, 
much less to write them, as was then 
the invariable custom with preach- 
ers, this fact being the foundation of 

the local tradition that he 
was the first clergyman, to 
acquire the habit of preach- 
ing extemporaneously "with- 
out notes." 

Broad street, now the 
picturesque thoroughfare 
running through the very 
heart of Windsor proper, 
was then a part of the back 
road to the mill, the road to 
Hartford in this section of 
the town being a considerable 
distance east of the present 

There were no taverns in 
Windsor until well along 
toward the Revolutionary period. 
The genial hospitality of the Colo- 
nists sufficed for the accommodation 
of the very few traveling strangers 
coming into the colony. It has 
been stated from the rostrum within 
a very few months that the old Dr. 
Chaffee house, standing on Palisado 
Green, was, at one time, the only 
tavern that Windsor boasted, and 
that there Washington and Lafayette 
stopped overnight. This story of 
the Chaffee house is doubtful, for 


Photo by W. Irving Morse 



Windsor had three taverns at the 
time of Washington. Washington, 
so far as can be accurately learned, 
never remained in Windsor over 

departure before the day had run 
half its course. Lafayette never 
seems to have visited the town. 
One of the three taverns mentioned 


night. He did visit the old town, is still standing on Windsor heights, 
coming early to consult with Judge and is known to the present genera- 
Ellsworth, with whom he breakfasted tion as the Spencer House. It IS now 
at his home, and then took his occupied by Christopher Spencer. 



Built by old Deacon John Moore and presented to his son as a set-out 
on his marriage day in i6go Plate front Stiles 1 History of Windsor 

The other two taverns have disap- 
peared. The old Pickett hostelry 
that stood just beyond Hayden's sta- 
tion was pulled down fifteen years 
ago, and the present post office in 
Windsor Center stands on the exact 
site of the third tavern. This was 
destroyed by fire some forty years 
ago. All were on the old stage road 
between Boston and New York. 

There are few, if any, towns in 
New England possessing so many 
old land-marks as Windsor. Of the 
original dwellings practically none 
are now in existence. A few of the 
timbers in the old Thomas Moore 
house on Elm street remain in the 
rebuilt structure, now utilized as a 
tenement house, and two "beehive" 
ornaments adorning the house — 
which was built in 1 650 — are retained 
over an outside door. 

A stranger in 
passing through 
the center of 
the town, is at- 
tracted to the 
cheerful two- 
story building, 
with broad ver- 
andas and tall 
windows, over 
the front steps 
of which is the 
neat sign an- 
nouncing it as 
''The Old 
It is a boarding 
house and some- 
thing over a 
hundred years 
old. The towns- 
people call it the 
' ' old Newberry 


Who was in command of United States Prison for 

Officers at Sandusky during Civil War 



place," taking that name 
from the fact of its having 
been owned at one time by 
the Hon. Roger Newberry, 
who married Governor Roger 
Wolcott's daughter, and who 
was a member of ' ' the 
council" for thirty-nine con- 
secutive terms. In the 
present building was located, 
in 1820, the famous Fellen- 
berg school for boys. 

Nearly every type of so- 
called "colonial architecture" 
can be seen in Windsor to- 
day ; but the old Colonel 
Oliver Mather place, just at 
the south end of Broad street 
green, is said to be one of 
the finest examples in exist- 
ence of the best style prevail- 
ing about the Revolutionary 
period. The impression ob- 
tains in some quarters that 


Historian and antiquarian— One of Windsor's 
leading manufacturers — Died December 2, 
1902, aged ninety-one years 

this house, or rather its predeees- . 
was the home of Cotton Mather, the 
famous colonial divine. Much as I 
should like to place Mather's name 
in Windsor's list of notable citizens. 
there is no record that would war- 
rant doing so. There is in the old 
cemetery a headstone, marking the 
grave of a Cotton Mather, but the 
date of death thereon inscribed is 
many years after the death of the 
distinguished gentleman after whom 
Windsor's citizen was probably 

The Sill house, about half a mile 
above Palisado Green, is another of 
Windsor's old and interesting struc- 
tures. It was the Home of the de- 
scendants of John Sill, and the an- 








cestors of Lieutenant Governor Sill, 
of Hartford. Here was born the late 
Edward Roland Sill, the educator 
and author. In front of the house is 
an oddly-shaped and huge button- 
ball tree. 

The oldest building in the town is 
the Levi Hayden homestead, on the 
old stage-road just beyond where 
Pickett's tavern stood, and a half 
mile above Hayden's station. This 
house was built in 1737, and is today 
practically the original building. It 
was the home of the ancestors of the 
late Jabez Hayden, the well-known 
historian of Windsor; and of his 
brother, the late Hon. H. Sidney 
Hayden, who, in his life-time did so 
much to develop and improve the 
town. In the sixties, when a mem- 

ber of the State Senate, he obtained 
distinction as practically the founder 
of the Connecticut Hospital for the 
Insane, at Middletown. He also es- 
tablished the school for girls in 
Windsor, known since his death as 
Hayden Hall. The school was re- 
cently closed. The Levi llavden 
homestead is on a part o\ the original 
grant to William Hayden that marked 
the extreme northern portion of the 
colonial settlement, although the 
northern boundary o\ the town 
some miles further along. The orig- 
inal llavden house stood at the fork 
of the river ami Suffield roads. A 
flint boulder, the inscribing of which 
used up two hundred tools si> hard 
was the rock was placed on the site 
of this house some fifteen years ago. 



The Wolcott homestead is in 
South Windsor, once a part of the 
town of Windsor. There Roger and 
Oliver lived; the former, however, 
spending the declining years of his 
life with Mrs. Newberry, his daugter, 
in Windsor. 

Among the leading citizens of 
Windsor of the past century, who 
have gone to the " great beyond, " 
might be mentioned Judge Henry 
Sill ; Col. James Loomis ; Col Rich- 
ard Mills of Poquonnock, who was 
postmaster-general in President Van 
Buren's cabinet ; Dr. Hezekiah Chaf- 
fee, son of the only physician in 
Windsor during the Revolutionary 
period ; General W. S. Pierson, who 
was in command of the United States 

prisons for officers at Sandusky dur 
ing the Civil War, and who also pre- 
sented the Congregational church its 
organ, and established an organ 
fund; Judge Thomas W. Loomis, 
and the Hon. Sidney Hayden. 

As Windsor has been conspicuous 
for noble sons of gracious deeds in 
the past, so also is she to be in the 
near future. The two hundred and 
more years of her career are to be 
welded inseparably to the future, 
through the practical philanthropy 
of the last lineal decendants of Joseph 
Loomis, one of the Dorchester set- 
tlers, by the establishment of the 
Loomis Institute, with at sufficient 
endowment to insure a perpetual ca- 
reer of the highest usefulness. 






Fellow in History in the University of Chicago 

The thorough investigations by Miss Atwater are presented after many years of research and 
forcibly portray a new phase of history which is originally developed in this series of articles. 
The investigation has been made w^th a remarkable application and as shown by the quoted 
authority is possible of almost inexhaustable study. There has been no more important or learned 
contribution made to Connecticut history in many years. Miss Atwater was born in Mantua, Ohio, 
a descendant from early settlers of the Western Reserve, who were themselves descended from 
early settlers of Connecticut and Massachusetts. She was educated at Hiram College, at DePauw 
University, and at Cotner University in Nebraska, graduating A. B. in 1891. She has taught in Fair 
field College, Oskaloosa College and Cotner University, and is now a fellow in history in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago.— Editor. 

IN an article on "Colonial Agen- 
cies in England" in the Politi- 
cal Science Quarterly for 
March, 1901, Mr. E. P. Tanner at* 
tributes the origin of the colonial agen- 
cies to Virginia. When, however, the 
contemporary uses of the term "agent" 
are considered, little credit would ap- 
pear to be due to any colony for orig- 
inating the system. The general idea 
of the agency can certainly be traced 
back to the earliest days of imperial 
rule over provinces. In the early colo- 
nial period there were agents for Eng- 
lish proprietors in America, 1 agents 
appointed by the colonies to deal with 

Cromwell's commissioners to New 
England, 2 agents representing Con- 
necticut at the meetings of the New 
England Confederacy, 8 agents to make 
land purchases, 4 agents sent to confer 
with the Dutch, 5 and the Dutch also 
had agents at Hartford and New Ha- 
ven. 6 Is it, then, surprising that, 
when business was to be transacted at 
the far away English court, an "agent" 
was appointed to act for the colony? 
In studying the beginnings of the 
agency in the various colonies the main 
interest would seem to be in learning the 
time when a given colony first began 
to feel the need of making its desires 
known in England, and in deciding 

11652. Fenwick had an agent (Captain 
Cullick) in Connecticut. Connecticut Co- 
lonial Records I, 232. 

1635. John Winthrop, Jr., was agent for 
Lord Saye and Sele, etc. Johnston; Con- 
necticut, 23. 

2June 13, 1654. Connecticut Colonial 
Records I, 259. 

^September, 1689. Connecticut Colonial 
Records III, 8 and 7. 

4(1640?) New Haven, Trumbull, Com- 
plete History of Connecticut (New Haven. 
1818) I, 119 and 122. 

^Connecticut Colonial Records I, 241 
(Note) (Cf. Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 120 
and 210). 

•October 8, 1647, New Haven Records I. 

September, 1646, Plymouth Colonial 
Records , IX, 61, (Cf. Trumbull, Connecti- 
cut, I, 122, 166, 158, 260). 



why one colony communicated with 
the home government through its gov- 
ernor directly by letter, when another 
colony required an agent to manage its 

The first mention of a Connecticut 
agency to England so far discovered 
in the records of the General Court, 
is under date of September 9, 1641, as 
follows : 7 

"Mr. Hopkins is desired by the 
Courte, if he see an opportunity, to ar- 
bitrate or issue the difference betwixt 
the Dutch and us, as occation and op- 
rtunitv shall be offered when he is in 

What he actually accomplished can 
only be inferred from a letter of Sir 
William Boswell, English ambassador 
to the States General, dated January 
22, 1 64 1 -2, to a certain Dr. Wright 
who seems to have been an English 
friend of Hopkins. 8 It is believed 
that this letter was sent to Connecti- 
cut and served as a basis for the action 
of the colony as to the Dutch. Whether 
or not Mr. Hopkins accomplished any- 
thing else for the colony is not ascer- 

The next mention of the agency is 
under date of May 13, 1645, as fol- 
lows : 9 

"It is desired that the Gour, Mr. 
Deputy, Mr. Fenwicke, Mr. Whiting 
and Mr. Welles should agitate the 
business concerning the enlargement 
of the libertyes of the Patent for this 
jurisdiction, and if they see a concur- 
rence of oprtunityes, both in regard of 
England (Left blank) they have the 
liberty to prceed therein, all such rea- 
sonable chadge as they shall judge 
meete and the Court will take some 

speedy course for the dischadge and 
satisfieing the same, as yet shall be 
concluded and certified to the Court by 
the said Committee or the greater prte 
of them." 

On July 9th the record is : 10 

"Its Ordered that there shall be a 
letter directed from the Court to de- 
sire Mr. Fenwick if his occations will 
permit to goe for Ingland to endeavor 
the enlargement of Pattent, and to fur- 
ther other advantages for the country." 

On November 11, 1644, New Ha- 
ven appointed Mr. Thomas Gregson 
to go to England to procure a patent, 1 * 
and in their records for February 23, 
1645, 12 there is a reference to joining 
with Connecticut in "sending to pro- 
cure a pattent from Parliment." 

Mr. Trumbull says of New Haven 
that they wished Connecticut to follow 
their example in trying to secure a 
patent and that Mr. Fenwick was de- 
sired to undertake the voyage, but that 
he did not accept the appointment. 18 
Mr. Gregson was lost at sea 14 in the 
famous ship that became the phantom 
ship of New England legend, so noth- 
ing came of New Haven's effort. After 
the death of Lady Fenwick about 
1648, Fenwick did go back to Eng- 
land, 15 but there is no definite evidence 
as to his acting as colony agent, al- 
though there was some correspondence 
between him and the General Court. 16 

Connecticut and New Haven again 
united in efforts for an agency in 1653. 
Mr. Trumbull, after referring to the 
meetings of the General Courts (that 
of New Haven, October 12, and that 
of Connecticut, November 25), and to 
the belief of these colonies that Mas- 

7Connecticut Colonial Records I, 68. 
«The same, Appendix I, and Note. 
»Connecticut Colonial Records I, 126. 
"Connecticut Colonial Records I 128. 
uNew Haven Records I 149. 
i2The same, I 211. 

i3Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 154. 
i*New Haven Records I, 211. 
"Johnston, Connecticut, 117. 
"October 29, 1653. Connecticut Colon- 
ial Records I, 284. 



sachusetts had broken the Articles of 
Confederation, says : 17 

"Both colonies therefore determined 
to seek redress from the common- 
wealth of England. Captain Ast- 
wood 18 was appointed agent to the 
Lord Protector and Parliment, to rep- 
resent their state, and to solicit ships 
and men for the reduction of the 
Dutch. Connecticut and New Haven 
conferred together by their commit- 
tees, and a latter was sent in the name 
of both general courts, containing a 
complete statement of their circum- 
stances, xxxx. 

As Governor Hopkins was now in 
England, he was desired to give all 
assistance, in his power, to the agent 
whom they had agreed to send. Con- 
necticut dispatched letters to the par- 
liament, to General Monkk and Mr. 

All except the last sentence of the 
above extract appears to have been 
derived from the New Haven Rec- 
ords. 19 The Connecticut Records are 
strangely silent as to this transaction. 5 * 
There is no record of any meeting on 
November 25. The records for No- 
vember 23 and November 30 make no 
reference to the matter, but on Octo- 
ber 21 a committee was appointed to 
go to New Haven on "next second 
day" "to consider affairs." 21 Just 
what Connecticut's share in this agen- 
cy may have been is not clear, but the 
result of the effort was that Cromwell 
sent over Major Sedgwick and Cap- 
tain Leveret, who arrived in May (or 
early in June) 1654, with three or four 
ships and a small number of land 
forces. 22 Peace with the Dutch, how- 

ever, prevented further action, 28 and 
the agency idea apparently lay dor- 
mant until 1661, when the great work 
of the agency began with the appoint- 
ment of Governor Winthrop to sue 
for a charter at the court of the newly 
restored Charles II. 

The Connecticut agency was the 
outgrowth of the practical needs of 
the little colony, the very existence of 
which depended on gaining some legal 
claim to jurisdiction over the small 
plot of ground it occupied. This could 
be obtained only by a patent from the 
English crown, to secure which agents 
were sent to England. As the colony 
grew, other difficulties arose, more 
complex interests became involved, 
and at last the necessity was felt of 
having at the British court continu- 
ally some representative, who should 
care for the interests of the colony, 
and be its mouthpiece before the king 
and the various councils of the govern- 
ment. Even in these days of the tele- 
graph and the telephone few great 
business interests can dispense with 
personal representatives in distant 
cities ; much less could a miniature de- 
pendent state in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries expect its inter- 
ests to receive due attention across the 
ocean at the English court— swayed as 
it was by successive generations of in- 
triguing courtiers — unless some man 
of ability and diplomatic skill acted 
as its agent. 


There were two fairly distinct 
classes of the Connecticut agents, resi- 
dent and special. To the first classes 
belonged Englishmen such as Sir 

"Trumbull, Connecticut I, 212. 

18 Captain John Astwood, magistrate for 
"Millford," and commissioner with Gover- 
nor Eaton to Boston in September of that 
year. New Haven Records II, 36. 

"October 12, 1653. New Haven Rec- 
ords II, 36. 

20 . Connecticut Colonial Rec- 
ords I, 248-250. 

2iConnecticut Colonial Records I, 248. 

22 . Trumbull, Connecticut I, 


23Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 220. 



Henry Ashurst and Richard Jackson, 
or Americans residing in London, as 
for example, Mr. William Whiting. 
The second class consisted of men 
sent to England by the colony to per- 
form definite tasks, expecting to return 
when these were accomplished. Among 
the great special agents were the Win- 
throps, Jonathan Belcher, and William 
Samuel Johnson. Altogether the 
years of their service made less than 
one quarter of the whole period, but 
the importance of their work is not to 
be judged merely by the time spent. 
Three of these special agents, Jona- 
than Belcher, Jared Ingersoll, and 
William Samuel Johnson, were "joint 
agents," acting with the resident offi- 
cials already appointed; the others 
were sent in the intervals, when there 
were no resident agents. 

Naturally it is of interest to learn 
who the men were whom Con- 
necticut chose as her representative 
agents before the home government. 
All the special agents were Americans, 
although some were educated in Eu- 
rope. Fenwick and Hopkins can hard- 
ly be considered as agents, but at any 
rate they were among the most influ- 
ential colonists. The first real agent 
was John Winthrop, Junior, 24 son of 
the great governor of Massachusetts. 
He was born at Groton, England, 26 
educated at Dublin University, 26 and 
began his public career as secretary of 

one of the captains in the expedition for 
the relief of the Huguenots of Rochelle 
in 1627. 27 Later he went to Turkey as 
attache of the English ambassador. 28 
Having come over to Massachusetts, 
he was chosen assistant in 1632. Af- 
ter his return to England and marriage 
he was commissioned by "his Puritan 
friend Lord Saye and Sele and the 
other great associates" 29 as governor 
of Saybrook Fort. Ultimately he set- 
tled at Ipswich, and became a leader 
in Connecticut, being chosen first as- 
sistant in 165 1, and often a commis- 
sioner of the New England Confeder- 
acy, and holding the office of governor 
from 1659 until his death in 1676. By 
profession he was a physician, and is 
said to have been "learned and skill- 
ful" 30 — Trumbull even asserts that he 
was "one of the greatest chymists and 
physicians of his age." S1 Altogether 
Governor John Winthrop, Junior, was 
recognized not only as a leading states- 
man of Connecticut, but also as an 
American of unusual education, cul- 
ture, and ability. 32 His son, Fitz John 
Winthrop, was the next to serve as 
special agent (for although the ill- 
fated Harris received the appointment, 
he lived only a few days after his ar- 
rival in England 33 ). He was born in 
Connecticut 34 , went to England, and 
served as first lieutenant and then as 
captain in Scotland from 1658 to 1660 
under General Monk. After his re- 

24Born 1605, died 1676. 

26 Account in general taken from Trum- 
bull, Connecticut, I, 345, and Genealogical 
Dictionary of New England, II, 608. 

2«(a) Not as Mather says first at Cam- 
bridge, Gen. Diet, of N. E. 

(b) Barrister of the Inner Temple, Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society Collections, 
5th series, VIII, 3 (Note). 

27Cf. the same, VIII, 5 (and note). 

28Part of 1628-9 (?) The same VIII, 9, 
(Cf. Life and Letters of John Winthrop, I, 
»»Cf. the same, vni, 9. 

3<>Dr. Gurdon W. Russell in "Addenda" 
to Address before the Connecticut Medi- 
cal Society, May 25, 1892. 

si Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 845. His 
father's journal 1640) mentions his li- 
brary of 1,000 volumes, of which 300 can 
still be identified. Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society Collections, 5th series, VIH, 3 

«2Doyle speaks of his "charm of man- 
ner," but regards him as much inferior to 
his father. English Colonies in America, 
I, 157. 

33For account of Harris see "Boundary 

^Account in general is taken from 
Trumbull, Connecticut I, 431, and Genea- 
logical Dictionary of New England II, 608. 
Born 1638, died November 27, 1707. 



turn to America he served in King 
Philip's war, winning the title of 
"Major," 35 was chosen to the council 
of Andros, and later became assistant 
under the restored colonial govern- 
ment. In 1690 he commanded the 
Canadian land troops that were ex- 
pected to co-operate with the naval 
forces of Sir William Phips. Such 
was his record when he became agent 
in 1693. Shortly after his return 
from England he was chosen gover- 
nor, retaining that office until his death 
in 1707. 

In 1728, in the emergency caused by 
the ill health of the resident agent, 
Jeremiah Dummer, Jonathan Belcher 
was appointed joint agent. 36 Belch- 
er 37 was a graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege, and had inherited a large fortune 
by means of which he lived for a time 
a life of ease and fashion. 38 Later he 
traveled and managed to obtain special 
notice in the electorate of Hanover 
from the Princess Sophia and her son 
George. Returning to Boston as a 
merchant, he became a member of the 
council. 39 He was sent to England as 
agent for Connecticut in 1728 and two 
months later became agent for Massa- 
chusetts also in the controversy be- 
tween that colony and Governor Bur- 
net. 40 His term of service was soon 
ended by his appointment as governor 
of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire. 41 After eleven years of service 

35His uncle, Stephen W., commanded a 
troop of horse at Worcester, rose to be 
colonel, and was in one of Cromwell's Par- 
liaments. (Died 1659, aged 42). Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society Collections, 
5th series, VIII, 199 (Note). 

360ctober, 1728. Connecticut Colonial 
Records VII, 218 (Note, Law was first ap- 

37Born at Cambridge, Mass., 1681, died 
at Elizabethtown, N. J., 1757. 

38Account in general is taken from 
Belcher Papers I, Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society Collections 6th series, VI, pp. 
13-22; Smith (Samuel) History of New 
Jersey, 437; Hutchinson, History of Mas- 

he lost his position, but in 1747 he se- 
cured the governorship of New Jer- 
sey, 42 and held this until his death ten 
years later. 

After about twenty years of regular 
service by resident agents Elisha Wil- 
liams took up the work in 1750, for a 
short time. A great-grandson of John 
Cotton, 43 and a Harvard graduate, he 
had studied divinity and law, taught, 
and preached, before he was chosen 
to the rectorship of Yale College 
(1725), a position which he held for 
fourteen years. 44 He was a member 
of the colonial assembly for twenty- 
two sessions and its speaker five times. 
He was appointed colonel and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Connecticut 
troops for the proposed Canadian ex- 
pedition of 1746. After his agency he 
became a member of the colonial con- 
gress at Albany in 1754. In regard 
to his experiences in England Dexter 
writes : 45 

"In December, 1794, he sailed for 
England partly to solicit funds for the 
College of New Jersey, mainly to ob- 
tain monies due from the government 
to himself and others who had ad- 
vanced pay to the soldiers in the Cana- 
dian expeditions. In the prosecution 
of the former of these objects he was 
brought into intimate relations with 
Whitefield, Doddridge, the Countess 
of Huntington and other leading 
friends of evangelical religion." 

sachusetts, II, 369. 


4<>Charles C. Smith calls him "the most 
perfect example of a New England cour- 
tier in a corrupt age." Belcher papers as 

4i Commission dated January 8, 1729-30. 

*2Mainly through the influence of his 
brother-in-law, Richard Partridge. Pa- 
pers of Lewis Morris, New Jersey Histori- 
cal Society Collections. IV. 46. 

4SBorn 1694, died 1755. The account in 
general is based on Dexter, Yale Biog- 
raphies, I, 321 and 63*2. 

44Trumbull, Connecticut, II, 36. 

4*Dexter, Yale Biographies, I, 632. 



It was Dr. Doddridge himself who 
wrote of him while in England : 46 

"I look upon Colonel Williams to be 
one of the most valuable men upon 
earth ; he has joined to an ardent sense 
of religion, solid learning, consum- 
mate prudence, great candor and 
sweetness of temper, and a certain 
nobleness of soul capable of contriv- 
ing and acting the greatest things, 
without seeming to be conscious of 
having done them." 

In 1758 Jared Ingersoll was ap- 
pointed special agent. He had gradu- 
ated at Yale College, 47 and was a New 
Haven lawyer who had just been ap- 
pointed king's attorney. On his re- 
turn from England he was nominated 
to the Upper House. In 1764 he went 
again to England on private business 
in regard to a government contract for 
masts, and while there served as joint 
agent. In spite of his well known op- 
position to the Stamp Act he accepted 
a commission as stamp distributor — 
an act which has brought down his 
name in history with lasting infamy. 
After his experiences with the mob 
and his forced resignation the home 
government appointed him judge of 
the vice admiralty court in the Middle 

The last special agent was William 
Samuel Johnson, son of the great Epis- 
copal leader, Samuel Johnson. After 
receiving degrees from both Yale and 
Harvard, 48 he took up the study of 
law and soon became the head of the 
profession in Connecticut and had 
clients in New York. 49 In 1754 he 

was made lieutenant of militia, and 
later captain. He became a member 
of the Assembly in 1761, then of the 
Upper House, and was sent as one oi 
the three Connecticut delegates to the 
Stamp Act Congress, where, according 
to his biographer, he was a guiding 
and controlling spirit," and he "drew 
up the petitions and remonstrances to 
the king and the two Houses of Par- 
liament." 50 He was mentioned as a 
suitable person to take these to Eng- 
land in case a personal representative 
should go. The address of Connecti- 
cut to the king on the repeal of the 
Stamp Act was penned by Johnson. 
His friend, Jared Ingersoll, writing to 
him from England in 1759, compared 
him as an orator to the great lawyers 
there. 51 In 1776 52 the University of 
Oxford honored him with the degree 
of Doctor of Laws. In October of the 
same year the Connecticut General As- 
sembly appointed him special joint 
agent in the great Mohegan land con- 
troversy that, after nearly seventy 
years of litigation, was again before 
the courts. After his return from 
England in 1772 he was, for a short 
time, a judge of the Superior Court. 
In 1774 he declined a nomination to 
Congress, for professional reasons. 5 * 
Being opposed to the war, he lived in 
retirement until peace was restored. 
From 1784 to 1787 he was a member 
of the Continental Congress. He was 
head of the Connecticut delegation in 
the Constitutional Convention and be- 
came the first United States senator 
from his state, but resigned in 1791. 

46The same, I, 632. 

47Born 1722, died 1781. Account based 
on Dexter, Yale Biographies, I, 712. 

<8Born at Stratford, 1727, died there No- 
vember 14, 1819. 

Account based on Dexter, Yale Biog- 
raphies, I, 762, and Beardsley, William 
Samuel Johnson (2nd edition). 

*»Beardsley, 9. 

coThe same, 32. Cf. J. T. Irving, The 
Advantages of Classical Learning, 26. 

BiLetter in Beardsley, 16. Irving says 
he was a great admirer of Cicero — his 
style being of that school. Irving, Advan- 
tages of Classical Learning, 24. But com- 
pare the opinion of William Pierce of 
Georgia in 1787. A. H. R. Ill, 326. 

62See Beardsley (36, note) and Irving. 
Dexter gives 1776. 

83"Owing to his services being needed 
as arbitrator in regard to the Van Rens- 
selaer estate." Irving, 28. 



He was elected President of Columbia 
College in 1787, and resigned that po- 
sition in 1800. Yale gave to him its 
first degree of LL.D. in 1788. Such 
were the men Connecticut sent over to 
plead its great cases before the king 
and his councils. 

As for resident agents the prefer- 
ence was usually given to Americans 
living in London, or to Englishmen 
who were especially interested in the 
welfare of the colony. The first of 
these was William Whiting, 54 whose 
father, one of the early settlers of 
Hartford and a prominent merchant 
there, had been one of the magistrates 
and for the last six years of his life 
treasurer of the colony. 65 His broth- 
er, Captain Joseph Whiting, was 
treasurer at the time of his agency, 
holding that office thirty-eight years, 66 
and being succeeded by his son who 

t served for thirty years. 57 William 
Whiting himself had returned to Eng- 
land and had gone into business in 
London as a merchant. Little is 
known of his character and attain- 
ments, except as they were shown in 
his work for the colony's welfare and 
in his business-like handling of colon- 
ial interests. 

The next resident agent was Sir 
Henry Ashurst, Baronet, of Water- 
stock, County Oxford. 58 His father, 
Henry Ashurst of Ashurst in Lanca- 
shire, England, went to London in the 
seventeenth century and acquired a 
large property as a merchant. He 

served as alderman, was treasurer of 
the Corporation for Propogating the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, and was a 
leading non-conformist, "eminent for 
great benevolences, humanity and pi- 
ety." Sir Henry's uncle, William As- 
hurst, had been a member of the Long 
Parliament. His brother, Sir William 
of the Merchant Tailors' Company was 
knighted in 1689 and was Lord Mayor 
of London in 1693. Sir William's 
son, Henry, shortly after Sir Henry's 
appointment as agent, became Town 
Clerk of London. Sir Henry's broth- 
er-in-law, Lord Paget, was very prom- 
inent at court and was appointed "Em- 
bassador Extraordinary" to go to the 
emperor "to make peace betwixt him 
and the Hungarian Protestants." M 
He himself was a member of Parlia- 
ment 60 and had been made a baronet 
in 1688. He was a firm friend of New 
England, and was already serving as 
agent for Massachusetts. Judged 
either by his position and connections, 
or by his ability and the work he ac- 
complished, Sir Henry Ashurst must 
be classed among the most prominent 
of all the English agents for the colon- 

At Sir Henry's death in i7io 61 an 
effort was made to get his brother, Sir 
William, to undertake the office of 
agent for Massachusetts, but he re- 
fused and recommended Jeremiah 
Dummer, who became agent for Mas- 
sachusetts in 1 7 10 and for Connecticut 
in 17 1 2. Jeremiah Dummer 82 was a 

"Died 1699. Account based on Connec- 
ticut Colonial Records, III, 211, Note, 
Johnston, Connecticut, 81, and Genealogi- 
cal Dictionary of New England, II, 522. 




&8Died 1710. Account based on Cyclo- 
pedia of National Biography; Sewall Pa- 
pers, Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections, 5th series, VI, 267 (Note); 
Acts and Resolves of the Province of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, VII, 436. 

&»Letter of Sir Henry Ashurst, February 
16, 1704-5, , R. R. Hinman, Let- 

ters to the Governors, etc. (Hartford, 1S36> 

eoFor Truro in Cornwall, and Wilton In 
Wiltshire during period from 16S0 to 1698 
and later. Members of Parliament, ,1 546, 
558, 565 and 584. February 15, 1704-5, in 
speaking of Attorney and Solicitor-Gen- 
eral, Ashurst wrote that one of them was 
his near kinsman. Hinman, Letters, etc.. 

«*Or 1711, Sewall Papers as above. 

62Born at Boston about 16S0. died in 
England 1739. Account based on Tudor, 
Otis, 85, and Cyclopedia of American Bi- 



grandson of Richard Dummer, "one of 
the fathers of Massachusetts," and a 
brother of William Dummer, who be- 
came Lieutenant-Governor of Massa- 
chusetts and acted as Governor from 
1723 to 1728. When Jeremiah grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1699 Dr. 
Mather, then President, "pronounced 
him one of the best scholars it had pro- 
duced." 63 "He afterwards studied at 
Leyden, where Witzius, professor of 
theology, spoke of him in very high 
terms." 64 His Doctor's degree was 
taken at Utrecht. He went to Eng- 
land and became agent of Massachu- 
setts in 1 710, and in spite of his taking 
the side of the Prerogative he retained 
his position for eleven years. In Eng- 
land "his talents and address gave him 
intimacy and influence in the highest 
circles. He was employed by Bol- 
ingbroke in some important secret ne- 
gotiations and was promised high pro- 
motion, but the death of the queen 
blasted all his hopes." 65 Sabin speaks 
of him as "an American scholar of 
brilliant genius and possessed of re- 
markable powers in speaking and writ- 
ing." 66 Tudor in his Life of Otis 
says: 07 "In point of style or argu- 
ment Dummer may vie with any 
American writer before the Revolu- 
tion." Moreover, Dummer by nature 
possessed in a very marked degree the 
qualities that mark the courtier and 
the successful diplomatist. 

Of the next three agents, Francis 
Wilks, 68 Eliakim Palmer, 69 and Benja- 
min Avery, little is known as to their 


6 4 The same. 


«»Sabin, Dictionary of Books Relating 
to America, V, 572. 

«7Quoted by Sabin, Tudor, Otis, 85. 

«sWilks, Francis, died 1742. 

«»Palmer, Eliakim, died 1749. 

™Hutchinson, History of Massachusetts, 
II, 253, 402. 

71 Hutchinson, History of Massachusetts, 
II, 253. 

personal history, but some estimate of 
their ability and character may be 
formed from the success of their ef- 
forts in behalf of the colony, which 
cover a period of more than twenty 
very eventful years (1730 to 1750). 
All three were apparently shrewd bus- 
iness men in London. Francis Wilks 
was a New England merchant in Lon- 
don, who served as agent for Massa- 
chusetts (the Lower House) from 
1728 to 1 74 1. 70 Hutchinson speaks of 
him as "universally esteemed for his 
great probity as well as his humane 
obliging disposition." 71 He showed 
both genuine manliness and keen busi- 
ness ability in the long series of letters 
which he wrote to Governor Talcott. 72 
Palmer was a merchant. 73 His work 
as agent consisted largely of financial 
transactions. - Dr. Avery was "Doctor 
of Law" 74 and gave up the agency on 
account of the pressure of his own 
business. Whether these men became 
agents purely as a business matter, or 
because they were interested in the col- 
ony from family connection or relig- 
ious affiliations, does not appear. 

In 1750 Richard Partridge, 75 son of 
Lieutenant-Governor Partridge of New 
Hampshire, and brother-in-law of 
Governor Belcher of Massachusetts, 
became agent. He had been for a 
time agent of Massachusetts, and was 
then agent for Rhode Island, serving 
that colony and New Jersey in all thir- 
ty years. He was a Quaker, and as 
regards business a merchant, pursuing 
his business as such besides attending 

^Connecticut Historical Society Collec- 
tions, V. 

73 (May 11, 1794) Connecticut Colonial 
Records, IX, 418. 

74(October, 1794) The same, IX, 471. 

75Died in England, 1759. Account based 
on Connecticut Historical Society Collec- 
tions, V, 70; the Connecticut Colonial 
Records; Papers of Lewis Morris, New 
Jersey Historical Society Collections, IV, 
46, and Hutchinson, History of Massachu- 
setts, II, 387. 



to his agency. He is said to have 
been a man of very ordinary abilities, 
possessing good business habits, but 
no force of character. From brief 
statements in the Connecticut Records 
it would appear that his term of ser- 
vice was not entirely satisfactory, 76 
and that at his death his estate was in- 
solvent. 77 

Richard Jackson was perhaps the 
most noteworthy of all the English 
agents. He came from Dublin, 78 but 
in later times had a country seat at 
Weasenham Hall, Norfolk. 79 He was 
entered at Lincoln's Inn as a student 
in 1740 and after his admission at the 
Inner Temple in 1751 he seems to have 
risen rapidly to prominence as an at- 
torney, becoming standing counsel to 
the South Sea Company in 1764, and 
one of the Council for Cambridge Uni- 
versity, and at last in 1770 Counsel for 
the Board of Trade. It was his ac- 
ceptance of this last position that 
caused him to give up the agency for 
the colony, 80 which he had held from 
1760. But his prominence was not 
limited to the law. In 1762 he entered 
Parliament and kept a seat until 
1784. 81 Grenville made him his sec- 
retary in 1763 and his influence in col- 
onial matters in the Stamp Act period 
was vital. 82 His intimacy with Lord 
Shelburne resulted in his being Lord of 
the treasury under the short Shelburne 
ministry from July, 1782, to April, 
1783. Later he was Clerk of the 
Paper Office in Ireland. 83 He was 
elected F. S. A. in 1781, and was "a 

governor of the Society of Dissenters 
for Propogation of the Gospel." The 
sobriquet of "Omniscient Jackson/' 
won by his extraordinary stores of 
knowledge, was changed by Johnson, 
according to Boswell, to "all-know- 
ing," on the ground that the former 
word was "appropriated to the Su- 
preme Being." Lamb's knowledge of 
him is inferred from his being intro- 
duced into "The old Benchers of the 
Inner Temple" in the "Essays of 
Elia." For a time he was agent for 
Massachusetts and for Pennsylvania 
as well as Connecticut, 84 and he seems 
to have kept his interest in the colonies 
after the outbreak of the war. Al- 
though he was appointed one of the 
Commissioners in 1782, he did not go 
to Paris. 85 

Thomas Life, the last of the Connec- 
ticut agents, is very dimly sketched in 
the records of the period. He is first 
mentioned in 1760 as "Thos. Life of 
Basinghall Street, London, Gent.," 8e 
and it would appear that he was asso- 
ciated with Jackson for a time and 
that later he carried on the agency 
alone. 87 

Although some of the English 
agents were probably men of less local 
importance than the American agents, 
they understood English law and Eng- 
lish court intrigue better. They also 
taught the colony many lessons in busi- 
ness methods as to the details of their 
legislative and executive business 
where it came in contact with the Eng- 
lish government. 

™(May, 1751), Connecticut Colonial Rec- 
ords, X, 17. (October, 1753) The same, 

X, 214. 

"(May and October, 1759). The same, 

XI, 258 and 345. 

™Died 1787. Account based on Cyclo- 
pedia of National Biography "(Jackson, 

^Letter of W. S. Johnson, Beardsley, W. 
S. Johnson, 49. 

s<>See letter of Johnson, August 20, 1770, 
Massachusetts Historical Society Collec- 
tions, 5th series, IX, 449. 

siFor Weymouth and Malcomb Regis, 
Dorsetshire, then in 1768 for New Romney 
of Cinoue Ports. Return. Members of 
Parliament, II, 126, 146, 158, 171. 

BSBancroft, History of United States. 

BSChalmers, Opinions. 87. 

S4Bigelow. Franklin. I, 446. 

ssTbe same, III, 172. 

86Connecticut Colonial Records, XI, 439. 

8?But Burke (Edmund) in his speech 
on the Boston Port Act said there was no 
agent left for any of the colonies. 

Hansard, Vol. 17, 1182. 



The Assembly usually appointed the 
agents, but in a few cases it delegated 
its power of appointment to the gover- 
nor and "assistants," or "council," as 
it was usually called in the later period, 
as a special committee. 88 In the eigh- 
teenth century, in cases of men in Eng- 
land, negotiations were, apparently, 
often carried on by the governor be- 
fore the definite appointment was 
made, to avoid the delays and disap- 
pointments that characterized the early 
period. 89 

The agent received a commission on 
the authority of the Assembly signed 
by the governor and the secretary and 
bearing the seal of the colony. 90 This 
commission also served as power of at- 
torney, but a special document gave 
the agent power of attorney in case 
collections were to be made from the 
British government. 91 

Aside from the commission there 
were instructions. 92 These were of 
two classes: the formal instructions 
given at the time of the agent's ap- 
pointment, containing some general 
statement, more or less extended, of his 
powers and duties, and also in many 
cases provisions as to some important 
task which needed his immediate at- 
tention, 93 and the special instructions 
sent him from time to time, which 
varied from formal statements as to 
great undertakings to informal letters 
giving the suggestions and advice of 
the Assembly. The governor and as- 
sistants usually drafted all these in- 

88See Appendix for table of appoint- 

s»This appears in the cases of Palmer, 
Avery and Partridge. 

•°See Appendix for references as to 

»iMay, 1750. In case of Patridge, Con- 
necticut Col. Rec, IX, 509. 

»2See Appendix for references as to in- 

83Cf. Connecticut Colonial Records, III, 

•*July, 1686. In case of Whiting. Con- 
necticut Col. Rec, III, 213. 

W MS. Letter Book "Foreign Correspon- 

structions, and sometimes they were 
empowered to send them without sub- 
mitting them to the Assembly. 04 
Moreover, the governor and assistants 
often constituted a committee to cor- 
respond with the agent. Hence a large 
number of letters passed between the 
agents 95 and the governors, as is 
shown in the case of the agents Burn- 
mer and Wilks by the "Talcott Pa- 
pers." 96 

In many of the colonies, as Mr. Tan- 
ner has shown, the question of the con- 
trol of the agent — whether he should 
be under the control of the governor, 
or of the Upper House or of the As- 
sembly — was one of the vital ques- 
tions of colonial politics, 97 and in gen- 
eral formed a sort of prelude to the 
greater struggles that led directly to 
the Revolution. In Connecticut, how- 
ever, where the governor did not rep- 
resent the crown but the people, and 
where all the magistrates were elected, 
there was no occasion for a struggle 
over the control of the agency. 

The duties of the agents were set 
forth in varying terms in the records, 
their appointments and in the instruc- 
tions given them. In 1749 Benjamin 
Avery was appointed "to appear be- 
fore his Majesty or any of his courts, 
ministers, or judges in Great Britain, 
there to manage, act and defend in all 
and every matter, cause or thing I 
wherein the said Governor and Com- 
pany are or may be interested or con- 
cerned." 98 These general statements 

dence II," See American Historical Asso- 
ciation Report 1900, II. 30. Also many 
references in "Records" and example* 
printed by Hinman. 

seConnecticut Historical Society Collec- 
tions, IV and V. 

»7Tanner, Colonial Agencies in England, 
Political Science Quarterly, March, 1901, 
33 and 44. 

ssoctober, 1749. Connecticut Colonial 
Records, IX, 471. Cf. duties of Partridge 
(almost the same), May, 1750, the same, 
509. Cf. duties of Wilks (similar) Octo- 
ber, 1730, Conn. Col. Rec, VIII, 308. 



were found in practice to include pre- 
senting addresses to the king or 
queen," appearing before Parliament, 
the courts, and the great committees of 
government (such as the Lords for 
Trade and Plantations) — in short, rep- 
resenting the colony at every point 
where its interests became involved in 
the machinery of the imperial govern- 
ment. The agency also chose the 
counsel for the colony in all cases 
where they needed legal assistance, 100 
and he submitted special points for 
opinion to the leading attorneys of 
London. 101 In regard to minor mat- 
ters we find the agents even "buying 
warlike stores/' 102 and selling real es- 
tate. For a long time the agents as 
financial correspondents sold bills of 
exchange for the colony; 103 and later, 
when Parliament granted to the colon- 
ies large sums of money for the ex- 
penses they had incurred in carrying 
on the French wars the agents did a 
regular banking business for them in 
England. 104 One daring agent, at the 
time of the South Sea Bubble, even 
speculated in stocks for the staid old 
commonwealth. 105 Nor is it to be for- 
gotten that with the conditions of the 
British government at the period, one 
of the greatest tasks constantly before 
the agent was to raise up political 
friends for the colony and gain for it 

influence at court. 106 Aside from 
these duties on the British side, on the 
colonial side it was the duty of the 
agent, as is indicated in the statement 
quoted above, to furnish to the As- 
sembly such information as he could 
obtain in England on all matters con- 
cerning the colony. 107 

The powers of the agent were not 
very definitely restricted. The ocean 
prevented either quick or reliable 
means of communication, and so mat- 
ters of detail had to be left to him. 
He was usually at liberty to alter an 
address to the king or a petition if he 
thought best, 108 while great responsi- 
bility of decision was necessarily his 
in the important trials and in the cases 
to be decided by the king. 109 Gover- 
nor John Winthrop went beyond his 
instructions in the case of his agree- 
ment with Clark, the Rhode Island 
agent in London, as to the boundary, 
and his action was disavowed by the 
colony. 110 On the whole there were 
few complaints against the agents for 
assuming too great authority. 

In appointing the agent the Assem- 
bly made no provision for terminating 
his tenure of office. The fact that sal- 
aries were granted for one year onlv 
tended to create an annual term for all 
colonial officers ; but, although there 
are traces of annual re-election " l this 

99See Appendix for list of import ad- 
dresses and petitions presented by the 

100 (Whiting) Connecticut Colonial Rec- 
ords, III, 368. 

(Palmer) October, 1742, Conn. Col. Rec., 
VIII, 506. 

101 (Dummer) Solicitor general's opinion 
as to case of clearing vessels with a naval 
officer. March 11, 1718-9. The same VI, 

i<>2(wilks) November, 1740. The same, 
VIII, 361. 

I03i74i_i75i ( ? ) (Wilks, Palmer, Avery, 
and Partridge). 

i04i74i_i 760 (Palmer, Partridge, Inger- 
soll, and Jackson). 

1081741. Wilks. Connecticut Historical 
Society Collections, V, 375. 
*06August 27, 1708. Letter of Ashurst 
gives his methods of gaining friends for 

the colony. Hinman Letters to the Gover- 
nors, 334. 

i07October, 1729, Dummer sent Act of 
Parliament as to naval stores (George II, 
c xxxv). Connecticut Colonial Records, 
VII, 264. 

1081636, Whiting so instructed. The 
same, III, 368. 1689, Whiting did not pre- 
sent address sent to William IIL the same, 

III, 469. September, 1693, Winthrop might 
alter with advice of counsel, the same, 

IV, 102. 

looOctober, 1729, Special instructions to 
Dummer and Belcher, the same, VII, 254. 

noTrumbull, Connecticut L S20, 821. 

uiMay, 1704 (Ashurst) Connecticut Co- 
lonial Records, IV, 469. 

February, 1712-3 (Dummer) The same, 

V, 361. February 25, 1702-8 (AshursO 
The same, XV. 548. 



formality was certainly seldom re- 
corded, and failure to vote an agent 
his salary did not apparently affect in 
any way the legality of his position. 
The distance from England and the 
slow, uncertain means of communica- 
tion made an annual term for the agent 
impracticable. Then there was a gen- 
eral tendency to long terms of actual 
service in all colonial offices — a ten- 
dency that showed itself in the elec- 
tions of the governors. 112 So in prac- 
tice the agents were appointed for in- 
definite periods. This was clearly 
stated by the Assembly in re-electing 
Ashurst in 1704, in these words: 113 

"This Assembly doth desire that Sir 
Henerie Ashurst should continue in 
his Agency in behalf e of Colonie, and 
for his service therein doe order that 
there shall be annually paid his assigne 
in Boston the sume of one hundred 
pounds current money of New Eng- 
land, during the time that he shall 
continue Agent for this government, 
to be paid out of the Colonie treasurie. 

Ordered and enacted by this As- 
sembly, that Sir Henerie Ashurst shall 
continue his Agencie for this Colonie 
so long as both Houses shall joyntly 
agree and no longer." 

The colony seems to have been glad 
enough to keep most of its agents, for 
of the resident agents Ashurst, Wilks, 
Palmer, and Partridge died while in 
office, and Whiting, Avery, and Jack- 
son retired of their own accord, much 
to the disappointment of the Assembly. 
None of the Connecticut agents served 
as long as some agents of other colon- 
ies, for the longest term was that of 
Dummer, eighteen years, yet Richard 
Partridge served as agent for Rhode 

Island and New Jersey thirty years. 114 
The special agents were generally com- 
pelled by circumstances to remain 
longer than was anticipated, although 
even then their average term of ser- 
vice was only about three years. 

In considering the salary paid the 
agent it is necessary to distinguish be- 
tween the cases of the resident and the 
special agents. The salary of the resi- 
dent agent was soon fixed by custom 
at one hundred pounds a year (al- 
though in the case of the first, Whit- 
ing, the record merely states that the 
Assembly would grant him "reason- 
able satisfaction" 115 ), but in the rec- 
ords the salary apparently mounted up 
from one hundred and fifty pounds in 
1736 to four hundred pounds in 1748. 
On closer examination* it becomes evi- 
dent that the salary was neither so uni- 
form, nor so generous as the figures 
would indicate. The following ex- 
tract from a letter of Governor Talcott 
to the Speaker of the Assembly in 
May. 1725, is very significant: 116 

"Last 3/ear we had a letter from ye 
agent signifying that we would order 
his salary annually in May for the de- 
lay made it (thro ye discount of our 
bills) worth but very little when it 
comes. And therefore I think it best 
to grant his salary at this court that 
we may not have any orders ; for he 
writes word that the first allowance of 
our former agent. Sir Henerie As- 
hurst, was an hundred pounds Sil- 
ver 117 and so it was to him which did 
make sixty pounds Sterling; and so 
now the discount of our bills are such 
that the present allowance of one hun- 
dred pounds of our bills is but about 
ten pounds Sterling and tho he does 

"« Johnston, Connecticut, 80-82. 

^Connecticut Colonial Records, III, 

"^Arnold, Rhode Island, II, 219, (Cf. 
Papers of Lewis Morris,) New Jersey His- 
torical Society Collections, IV, 46 (note). 

nejune 15, 1687 (Apparently no fixed 
sum at first), Connecticut Col. Rec, III, 237. 

lie Connecticut Historical Society Col- 
lections, V, 383. 

ii^May 11, 1704 (Ashurst) "One hundred 
pounds currant money of New England." 
Connecticut Colonial Record, IV, "469. 



not love to beg yet he had almost as 
leave have the honor of being agent 
for this colony for nothing as to be 
under the notion of one hundred 
pounds when it was so little worth to 
him." 118 

Still more significant is the fact that 
the Assembly, on receiving this letter, 
proceeded to grant Mr. Dummer his 
same "one hundred pounds, bills of 
credit." 119 Later in 1740, Wilks, 
whose salary at the time was nominally 
one hundred and fifty pounds, very po- 
litely called Governor Talcott's atten- 
tion (in a postscript to an important 
letter 120 ) to "how small a sum sterl- 
ing" he was then receiving. The As- 
sembly increased his salary to two 
hundred and fifty pounds. When 
Wilks received his year's salary at the 
new rate he mentionel the fact that it 
amounted to 43 pounds 3 s. 8 d. and 
added: 121 "I think myself greatly 
obliged by the court's ordering me so 
handsomely and shall make it my en- 
deavor to encourage their generosity." 

These variations were largely due 
to the depreciation of Connecticut 
paper money, for the salaries, at least 
from 1725 to 1749, were paid in bills 
of credit. Earlier, however, it is evi- 
dent from Governor Talcott's letter 
above 122 that the salary was not reck- 
oned in English pounds sterling, but 

in the New England money, 124 worn 
Spanish coins and the "pine tree shill- 
ing of Massachusetts, which even the 
Proclamation of Queen Anne of June 
18, 1704, failed to maintain at three- 
fourths of the value of English 
money. 124 

Not only was the salary small, but 
the colony was somewhat behindhand 
in paying the agent, from lack of 
funds, 125 sometimes the Assembly 
neglected to grant the salary, and in a 
few cases the accounts became in- 
volved. Apparently the agents had 
less difficulty as to money in the later 
period, when they had in their own 
hands the large sums of money grant- 
ed by Parliament to reimburse the col- 
ony for war expenses. In estimating 
the salary paid the agent 125 it is to be 
noted that although for a time the gov- 
ernor received three times as much as 
the agent, in later times his salary was 
probably not half that of the agent. 1 " 

The grants to the special agents 
were on the whole proportionally much 
larger, and the reason is not far to 
seek. The resident agents either were 
men who, having inherited wealth, or 
being successful in business or profes- 
sional pursuits, regarded the salary of 
an agent as of small consequence, or 
they were already agents for other col- 
onies, so that the burden of their sup- 

usAccording to Mr. White the maxi- 
mum depreciation in Connecticut was 8 
to 1, "the standard being Proclamation 
money." This must have been nearly 
reached in 1725. Horace White, Money 
and Banking. 

"»May, 1725, Connecticut Historical So- 
ciety Collections, V, 383. 

*20The same, V, 313. 

i2iSeptember, 1741, Connecticut Histor- 
ical Society Collections, V, 375. 

i"Page 37. But in 1708-9 Ashurst was 
apparently expecting to be paid 100 
pounds sterling, (160 pounds New Eng- 
land money). Connecticut Colonial Rec- 
ord, XV, 554. 

i23White, Money and Banking, 14 . 

i2*The same, 16. 

^September, 1704, Ashurst throws off 
55 pounds in four years' salary, on ac- 
count of their poverty. Hinman, Letters 
to the Governors, 320. 

i26September 9, 1704, Letter of Ashurst 
compares his salary with those of other 
agents. Hinman, Letters to Governors, 

J27But letter of Governor Leete to Com- 
mittee of Trade and Plantations gives sal- 
aries of ministers 100 pounds to 50 pounds 
— none less than 50 pounds — July, 1680. 
The same, .142 (Cf. Johnson's letter — 
lawyers there 6,000 to 8,000 pounds a year. 
Massachusetts Historical Society Collec- 
tions, 5th series, IX, 273.) 

4 6 


port was divided. 128 The special 
agents, however, — except in a few 
cases when the colony took advantage 
to appoint some one who was going 
to England on private business, 129 — 
had no other business for the time be- 
ing and gave their entire time to the 
agency. Besides, as special envoys 
representing the colony at court, their 
expenses would naturally be large, 130 
even aside from the expense of cross- 
ing the ocean. In the records often 
no distinction is made in the case of 
special agents between the amounts 
actually received for salary, and ex- 
penses, and the sums used in prosecut- 
ing the interests of the colony. Five 
hundred pounds was in some cases 
given to a special agent for all pur- 
poses, 131 but as a regular salary (aside 
from expenses) probably not more 
than one hundred and fifty or two hun- 
dred pounds was ever paid. 132 

Some of the agents received special 
tokens of the colony's gratitude for 
their services. Fitz John Winthrop, 
for example, received a "gratuitye" of 
three hundred pounds "currant silver 
money" from the Assembly for satis- 
factorily accomplishing his mission. 133 
In 1 77 1 a committee was apppointed 
by the Assembly and granted a sum 
not exceeding one hundred and fifty 
pounds Sterling "to procure some 
proper and elegant piece or pieces of 
plate at their discretion" to give to 

Agent Jackson (an Englishman, be it 
remembered) "as a mark of publick 
esteem and of the high sense the Col- 
ony have of his faithful services ; such 
plate to be inscribed with some proper 
motto expressive of such their respect 
for him, and the arms of the colony be 
also engraved thereon." 134 A little 
later Yale conferred the degree of LL. 
D. upon Mr. Jackson. 

From the first the agent was regard- 
ed by the colony as their legal repre- 
sentative at the court of Great Britain, 
restricted, of course, by their instruc- 
tions, but in every way capable of act- ' 
ing for them. It is not so easy to 
trace the British view of the case, nor 
to find how soon the government began 
to transact its colonial business ' 
through the agency, but from Mr. 
Tanner's investigations in the case of 
other colonies it would appear that the 
government adopted the agents as a 
definite part of their colonial system 
as early as 1698 or 17 16 at least. 135 
Mr. Tanner's statement that the posi- 
tion of the colonial agent at the British 
court corresponded to that of the royal 
governor in the colonies is significant 
in studying the history of the Connec- 
ticut agency. It is easy to see that 
the struggle between British and colon- 
ial authority which in the royal col- 
onies was carried on between the As- 
sembly and the governor was, in the 
case of Connecticut (where there was 

i28August 12, 1689, Whiting recommend- 
ed Ashurst on that ground. Connecticut 
Colonial Records, III, 469. 

i29As Governor Winthrop and Jared In- 

isojohnson's Letters, Massachusetts His- 
torical Society Collections, 5th series, IX, 
264. (Cf. 273.) 

131T0 Governor John Winthrop, Junior. 
Cf. Connecticut Colonial Records, I, 362, 
369. To Major Fitz John Winthrop, Trum- 
bull, Connecticut, I, 393. Cf. Connecticut 
Colonial Records, III, 103. 

issoctober, 1709, Saltonstall was offered 
200 pounds (salary and expenses), Conn. 
Col. Rec, VI, 140. October, 1766, William 

Samuel Johnson 150 pounds (besides ex- 
penses). The same XIII, 501. 

i33january, 1697-8, Connecticut Colonial 
Records, IV, 240. (See Trumbull, Conectl- 
cut, I, 369, but Hollister, Connecticut, I, 
331, gives 500 pounds). 

i340ctober, 1771 Connecticut Colonial 
Records, XIII, 518. 

i35Tanner, Colonial Agencies in Eng- 
land, Political Science Quarterly, March, 
1901 (Cf. New York Colonial Documents, 
IV, 297, V, 473.) Note stress laid by As- 
hurst on idea that the colony in letters to 
Secretary of State and others should refer 
to him as their "public agent." Hinman, 
Letters to the Governors, 335 and 337. 



no royal representative) carried on in 
London, between the agent, single- 
handed and alone, and the powerful 
officials of the British government. 
Largelv to this fact was due the quiet, 
peaceful development of Connecticut 
liberties on the one side, and on the 
other the unusual importance of its 

The rank of the office of agent may 
be inferred from the number of impor- 
tant personages, especially governors, 
who held office. It might be added 
that three others among the governors, 
Saltonstall, Fitch, and Trumbull, were 
appointed to the position, 136 although 
for various reasons each declined the 
honor. 137 The colonial feeling as to 
the office was also shown by the formal 
thanks so often voted to the agent, and 
by the appointing of committees to 
meet and formally thank those from 
America on their return. 138 It is not 
so easy to learn how the English peo- 
ple regarded the agents, 139 especially 
those who lived in England. Although 
their business was often delayed and 
disregarded, the American agents did 
not complain of social neglect or os- 
tracism — sometimes they even seem 
to have been overburdened with atten- 
tion. Probably they filled as impor- 
tant places at the court as the size of 
the little colony would warrant. 

The agent's task was by no means 

easy. In the first place the distance 
and the uncertain means of communi- 
cation made it impossible for him to 
obtain exact directions as to the details 
of his actions ; 140 and often the colony 
was in entire ignorance of its difficul- 
ties until after the agent had met them. 
Sometimes important documents were 
delayed, 141 or even lost, 142 and the fear 
of such losses is shown by the habit of 
sending duplicates or even triplicates 
of letters. It is very suggestive to 
read of their hoping to hear by the 
"spring ships/' or to find some im- 
portant letter with a postscript of sev- 
eral weeks' later date showing that no 
opportunity to send it had come. 14 * 
In a few cases fear was expressed lest 
the correspondence had been tampered 
with, but there seems to have been no 
evidence of any real ground for be- 
lieving that it was. 144 

Another difficulty that must often 
have discouraged even the bravest of 
the agents was the lack of money. Ap- 
parently Jackson was the first agent to 
receive more than a thousand pounds 
to prosecute the most important cases, 
and in the earlier period it was hard 
and sometimes impossible to raise a 
hundred pounds even for great emer- 
gencies. 145 Fortunately, in spite of 
the financial distress of the times of 
the French wars, public spirit was 
aroused in that period, and the agents 

iseoctober, 1709, Saltonstall, Connecti- 
cut Colonial Records, V, 139. October, 
1745, Fitch, the same, IX, 185. March, 1756, 
Trumbull, the same, X, 484. 

i37Law, when deputy governor, had also 
been offered the place, and Bulkeley seems 
to have failed to serve. Connecticut Co- 
lonial Records, VII, 218 (Note), the same, 
DC, 185. 

i3«December 24, 1697, (Fitz John Win- 
throp) Connecticut Colonial Records, IV, 

is&As to social attentions (Johnson) 
Beardsley, William Samuel Johnson, 40, 

"©August 2, 1694, Letter to Fitz John 
Winthrop. Hinman, Letters to the Gov- 
ernors, 229. 

i^iJuly, 1740, Letter of Wilks to Talcott 
Connecticut Historical Society Collection, 
V, 262. 

i420ctober, 1696, mention of letter to 
Winthrop being lost. Hinman's Letters 
to the Governors, 244. August, 1708 (As- 
hurst) the same, 334. February 2, 1705, 
box of documents lost. The same, SS6. 

i4.i(May, 1738, August, 173S, December. 
1739) Letters between Wilks. Talcott and 
Reed, Connecticut Historical Society Col- 
lections, V, 46, 65, 1S9. 

i*4(August, 173S) Letter of Reed to 
Wilks, the same 65. 

i45(August 9, 1687, to August 12, 16S9) 
(Whiting), Connecticut Colonial Records, 
III, 3S5, 386, 237 (Note), 446, 469. 

4 8 


were repeatedly instructed to use 
money as they deemed best. 148 

Perhaps the greatest difficulty the 
agents had to face was the compara- 
tive insignificance of the interests they 
represented. The little colony was 
often disregarded, and matters vital to 
its existence were allowed to drag 
along year after year. It would not 
have been strange, if some of the 
agents had given up the struggle in 
disgust or despair. 

One of the most noteworthy feat- 

ures of the history of the agency as 
given in the records, in the letters to 
and from the agents, and in the ac- 
counts of their work by the historians, 
is the almost entire absence of censure, 
complaint, or fault-finding on the part 
of the colony — officially, or otherwise. 
Partridge is the only agent even criti- 
cised by the Assembly, 147 — and he only 
as to his money transactions — while 
nearly every agent received hearty 
thanks and definite praise. 

i*eoctober, 1715 (Dummer) "Spare no 
cost." Connecticut Colonial Record, VI, 
523. October, 1739 (Wilks), Connecticut 

Historical Society Collections, V, 179. 

i« (May, 1751, and October, 1753), Con- 
necticut Colonial Records, X, 17 and 214. 





"On the 14th of January, 1639, all 
the freemen of Windsor, Wethers- 
field and Hartford gathered at Hart- 
ford and adopted the first writ- 
ten constitution known to history, 
that created a government, and it 
marked the beginning of American 
democracy, of which Thomas Hooker 
deserves more than any other man 
to be called the father. The govern- 
ment of the United States to-day is 
in lineal descent more nearly related 
to that of Connecticut than to that of 
any of the other thirteen colonies." 

"It silently grew until it became the 
strongest political structure on the 
continent, as was illustrated in the 
remarkable military energy and the 
unshaken financial credit of Connec- 
ticut during the Revolutionary War; 
and in the chief crisis of the Federal 
Convention of 1787, Connecticut 
with her compromise which secured 
equal State representation in one 
branch of the national government 
and popular representation in the 
other, played the controlling part." — 
From "The Beginnings of New Eng- 





Formerly United States Judge of Montana 

While preparations are being made to erect a 
colonial mansion after the type of the home of 
the distinguished Mrs. Sigourney on the grounds 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. 
I<ouis, the researches of Judge Munson will 
prove especially timely and entertaining. The 
scholarly and judicious comparisons of the 
statesman whose achievements are about to be 
honored, and the national hero of a half century 
later, with whom Judge Munson was personally 
acquainted, developes a similarity of character- 
istics and public service that has remained until 
now unrecognized. The interests of both states- 
men are closely identified with Connecticut. 
Jefferson was a personal friend of Oliver Ells- 
worth of Windsor, Connecticut, Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court under President Washington. 
Uriah Tracy of Connecticut was President Pro- 
tempore of the United States Senate in 1800 
When Jefferson was Vice President. James Hill- 
house of Connecticut occupied the same position 
in 1801, the first year in Jefferson's administra- 
tion. Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut was 
Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives in 
1791-93 when Jefferson was first mentioned for the 
presidency receiving four electoral votes. 
Oliver Wolcott of Connecticut was Secretary of 
the Treasury during Jefferson's early political 
career, and Roger Griswold of Connecticut was 
Secretary of War in the Adams administration 
in 1801, retiring when Jefferson was inaugurated. 
Gideon Granger of Connecticut was Postmaster- 
General under Jefferson. Oliver Ellsworth was 
Minister to France at the time of Jefferson's 
election, while David Humphreys was Minister 
to Spain in 1796 in the Washington administra- 
tion. Connecticut also figures indirectly in the 
election of Jefferson to the presidency. Aaron 
Burr, Senior, was born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 
January 4, 1716 and was graduated at Yale in 1735. 
He was licensed to preach in 1736 and settled 
over the Presbyterian church in Newark, New 

Jersey, in 1738. He was chosen President of the 
College of New Jersey at Princeton in 1748. In 
1752 he married Esther, daughter of elder Ed- 
wards. He died there September 24, 1757, and 
his wife passed away April 7, 1758. He was suc- 
ceeded as President of Princetou College by 
Jonathan Edwards of East Windsor, Connecti- 
cut. They left two children, a daughter who 
married Hon. Tapping Reeve, Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of Connecticut, and a son, the 
celebrated historical figure, Aaron Burr. 

Aaron Burr, who was born at Newark, Febru- 
ary 6, 1756, the son of the distinguished Connec- 
ticut scholar, was graduated at Princeton in 
1772 and joined the Provincial Army at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, in 1775, serving as a 
private soldier and afterward as aid to Mont- 
gomery in the Quebec expedition. He served on 
the staffs of Arnold, Washington and Putnam, 
becoming a lieutenant-colonel commanding a 
brigade at Monmouth. He resigned from the 
army because of ill health in 1779; practiced 
law at Albany 1782 and in New York City in 1783. 
He became Attorney-General of New York in 
1789 and was a republican United States Senator 
1791-97. In 1800 Burr and Jefferson each had 
seventy-three electoral votes for the office of 
President of the United States. The choice was 
left to Congress, which on the thirty-six ballot 
chose Jefferson for President and Burr for Vice- 
President. Then came that sensational histori- 
cal episode in Jefferson's administration when 
in 1804 this son of the Connecticut Burrs mortal- 
ly wounded his rival Alexander Hamilton in 
duel, and soon after embarked in a wild attempt 
on Mexico and the southwestern territories of 
the United States, resulting in his trial for trea- 
son in Richmond in 1807; his acquittal and his 
escape to Europe, returning to New York isl- 
and dying on Staten Island, September 14, 1836. 

Abraham Lincoln during his entire adminis- 
tion had a wide acquaintance and relied much 


upon the Connecticut leaders of the period. 
Many historians state that Lincoln's ancestors 
came from New England and it is known that he 
received his early country school education 
from a Yankee schoolmaster. Gideon Wells of 
Connecticut was Secretary of the Navy under 
the Lincoln presidency continuing into the 
Johnson administration, 1861-65, and was a per- 
sonal friend of the Chief Executive. Isaac 
Toucey of Connecticut had been Secretary of the 
Navy under the Buchannan administration, in 
1857-61, and Attorney-General in the Pope admin- 
istration in 1848. 

Gideon Wells, cabinet officer and intimate of 
Lincoln, was born at Glastonbury, Connecticut, 
July 1, 1802, and educated at Norwich University, 
Vermont. He studied law and became editor 
and proprietor of the Hartford Times, a demo- 
cratic paper, 1826-36, and continued to contribute 
to its editorial columns until 1854. He supported 
the candidacy of General Jackson for the presi- 
dency and was a member of the State legislature 

1827-35. In 1835 he was chosen State comptroller 
and was elected to that office in 1842 and 1843, 
having in the meantime been for several years 
postmaster at Hartford. From 1846 to 1849 he 
was chief of a bureau in the United States Navy 
Department. He was an original member of 
the republican party, and as chairman of the 
Connecticut delegation at the Chicago conven- 
tion was influential in securing the nomination 
of Lincoln for the presidency. He was Secretary 
of the Navy through the administrations of 
Lincoln and Johnson, and through his energy 
the strength and efficiency of the navy were 
greatly increased. He was identified with 
several important reform movements, notably 
the agitation for the abolition of imprisonment 
for debt, and was pronounced in his anti-slavery 
views. He died in Hartford, Connecticut, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1878. 

Judge Munson, the writer of the following arti- 
cle, was appointed by President Lincoln as U. 
S. Judge for Montana.— Editor 

THERE are some similitudes of 
public life and national feat- 
ures in the history of these 
two men, Jefferson and Lincoln, 
and their Presidential Adminis- 
trations, that it may not be inappro- 
priate to mention one in connection 
with the other. 

These representative men, starting 
in their nativity from extreme anti- 
podes in social life, two generations 
apart in point of time, illustrate the 
genius of our system of government, 
which opens up its highways to meri- 
torious distinction to all ranks of her 

Jefferson was born in Virginia, 
April 2d, 1743, of distinguished parent- 
age — surrounded by wealth — educated 
at the best schools — a graduate of Wil- 
liam's and Mary's College at the age 
of 19 years — an inheritor of 1900 acres 
of land with the homestead — with an 
income of 400 pounds from the patri- 
mony. A few years of practice in his 
profession increased his landed estate 
to 5,000 acres. 

Public exigencies of the nation de- 
manding attention, he withdrew from 
the practice of law, to enter the wider 

arena of national considerations, where 
soon amid the galaxy of distinguished 
men, he became the guiding star to 
shape the revolutionary period into 
national significance and national gran- 

A contemporary at the time of his 
admission to the bar photographed 
him as follows : — 

"He was 6 feet 2 inches in height, 
slim, erect as an arrow, with angular 
features — ruddy complexion — delicate 
skin — deep set hazel eyes — sandy hair 
— an expert musician — (the violin be- 
ing his favorite instrument) — a good 
dancer — a dashing rider — and a pro- 
ficient in manly sports. He was frank, 
cordial, sympathetic in manner, full of 
confidence in man, and sanguine in his 
own views of life." 

Lincoln was born in a floorless 
log cabin in a sparcely settled 
county in Kentucky, February 12th, 
1809, of poor parentage, environed by 
poverty, and its accompaniments — a 
struggle for existence in the ranks of 
the people, with nothing to help him 
on to fortune, or political preferment, 
but his own inherent qualities of mind 
and heart, which always shown with 


no uncertain luster as to the base of its 

Lincoln photographed himself in 
early surroundings as follows : — 

"Schools were rare, and teachers 
only qualified to impart the merest 
rudiments of instruction. Of course 
when I came of age I did not know 
much; still somehow I could read, 
write and cypher to the rule of three, 
and that was all. I have not been to 
school since. If any personal de- 
scription of me is desirable, it may be 
said I am in height 6 feet 4 inches; 
lean in flesh ; weight on an average 160 
pounds dark complexion with course 
black hair and grey eyes, no other 
brads recollected." 

We now have the primitive starting 
in early life of these two men before 
they entered into great, stirring events 
touching the life of the nation. 

Jefferson and Lincoln were great 
lawyers in their day, with no emolu- 
ments of the profession not fairly 
within their grasp. 

Admitted to the bar — Jefferson at 
the age of 24 ; Lincoln at the age of 27 

Members of state legislature: Jef- 
ferson at the age of 26 ; Lincoln at the 
age of 23, with consecutive elections, 
Lincoln declining the fourth. On 
Lincoln's first election to the Legisla- 
ture, he took his bundle of clothing 
under his arm and walked to Vandalia, 
then the capitol of Illinois, about one 
hundred miles distant ; at the close of 
the session walked back again. 

While in the Legislature he so im- 
pressed his individuality upon his sur- 
roundings that an eminent lawyer of 
Springfield advised him to study law. 
Lincoln said he was poor and unable 
to buy law books, the lawyer replied : — 

"I will lend you the books required." 

Lincoln accepted the offer, and in 

due time walked to Springfield, about 
twenty-five miles distant, took his 
bundle of books and walked back to 
study their contents by the light of a 
tallow dip in the midnight hour after 
his labors for the day were finished. 

Two years later the lender and bor- 
rower of the books were in partner- 
ship at the head of the legal profession 
in Springfield under the firm name of 
" Stewart & Lincoln " which continued 
many years. 

Jefferson, in the school of political 
observation, in diplomatic experience, 
in varied accomplishments, in the roles 
of social, political and national supre- 
macy, had no superior at the time in 
personal accomplishments ; in outfit 
and desire for development of national 
affairs, into far-reaching possibilities 
of national grandeur. This was a cen- 
tral magnet around which the life, am- 
bition, and desires of Jefferson grew 
and gained strength. 

Lincoln's central desire was to sub- 
serve and preserve our national inheri- 
tance, and transmit it unimpaired to 
future generations. He never forgot 
the struggle for American indepen- 
dence^ — the baptism of the nation in 
blood — the significance of the flag, or 
the opening gateways for national su- 
premacy; these were central magnets 
around which the desires and ambition 
of Lincoln grew, and his whole life re- 

Members of Congress: Jefferson 
at the age of 32 ; Lincoln at the age of 
37; both left the impress of their 
genius and intellectual power upon the 
nation as well as upon the states they 
represented ; both were central figures 
in every gathering where there pres- 
ence was known. 

Jefferson visited New Haven June 
9, 1784, bearing letter of introduction 
from Roger Sherman to President 


Stiles of Yale College. Jefferson was 
a guest of Stiles while in New Haven. 
Stiles showed him the adjuncts of the 
college, and introduced him to many 
persons of the city and state. 

His visit was a memorable event in 
the city, and a red letter day in the life 
of Jefferson. 

This was the only visit of Jefferson 
to Connecticut and was before his 
nomination to the Presidency. 

(See Stiles's Diary to Yale College, 
vol 3, pages 124 and 125.) 

Lincoln visited New Haven in the 
spring of i860 before his nomination 
to the Presidency, and spoke upon 
state and national issues before the 
country. A prominent Massachusetts 
man after reading his speech wrote to 
me that "Lincoln was the man for the 
Presidential nomination." 

I was in the Conventional Hall in 
Chicago at the time of his nomination 
from August, i860. Within five, min- 
utes from its announcement from the 
balcony to outsiders, the streets were 
crowded with men marching with ban- 
ners, carrying split rails on their 
shoulders, headed by bands of music, 
shouting and singing. Enthusiasm 
was at tenor pitch. The wisdom of 
the convention, and enthusiasm of the 
people, was not misplaced by subse- 
quent events. 

The Presidency. — Jefferson came to 
the presidency in 1801, at the age of 58 
years, probably the best qualified per- 
son in the nation at the time to dis- 
charge presidential duties and obliga- 
tions. Fresh from the school of 
Washington and Adams and their com- 
patriots, skilled in diplomacy — famil- 
iar with national duties and national 
surroundings, having drafted at the 
age of 33, an indictment of grievances 
against Great Britain, and a declara- 
tion of independence free from British 
interference in our national affairs, and 

having been instrumental in launching 
the republic on a sea of experiment, he 
was naturally a trusted leader to guide 
the nation, and shape its policy in the 
line of its baptismal birthright. 

He took the oath of office without 
mental reservation, in full confidence 
of its meaning, and gave to the coun- 
try an administration that lives in the 
hearts of the people, with its domain 
of national territory doubled in extent 
through his sagacity and far-reaching 

As President, Jefferson was simple 
in his tastes and desires. Instead of a 
coach in livery with six dapled gray 
prancing steeds to draw him to the in- 
augural stand of political power, he 
rode on horseback from Monticello in 
simple plain clothing, without political 
escort- — hitched his horse by its bridle 
to the fence, and walked to the stand 
where the oath was to be administered, 
in the severest formality for a dis- 
tinguished public officer at the head of 
the nation took the oath of office, and 
carried out republican simplicity dur- 
ing all his official life. He abolished 
or failed to observe much of superficial 
etiquette prevailing at the White 
House at his entrance. He believed 
that a public office was a public trust, 
conferred by the people, for the peo- 
ple ; was easily approached by the peo- 
ple, without distinction of rank or 
favor of position. In the last years 
of his life he wrote : 

"If it be possible to be constantly 
conscious of anything, I am conscious 
of feeling no difference between writ- 
ing to the highest and lowest being 
on earth." 

Red tape environments, or seclusions 
from complaints or requests, did not 
close his ear to reasonable demands or 
suggestions from any source. Digni- 
fied in appearance — affable in manner 
— a charming conversationalist, he en- 


deared himself to all as a true type of 
republican manhood, both in private 
life and in official station. 

Re-elected his own successor, his 
watchful eye never slumbered, nor his 
ear closed against suggestions from 
any souru. on lines for future develop- 
ment of strength and glory of the re- 

His presidential career marked a 
great epoch in our national history. 
Washington had gone to his tomb, 
and Adams, the second President, was 
the link or bridge carrying over na- 
tional ideas from Washington to Jef- 
ferson. Jefferson took charge of the 
trust, and safely housed it for the na- 
tion's security. During the last term 
of his presidential office he was called 
to assert the majesty of the nation's 
repository of political power, in dis- 
charge of official duties growing out 
of complications with England, relat- 
ing to our commerce upon the seas; 
and also to national intrigues 
against the government by Aaron 
Burr, then late Vice-President of the 
nation. The first being disposed of, the 
second loomed up in embarrassing 
proportions. " 

The searching eye of Jefferson, dis- 
covering the plot, Burr fled, was after- 
wards arrested, and held for trial be- 
fore the courts for conspiracy and 
treason against the government. 

Burr was socially and politically 
popular in the nation. 

While in prison, he was flattered, 
wined and dined. In court during trial 
he was encircled by social and political 
influence that permeated the atmos- 
phere of the court-room. 

Possibly in the Burr trial, then as 
now, money and political influence had 
weight in court balances, and the 
scales went down in favor of the pris- 
oner and he was discharged. 

Whatever influence surrounding the 
case, the arrest and trial was salutary. 
Though the evidence failed to convict 
him of such treasonable acts under 
technicalities alleged in the indict- 
ment as to justify a conviction under 
its penalties, yet the trial squelched out 
the stages of treason, conspirators dis- 
persed, and quiet and peace reigned 
over the nation. 

Lincoln came to the presidency in 
1861, at the age of 52 years, amid low- 
ering clouds and lightning flashes of a 
political storm, threatening the disso- 
lution of the Union, and dire calamities 
to the nation. With confidence in the 
people, and firm trust in an overruling 
Providence, he took the oath of office 
without mental reservation, and en- 
tered upon its duties — guided the 
storm — preserved the government and 
unity of the republic, with the crown 
of peace resting upon the citadel of 
the nation, with national robes washed 
clean from the stains of slavery, and 
three millions of human beings at one 
dash of his pen emancipated and set 
free forever. 

Though overwhelmed by pressing 
cares of a nation that would have justi- 
fied him in keeping doors closed 
against all but his immediate advisers, 
still he found time to listen to com- 
plaints and suggestions from the peo- 
ple, but his head and heart never lost 
balance by the interview. Though 
kind and sympathetic in the make-up 
of his nature, he had a great object to 
achieve, and he moved on to its ac- 
complishment with the courage and 
majesty of his convictions. 

Sir Edward Malet, after a distin- 
guished diplomatic career, in his auto- 
biography, giving some description of 
his Washington career as a member of 
the British legation, among all the 
great men he came in contact with, in 
a lifetime of service spent in the lead- 


ing capitols of the world, places Abra- 
ham Lincoln first. He says: 

"He was a great man — one whom 
the homely and loving appellation can- 
not belittle. Of all the great men I 
have known, he is the one who has 
left upon me the impression of a ster- 
ling son of God. Straightforward, 
unflinching, not loving the work he 
had to do, but facing it with a bold 
and true heart ; mild whenever he had 
a chance ; stern as iron when the pub- 
lic weal required it, following a bee- 
line to the goal which duty set before 
him. I can feel the grip of his mas- 
sive hand and the searching look of his 
kindly eye." 

No administration ever had darker 
forebodings at the outset — greater 
difficulties to overcome to sustain the 
government and preserve its unity, 
none ever performed its duties with 
wiser foresight, none ever left the seat 
of national power with brighter record 
for the nation's grandeur than did 

His name and his administration 
will live in the history of the country, 
as seemed to none in difficulties over- 
come — second to none in wisdom dis- 
played — second to none in triumph of 
duties performed — second to none in 
glory of achievements. Its victories 
in war, though baptized in blood, were 
sanctified in peace, with the crown of 
the covenant secured forever. 

Slavery. — Jefferson, though born in 
a slave state, surrounded by influence 
of the system, was opposed to the in- 
stitution, and never bought or sold a 
slave in the shambles of the market. 
In 1769 he introduced a resolution into 
the legislature of Virginia for the 
emancipation of slavery in the state; 
and later, as President of the United 
States, called attention to Congress, 
that the time had come to prohibit the 
importation of slaves into the country. 

Lincoln, born in a slave state, was 
anti-slavery in his convictions, and 
fought against the institution with all 
the courage and vigor of his manhood, 
and finally, at an opportune moment, 
burst the fetters of slavery, and set a 
race free forever. The Emancipation 
Proclamation by Lincoln was equal in 
literary merit, as courageous and pat- 
riotic in design, as meritorious in exe- 
cution, as the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in the days of the Revolu- 
tion. These two papers stand side by 
side as masterful aids in the cause of 
liberty and humanity throughout the 

Louisiana Purchase — One great act 
of Jefferson's administration was the 
Louisiana Purchase from France, 
which covered an area of territory 
larger in extent than the thirteen origi- 
nal states of the Union. 

It gave us a solid country from the 
Atlantic to Pacific, from great fresh 
lantic to the Pacific, from great fresh 
water lakes on the north to salt seas 
on the south, removing the anchorage 
of a French nation from our borders, 
giving us possession of all their lands 
and mineral deposits, control of the 
Mississippi River and its tributaries, 
an unbroken coast line from the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico; and strange as it may seem, Jef- 
ferson was denounced for squandering 
the nation's money for wild desert 
lands, fit only for Indians and the 
roaming of wild beasts. 

Out of this purchase we have al- 
ready admitted fifteen great prosperous 
states into the Union, each state rep- 
resenting many times in value the en- 
tire cost of the purchase. These states 
are powerful elements in the channels 
of our national life, effecting, if not 
shaping, the destinies of the republic. 
They are germs of statehood civiliza- 
tion that struck deep root in American 


soil one hundred years ago, when Jef- 
ferson watered the plant, and its vigor- 
ous growth survives the life of his be- 
ing, and expands in glory for the re- 
public as years evolve. 

Other territory covered by this 
grant is yet to be baptized into the 
sisterhood of states under our flag, 
which has symbolized the nation's 
power for a hundred years upon the 
seas, and in midnight whirlwinds upon 
the land, without the loss of a star 
emblazoned upon its folds. 

Alaska. — One great act of the Lin- 
coln administration was the Alaskan 
purchase from Russia. This terri- 
tory, according to government figures, 
contains a territory equal in extent to 
seventy states the size of Massachu- 
setts. It was a wise foresight, and 
lucky grasp of circumstances that se- 
cured to the United States this terri- 

If the purchase had been delayed 
twenty years, it is doubtful if 100 mil- 
lion dollars' worth would have secured 
the transfer; and if delayed thirty 
years no money consideration could 
have been named for its purchase. 

Just when or how Russia acquired 
jurisdiction over this territory I am 
not advised, presumably it was by dis- 
covery. In 1728, Vitus Behring, a 
Russian navigator, crossed over Behr- 
ing Sea into Alaskan waters, giving 
his own name to the sea and strait, 
which name they bear to-day In 
1 74 1 he crossed it again, but on his 
return was shipwrecked on one of the 
Aleutian Islands and died there in 

The Russian government followed 
up those incursions by leasing out to 
its subjects rights to establish trading 
posts and gather furs therein. At the 
time of its agreed transfer to the 
United States, some forty of these 

trading posts had been established, 
shipping furs direct to Russia. 

Most of those leases expired by limi- 
itation with the year 1863, when the 
Lincoln administration commenced ne- 
gotiations for the purchase of the ter- 

The original price agreed upon was 
$7,000,000, but it was found that there 
were some outstanding obligations to 
Russian subjects, and some claimed 
rights to Prince Edward Island, which 
it was deemed best to cancel before 
the transfer, and $200,000 was added 
for that purpose. Some delay was oc- 
casioned thereby, but all outstanding 
claims being secured, the sale was per- 
fected at $7,200,000. 

This great territory, with all its 
wealth of gold and silver, its coal, 
iron, copper and - other mineral de- 
posits, its fisheries, its seals, its tim- 
bers, were turned over to the United 
States at a cost of hardly the frac- 
tion of a cent for each $100 represented 
by its values. 

The peaceful abrogation and nega- 
tion of recognized rights of a foreign 
nation from the continent, and the ab- 
sorption of those rights in friendly 
ways, were of more consequence to the 
United States than many times the 
money value paid for the purchase. 

This purchase not only extended our 
territorial domain northward, border- 
ing more than 1,000 miles of Pacific 
Ocean, but extended our possessions 
westward many leagues from the Pa- 
cific shores, covering the Aleutian 
Islands of commercial value with full 
possession and quiet enjoyment with- 
out a soldier to guard or patrol the 
precincts, or the issuing of a treasury 
warrant for its peaceful enjoyment. 

These islands are crowned with 
golden sunlight at midday, while mid- 
night darkens the capitol in Washing- 


ton. Governor Swineford of Alaska 
said to a reporter for publication, and 
widely published: 

"When I sat at my desk in Sitka I 
was further from Attu Island, the 
westernmost point in Alaska, than I 
was from Portland, Me. This may 
serve to give some idea of the prodig- 
ious distances of Alaska. But I can 
furnish a more striking one. If the 
capitol of the United States were lo- 
cated in the center of the United 
States — that is to say, at a point equi- 
distant from Quoddvhead, Me., and 
Attu Island, Alaska — it would be in 
the Pacific Ocean some 600 miles north 
by west of San Francisco." 

The Louisiana purchase and the 
Alaskan purchase were substantially 
co-extensive in territorial area ; and 
each represent more money values than 
the human mind can comprehend. 
The Louisiana purchase supplied gold 
and silver demands of the nation from 
twenty to seventy millions of people, 
and is still pouring it into the national 
treasury at 100 millions a year. 

Its coal, copper, iron, lead and 
other mineral deposits are supplying 
demands of the nation with their pro- 
ducts in vast quantities, from unex- 
hausted resources, while its agricultur- 
al products are feeding the nations of 
the world. 

Alaska, as yet hardly scratched for 
its mineral values, is sending down its 
golden treasures by the tons weight, 
and soon will send it down, I almost 
said by the shipload, to be coined into 
golden eagles for circulation among 
the people. 

Its mineral deposits, rich in quality 
and extensive in quantities, are resting 
in their silent beds, waiting the hand 
of industry to unlock their secrets, and 
for transportation facilities to realize 
their values. 

One generation from the date of the 
Alaskan purchase, telegraph and tele- 
phone systems are stretching their 
quivering nerves up into Alaska, and 
the wires tremble, and the ear tingles 
with the weight of messages that come 
over the lines to the astonishment of 
the world. 

Its fisheries and maritime commerce 
annually exceed the original cost of 
the purchase with revenues increased 
as years revolve; while its timber re- 
sources baffle human conception in 

No man can fully comprehend the 
national bearings to our country in a 
commercial, political or religious 
standpoint of these two purchases 
which crown the life work of these two 
men in national, hopeful, perpetual 
recognition of their great services 

Monuments of brass or marble are 
but feeble expressions of a nation's 
gratitude measured by the calm ver- 
dict of prosperity in review. Our 
Constitution and flag — twin-born em- 
blems of national sovereignty, baptized 
into our national life ; and these two 
great territorial acquisitions stand to- 
gether, with no strained relations ob- 
scured by the smoke of battle. 

This is the hundredth anniversary of 
the Louisiana purchase, and I predict 
that in the records of this year railway 
bands will reach from the northern 
boundaries of that purchase up into 
Alaska, to secure its commerce, and 
the mystic hands of Jefferson and 
Lincoln will clasp over the physical 
union of these two great acquisitions 
secured to the nation through their 
instrumentality, cemented into perpet- 
ual union. 

Both of these great acquisitions to 
our national domain were the result 
of honorable purchase and peaceful de- 
liverance ; and not by bloody conquest 
at the cannon's mouth. 





Author of " Studies in Oriental Social Life," " Friendship, the Master Passion " 
and many other volumes 

After seventy-three years of keen observation, and long- acquaintance with distinguished men 
Dr. Trumbull writes of his experiences for The Connecticut Magazine. The author and editor was 
born at Stonington, Connecticut, June 8,1830 and was educated at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, 
Massachusetts. He came to Hartford in 1851 and was appointed State Missionary of the American 
Sunday School Union for Connecticut in 1858. He was ordained as a Congregational clergyman in 
1861 and served during the war as chaplain of the Tenth Connecticut Volunteers, being taken pris- 
oner before Fort Wagner in 1863. Appointed missionary secretary for New England of the Ameri- 
can Sunday School Union in 1865, and normal secretary in 1871, he removed in 1875 to Philadelphia 
where he became the editor and chief owner of the Sunday School Times. In 1881 he visited the East, 
and discovered the long-lost site of Kadesh-Barnea, on the southern border of Palestine. His liter- 
ary works have been numerous, including "The Sabbath School Concert," 1861; "The Knightly 
Soldier, 1865, revised 1892; " Childhood Conversion," 1868; " The Captured Scout of the Army of the 
James," 1869; "The Model Superintendent," 1880; " Kadesh-Barnea," 1884; " Teaching and Teachers." 
1884; " The Blood Covenant," 1885; " The Sunday School ; its Origin," 1888; " Principles and Practice,'- 
1889; " Friendship, the Master Passion," 1891; " Studies in Oriental Social Life," 1894; and other 
volumes, several of which have been re-published in England.— Editor 

STONINGTON, Connecticut, 
my native place, had, a half- 
century and more ago, excep- 
tional prominence for a 
small New England town. There 
were several reasons for this. It is 
at the eastern extremity of Long 
Island Sound. A ship-channel from 
the Atlantic Ocean is between Watch 
Hill on the one hand and Fisher's 
Island on the other. A commodious 
harbor at Stonington made that place 
an eligible port of entry and exit for 
privateers in the war between this 
country and Great Britain in 1775- 
178 1 and again in the War of 18 12- 
14. In consequence an attempt was 
made in each of these wars by the 
British ships on our coast to destroy 

Stonington. Commodore James Wal- 
lace in H. M. Frigate Rose, with other 
vessels, led the attack in August, 1775. 
The village was bombarded, and 
many buildings were injured, but only 
one man was wounded. This attack 
was soon after repulsed, and a sloop- 
tender that was sent into the harbor 
was driven off disabled. This inspired 
the Yankee seamen and soldiers with 
fresh courage. 

The attack in 18 13 was made in 
force by a fleet, under the command 
of Commodore Hardy, a favorite offi- 
cer of Lord Nelson and in whose arms 
Nelson died. But the Stonington Yan- 
kees, without any formal fortification, 
rose up, and with two eighteen 
pounder smooth-bore cannon (still 



preserved there) they drove off the 
British fleet considerably damaged, 
and this with no loss to the defenders. 
This in itself made Stonington a place 
of interest to patriotic citizens from 
abroad. As I knew personally many 
of those Yankee defenders, including 
some who had a part in the repulse in 
1775, and as I often heard the story 
of the second attack retold by my 
parents, I took special pride as a boy 
in the coming of prominent citizens 
from other parts of the country to 
visit the site of this patriotic defense. 
Brittania's navy had twice been re- 
pulsed by Stonington Yankees. Had 
we not reason to be proud? 

In my boyhood I heard my parents 
tell of the visit, years before, to Ston- 
ington, of President Monroe, accom- 
panied by Commodore Bainbridge, 
General Swift, and others. He ex- 
amined the points of attack and de- 
fense, and he complimented the brave 
Yankee defenders, many of whom 
were still there. It was pointed with 
pride, in my grandfather's house, to 
the high four-post bedstead, with 
hangings and canopy, in which the 
President slept. 

While I was yet but a little more 
than three years old, I was lifted in 
my mother's arms in order to see from 
a window of our Stonington home 
President Andrew Jackson and Vice- 
President, afterwards President, Mar- 
tin VanBuren passing our house, on a 
visit to the famous site of the repell- 
ing of the British fleet in 181 3. The 
appearance of both Andrew Jackson 
and Martin VanBuren is fresh in my 
memory to-day, after nearly seventy 
years. Jackson was tall, erect, bare- 
headed, with white, or light iron-gray, 
hair standing up above his forehead, 
and was an impressive personality. 
VanBuren, walking after him, was 

shorter, with round head, bald crown, 
and brown " mutton-chop " whiskers, 
and with his well-known " foxy " look, 
as he was even then planning to step 
into his leader's shoes. How much 
history centered in those two men ! 

An American boy comes, very early, 
to realize that a President of the 
United States stands for all that roy- 
alty represents to the British lad; es- 
pecially if the American who holds 
the exalted office is a hero through his 
own achievement. Therefore it is 
that President Jackson, who had been 
known as General Jackson, who had 
lowered the pride of the British army, 
stood out, as magnified through my 
boyish imagination, as the first hero 
whom the world called great that I 
had ever looked on. And to this day 
nothing that my eyes have ever seen, 
in the way of natural scenery, equals 
in impressiveness the sight of a great 
man and a true one. He is sure to 
excite my interest. I have seen the 
Alps and the Rocky Mountains, the 
Yosemite, Mount Sinai, the mountains 
of Lebanon, Niagara Falls, the At- 
lantic and the Pacific oceans, the Med- 
iterranean Sea, and the Sea of Galilee, 
but these are as nothing in my mem- 
ory compared with President Jackson, 
my first hero, and the other heroes 
who have followed him in my human 

It was about ten years after this 
sight of President Jackson that Presi- 
dent John Tyler visited Stonington. 
My uncle, Dr. George E. Palmer, be- 
ing Warden of the Borough at the 
time, made the address of welcome, 
and when he was showing President 
Tyler the landmarks that President 
Jackson had visited, walking by my 
father, who was on the Reception 
Committee, I was near enough to hear 
all the conversation. The two " eigh- 



teen pounders " that had driven off 
the British fleet were still preserved, 
but the brick building that served as a 
United States arsenal was dilapidated 
and weather-worn. My uncle re- 
ferred to this fact, and suggested that 
it would be well if the national govern- 
ment would make better provision for 
these artillery defenders of American 
honor. At this President Tyler, who 
popularly went by the name of " Old 
Veto," in consequence of his many 
vetoes, said humorously: 

"I'll tell you what I'd do. If you'll 
get Congress to vote an appropriation 
for that arsenal, I'll promise not to 
veto it." And all of us laughed at 
that joke. 

Not long after this there came to 
Stonington a hero who was not a pres- 
ident, but who appealed to a boy 
brought up on the seacoast and amid 
ships and sailors even more than could 
any soldier or army officer. This was 
Commodore Isaac Hull, familiarly 
known as " Old Ironsides," who com- 
manded the frigate Constitution in her 
famous fight with the British frigate 
Guerriere. As I was called to my 
home window on a Sunday afternoon, 
I saw Commodore Hull passing down 
over the village show-ground, which 
had been exhibited to President Tyler 
and President Jackson. This was not 
long before the death of Commodore 
Hull, as he died in 1843. He was, 
however, still in vigorous "health, 
somewhat short and stout, with the 
then conventional American dress suit 
of blue coat and trousers, and buff 
waistcoat, with gilt buttons on both 
coat and waistcoat. This was a com- 
mon dress suit for civilians in that 
day. It was a survival of the Federal 
uniform of Revolutionary times. Dan- 
iel Webster wore it on state occasions. 
I am glad to have that picture of Com- 

modore Hull hanging in my mental 
gallery. He looked quite the naval 
hero, to my boyhood fancy. 

In those days, and until the days of 
the Civil War, we had in the United 
States navy no higher rank than that 
of captain, or post-captain, as the Brit- 
ish termed it. A captain who had 
been in command of a fleet was by 
courtesy called a commodore, but his 
actual rank was still that of captain, 
thus at the time of the fight of the 
Constitution with the Guerriere, it was 
Captain Hull who was pitted against 
Captain Dacres. From my boyhood I 
had heard with pride of that battle. A 
ballad version of it was in my memory, 
one verse suggesting Captain Hull's 
generosity ; and now, as I saw " Com- 
modore " Hull in actual life, I thought 
of those words: 
"When Dacres came on board, 

To deliver up his sword, 

He looked so dull 

And heavy, O. 
'You may keep it,' says brave Hull, 

'But what makes you look so dull 

And heavy, O ? 

Come, cheer up, and take 

A glass of brandy, O !' ' 
It was about the same time that I 
saw Commodore Hull, a naval-hero of 
the war of 18 12, that I was presented, 
in my father's house in Stonington, to 
an army-hero of the Revolutionary 
War. This was Colonel John Trum- 
bull, an officer of the military staff of 
General Washington. He was a son 
of Governor Jonathan Trumbull, the 
friend of Washington, and who as 
" Brother Jonathan " is immortalized 
as a representative of the Yankee na- 
tion. While then more than four- 
score years of age, he was a dignified 
man of erect form and soldierly bear- 


Our ideas of the patriots and heroes 



of the Revolution are obtained from 
his paintings more than from any- 
other source. He painted the picture 
of " Signing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence,'" " General Washington's 
Farewell to the Army, at Annapolis," 
"The Battle of Bunker Hill," and 
other well-known paintings in the Ro- 
tunda of the Capitol at Washington. 

As Colonel Trumbull was born in 
1756, and died in 1843, mv memory of 
him connects me with the early days 
of our history as a nation. He had 
personally watched at a distance the 
battle of Bunker's Hill. He had 
known John Adams, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, John Hancock, Roger Sherman, 
General Putnam, and others of our 
patriotic heroes. An American would 
have been indeed prosy and unimagi- 
native not to be profoundly impressed 
by the sight of one of the military fam- 
ily of General Washington, and who 
had known most of the soldiers and 
statesmen of Revolutionary days. That 
was the highest point of my personal 
memories of a hero. 

Because Stonington was the ter- 
minus of the then principal railroad 
line between Boston and New York 
it was an important station on the route 
between Eastern New England and 
Philadelphia and Washington. This 
gave me an opportunity to see many 
distinguished persons as they left the 
cars to take the steamer for New York. 
And even some of those glimpses of 
great men are memories to be treas- 
ured gratefully. 

It was in the autumn of 1848 that I 
learned that ex-President John Quincy 
Adams was to pass through Stonington 
on his way to Washington, and I went 
to the station to get my first glimpse 
of him. General Washington had 
known him while he was yet a young 
man, and had predicted great things 
of him. He had had a part in the birth 

of our great Republic. He had done 
service with his honored father or by 
himself in a diplomatic sphere in Eng- 
land, France, Russia, and Germany. 
He had held almost every station of 
honor in our nation, to that of Presi- 
dent, and had been a faithful and most 
useful member of the national Homse 
of Representatives after he had left 
the presidential chair. All this intensi- 
fied my interest in a sight of the " Old 
Man Eloquent " as I saw him, short 
of stature, but great in deeds and 
worth, pass along with others from the 
cars to the steamboat. That proved to 
be John Quincy Adams's last journey 
to Washington. A few months later 
he died in the Capitol in Washington, 
and I went with my father to New 
York City to witness his funeral pro- 
cession on its way to his old home in 

Governor Thomas H. Seymour, a 
hero of the Mexican war, and later 
American minister to Russia, passed, 
while he was governor, one Sunday at 
my father's house in Stonington. He 
was one of the popular heroes of the 
Democratic party. I had reason to 
know that in a conference in Washing- 
ton before the presidential nomination 
in 1852 it was decided by the leaders, 
if the emergency made such action de- 
sirable, to bring out as a " dark horse " 
in the convention either Thomas H. 
Seymour or Franklin Pierce. A num- 
ber of gentlemen came to New Eng- 
land to talk with the two and decide 
between them. As a result of this 
visit Franklin Pierce was chosen, and 
his presidency stands in history in con- 

During our Civil War, in my cam- 
paigning in North Carolina, my Ston- 
ington home and companionships were 
unexpectedly brought back to me. I 
was with my regiment near Golds- 



boro' in December, 1862. We had 
been in two severe fights in the past 
three days, and had lost more than 
one-fourth of our force engaged. As 
we were on our way back to New 
Berne, we were marching one night 
through the blazing pine woods, when 
a call came from a New York regi- 
ment which we were passing : 

"What regiment is that?" 

"The Tenth Connecticut," was the 

"The Tenth Connecticut! Is there 
any one in that regiment from Ston- 
ington ?" 

As I was riding by my colonel I 
called out in response, "Yes, here's 
' Hen Trumbull/ Who are you ? " 

"I'm Courty Babcock," came back 
the voice of one whom I had known 
as a Stonington boy. He was of Rev- 
olutionary stock; one of his ancestors 
was prominent in the English army in 
the days of Good Queen Anne. From 
the time of that meeting on the North 

Carolina road I was near that Ston- 
ington companion till the close of the 
war. He was for some time on the 
staff of General Meade, where I was 
near him, before Petersburg and 
Richmond. He married a wife who 
was of a choice Litchfield County fam- 
ily, and he returned to Stonington to 
spend his last years in the old home. I 
was often pleasantly associated with 
him in his later life. 

Thus in Stonington I saw at least 
four Presidents of the United States; 
a fifth had been there before. There I 
saw and had pleasant linkings with a 
prominent officer of the Revolutionary 
War; with well-known officers of the 
army and navy in the War of 18 12 ; 
with an eminent officer of the Mexican 
War; and with an honored officer in 
the Civil War. And these are but an 
illustration in a single sphere of action 
of the influences that centered in that 
small seaside village where my earliest 
impressions of life were secured. 

f "v 





Author of "As Seen From the Ranks" 


Following the Connecticut River to Hartford on search for our Two Thousand Ancestors 

IT was a beautiful day when we 
entered the Borough of Lord 
Say and Seal and Lord Brook, 
situated at the mouth of New Eng- 
land's Rhine, sometimes mentioned 
as the Connecticut River. 

Saybrook has its memories too. It 
was the birthplace of the celebrated 
"Saybrook Platform," as well as of 
Yale College, which was established 
here in 1701. 

We decided to follow the course of 
the Connecticut River, not like our 
forefathers, in boats which were hard 
rowed with the rising tide and tied 
up while the waters ebbed, but on a 
comfortable highway. 

The projecting spurs of ledge and 
bordering marshes have forced the 
highway far inland, and we only 
caught vagrant glimpses of distant 
reaches glimmering in the sunshine 
through vistas of autumn's brilliant 

At last we reached the crest of a 
mountain range near Middletown and 
came into full and extensive view of 

the real Connecticut Valley. Hart- 
ford's lights gleamed in the fading 
twilight as we entered its streets, 
guided by the one familiar landmark, 
the gilded dome of its capitol. For 
the New England genealogist and 
historian Hartford is a center of 
interest. Only six years after the 
establishment of the Massachusetts 
Bay colony the Rev. Thomas Hooker 
came marching through the wilder- 
ness. That year they obtained a deed 
from the Indians of the Suckiaug 
tribe, and it was at first proposed to 
name the place in their honor, but it 
was finally decided to name it after 
Hertford, Eng., the birthplace of 
Rev. Samuel Stone, their assistant 
minister, which also touches another 
point on our ancestry. Sometimes 
we are given to mourning because 
the sonorous Indian names are pass- 
ing away to be succeeded by harsher 
sounds, but in this case we shall 
agree, I think, there is no cause for 
About the Center church cluster 



the city of the dead. Close to the 
back of the church is the stone of An- 
drew Benton, 1683. Hartford, like 
Salem, had its trials and executions 
for witchcraft. 

The grave of Rev. Thomas 
Hooker, who died in 1647, * s covered 
by an elaborate stone which belongs 
to the style of a century later. 

We searched the old ground over 
for the grave of a pet ancestor, one 
Capt. George Denison. His stone 
was standing in 1835, according to a 
list of the stones standing at that 
time, but we did not succeed in finding 
it. He was a notable man in his day, 
and his memory is surrounded by a 
halo of romance. 

Born in England he came, when 
twelve years old, with his parents to 
Roxbury, Mass. A member of the 
family was John Eliot, who came in 
the capacity of tutor. This was the 
same John Eliot who became the now 
famous apostle of Christianity to the 
Indians, and even translated the Bible 
into their tongue. 

Denison married in 1640, but be- 
came a widower three years later. 
Soon after this he returned to Eng- 
land and accepted a commission in 
Cromwell's army, where he soon won 
distinction. The decisive battle of 
Naseby was fought June 14, 1645, * n 
which the King's army was van- 
quished. In this battle Capt. Deni- 
son was wounded and was carried to 
the house of Mr. John Borodell,a gen- 
tleman of high social position. Here 
he was cared for by Mr. BorodelTs 
daughter Ann, with the result that, 
while he recovered from the King's 
wound, he fell before an archer of far 

more experience than any in the 
King's service. 

They were married and came to 
this country, finally settling at Mys- 
tic, in the town of Stomngton, Conn., 
where he soon became the leading 
man in civil and military affairs in 
the colony. He died at Hartford, as 
stated, at the age of seventy-six, but 
his widow lived to the goodly age of 
ninety-seven, seeing her grandchild- 
ren's grandchildren. 

Perhaps the reader is wondering 
by this time how many ancestors I 
have. Most people when speaking of 
ancestry refer to a single line, that of 
their father's name, or at the most to 
two lines, so as to include the moth- 
er's name also. But a little sum in 
arithmetic will show that if all the an- 
cestry of one person is traced back 
only ten generations, or about three 
hundred years, it will then include 
more than two thousand ancestors. 

We followed Connecticut's valleys 
and shore, and now we were to cross 
its uplands. This we did in a long 
succession of ascents and descents. 
Torrington, with its mountain river, 
alive with the incessant whirr of ma- 
chinery; Litchfield, stately, reserved 
and decorous on its elevation ; Nor- 
folk, a country cluster of congested 
wealth; Canaan Mountain, carrying 
on its crest the highest lakelet in the 
State, like a giant holding to the sky 
a cup of cold water for the clouds to 
drink from; Cornwall Hollow, where 
rest the remains of that great soldier 
and fine personality. Gen. John Sedg- 
wick: all these were embraced in our 
drive. Then we reached the point of 
departure, after sixteen days' journey. 


I have heard the songs of David 

And the bells of evenin' chime; 
I have listened to the Muses 

Weavin' fancy into rhyme: 
I have heard the rains of summer 

Patter on the thirsty lands 
'Till the daisies in the medder 

Seemed to laugh an' clap their hands. 

I have heard the bobby-lincolns 

Trillin' 'long the brooks in June, 
When the breezes, all a tip-toe, 

Were a waltzin' to the tune, 
An' the water-bugs, a glimmer, 

Were a dancin', one an' one, 
In delirious illusion, 

Like the Witches of the sun. 

I have heard the pine-tops murmur, 

An' the crickets' weird refrain, 
That has set my heart a-dreamin' 

Like the poppies in the grain; 
But of all the gusts o' music 

That have stirred the soul in me, 
'Tis the spring-song of the robin 

In the summer-sweetin' tree. 

There are themes of Mother Nature 

Set to deeper chords, 'tis true, 
There's the rustle of the fodder 

When the harvest-time is through, 
But it's sad an' full o' feelin's 

That a feller can't explain, 
An' it makes him kind-o' lonesome, 

An' it tangles up his brain 

With a sort-o' foolish notion 

That it ain't no use to try, 
An' that life is all a fizzle 

Jest because he's born to die. 
But a thing that's very diff'rent, 

An' that lifts the soul in me, 
Is the spring-song of the robin 

In the summer-sweetin' tree. 

-Herbert Randall 

The illustrations on the following pages are from the booklet entitled "Summer 
Homes," by permission of the publishers, the Central New England Railroad. 
Starting from Hartford and continuing along the line of the Central New England 
are some of the most beautiful summer retreats in America, which during these 
summer months are being visited by thousands of the lovers of majestic nature. 











IN the history of Amercan juris- 
prudence, literature and enter- 
prise, there are few names more 
distinguished than that of the Fields 
of Connecticut. And until a few years 
ago the quaint old homestead of this 
sturdy Connecticut stock stood on an 
infrequently travelled road in the his- 
toric old town of Haddam. In this 
hospitable old house, with its un- 
painted walls and its crude but sub- 
stantial architecture, resided Rev. 
David Dudley Field, clergyman and 
historian, from 1804 to 1818. Tt was 
here that David Dudley Field, Jr., the 
distinguished jurist, was born on Feb- 
ruary 13, 1805, while on November 4, 
t8i6, occurred the birth of Stephen 

Johnson Field, who in later years was 
appointed by President Lincoln an as- 
sociate justice of the Supreme Court, 
becoming in 1869 professor of law in 
the University of California. In 1880 
he was nominated in the National 
Democratic Convention as a candidate 
for President of the United States and 
received sixty-five votes on the first 
ballot. Another son of the family of 
the Haddam clergyman was Cyrus 
West Field, a famous figure in the 
laying of the Atlantic cables, and in 
the construction of the elevated rail- 
roads in the City of New York. He 
was born, however, after the family 
removed to Stockbridge, Massachu- 


THERE is no greater picture of 
hospitality than the scene of 
the burning log in many of 
the old-time houses in Connecticut. 
And this corner in the kitchen of the 
old Wilson house in Milford brings 
back the recollections of the days when 
a great nation is being built and a 
courageous people were laying the 
foundation of the most influential re- 
public in the world. It was before 
such firesides as this that the struggle 
for independence was planned and 
self-government was outlined. Before 
the steaming kettles gathered the early 

pioneers and, seated about the huge 
stone fireplace on settles, they discussed 
the making of the very documents 
which are to-day our greatest records 
in history. In the farther corner 
rested the flint-lock. Here was the 
brass warming-pan and the flip-dog, 
the quaint utensils of brass and cop- 
per, pigskin trunk and the battered 
shoemaker's bench beside the old- 
fashioned wooden cradle. Such were 
the homes in the days of the beginning 
when strong character, courage and 
fortitude were the dominant charac- 


AFTER the material struggle 
for supremacy there comes a 
time when wearied with the 
conflict we long to flee from the din 
of the toilers into a peaceful quietude. 
It is then that we learn the real beauty 
and strength of nature, and during the 
coming summer months there can be 
no more beneficial pastime than a 
visit to the lake regions of Connec- 
ticut. This state abounds in beauti- 
ful little touches of lake scenery and 
it is probable that many of them are 
unknown even to the lover of the- out- 
of-door world. As Hamilton W. 
Mabie says in "A Springtime Literary 
Talk," to those who have taught them- 
selves to see the world about them 
this season of the year is a miracle ; it 
is a wonder, a movement of life so 
deep and vast and so productive of 
rapid change in the things about us 
that we cannot fathom or comprehend 

"In a day the world seems to have 
fashioned new garments for itself, and 
that which was dead is alive again. 
This stupendous change, which would 
fill us with awe if we were not so ac- 
customed to it, is visible to all eyes, 
but it does not change the habits of all 
who see it. Half the pleasure of life 
comes from adapting our habits to the 
seasons, and so bringing ourselves into 
vital contact with the life about us, 

and breaking up the monotony of reg- 
ular occupation. He who forms the 
habit of seeing every day the world 
about him, and of changing his recrea- 
tions, his pleasures, his occupations in 
leisure hours to suit the season, may 
faint by the way from the weari- 
ness of the heavy load he is compelled 
to carry, but will never find the way 
monotonous and uninteresting. Win- 
ter sends us indoors for meditation 
and reading by our firesides, for the 
deep spiritual joy and education of 
family iife, for the rest and sweetness 
of intimate relations with our friends 
under our roof or under theirs ; spring- 
knocks at the door and bids us come 
without and look at the fields and 
skies ; for the time is at hand when 
Nature will call us to herself once 
more in the quiet of the fields and the 
silence of the woods. To be at home 
in winter and abroad in summer is to 
harmonize the two prime needs of the 
spirit and to live in both the great 
hemispheres of activity and ex- 

There is nothing more delightful 
than an afternoon on the shore of any 
of Connecticut's magnificent little 
iakes, nestled in the valley underneath 
the towering mountain or sparkling 
like a precious gem in the opening of 
the woodland. 




iv K. T. SheMon 








Where General Uafaj-ette in 1824 was entertained, and standing on the 
steps of the old house was patriotically welcomed by the people of Stamford 



In which gathered many of the ingenious Yan- 
kees of the last century, the town having been 
famous for building of wooden sailing craft, 
ships, brigs, schooners, sloops and barges 

The Homes 


Builders of a 


Home of Robert Treat, Governor of Connecticut 
from 16x3 to 1698 From here was led many expedi- 
tions against the Indians 


Occupied by Jonathan Daw, Governor of Con 
uecticut 1741 to 1751, dying in office He was one 
on the early graduates from Harvard in 1695 His 
residence was destroyed a few years ago 




An old Connecticut home with its long- slant roof and massive stone 
chimney, with its antiquated brass studded pigskin trunk, the 
wooden cradle and the battered shoemaker's bench— an emblem of 
Milford's former wealth 

The Firesides 


Makers of 
a New Nation 


Where Jesse Olney resided for many years and 
wrote the series of" school books which were used 
throughout the United States in the early days 
of education 






It was here that the fundamental knowledge 
was instilled into the minds of the village chil- 
dren in the days of the beginning 


It was in the cellar ot 'this old house wher< > 
and Whalley lived concealed from 1661 to 1«3 


From an old Worcestershire manor house— Incised panels and borders, with a panel hood at the 
head — Rockers curved at tops held in the very ends of the corner posts— Cushions inside cover 
with figure vellet 







N reverting to the primitive 
ideas of articles of household 
furniture we find simple 
and even crude lines," says one of the 
-disciples of the modern art crafts. "In 

architecture — first of the building arts 
— the constructive features must be 
plainly visible and declare the purpose 
and use of the work. Furthermore, 
( mainent must not be applied. It 



Clock Belonging to Benjamin Franklin 

must result from such modifications of 
the structural features as do not im- 
pair their validity. Applied ornament 
is a parasite and never fails to absorb 
the strength of the organism upon 
which it feeds. It is true that the se- 
vere and simple style may err upon the 
side of crudeness but it suggests vital 
force and progress." 

Thus it is that the homes of our 
forefathers so strongly reflect their 
vigorous characteristics. Practica- 
bility, not idealism, was the early ten- 
dency and the first houses at Plymouth 
were constructed of rough-hewn tim- 
ber with window panes of oiled glass 
and the roofs thatched. The hearth* 
were laid with stones and clay and the 
huge chimneys were raised outside 
the walls. Edward Winslow writes 
in 1621, "Bring plenty of clothes and 
bedding fowling pieces, and paper and 
b'r*seed oil for your windows with cot- 
ton yarn for your lamps." In 1629 
Higginson writes from Salem to his 
friends in England. "Be sure to fur- 
nish yourself with glass for windows." 
Glass works were established in Salem 
before 1638. 

House building was the first task of 
the settlers and the records show that 
the "Great House" had already been 
built in Charlestown, in [629, where 
the Governor and some oi the paten- 
tees dwelt, while "the multitudes set 
tin cottages, booths and tents around 
the town hall." 

When it is considered that the im- 
migrants came to these densely mys- 
terious shores, with little excepting 
faith and hope, it seems remarkable 
that they gathered about them in so 
short a time the comforts oi the home- 
land. Suppose to-day that we found 
it neeessarv to import even our sim- 
pliest household necessities. --then 

Courtesy Doubleday, Page &C 
SKTTKK WITH FOLDING CANDI.KSTAND from Talcott House Owned by Mrs. Wainwright, Hartford, Con 



could be better appreciated the enor- 
mous task which confronted our an- 
cestors. Still we find in records the 
estate of Francis Brewster, an early 
notable of New Haven, who died in 
1647. An East India quilt and an 
East India cabinet and some blue 
dishes, linen and pewter, a looking 
glass, four window cushions, five 
other cushions, and three blue chairs 
were among his belongings. 

Isaac Allerton, the fifth signer of 
the Mayflower Compact, resided in 
New Haven in U A grand house on the 
creek with four porches." And at his 
death in 1658 his furnishings included 
a great chair and two other chairs, a 
drawing table and a form, a chest of 
drawers, a small old table, five cush- 
ions, carpet, beds, five brass candle- 
sticks and the usual pewter and and- 

Governor Theophilus Eaton, a dom- 
inant figure in New Haven Colony, 
died in 1658, and the inventory of his 
estate was remarkable in its wealth of 
furniture, considering the serious dif-* 
Acuities in furnishing the home. 

A livery, or court cupboard stood 
against the wall and was covered with 
a cloth and cushions. There were two 
fireplaces in the hall, garnished with 
one large and one small pair of brass 
andirons, tongs, fire pans, and bellows. 
The tables were adorned with two 
Turkey carpets. There was also a 
"great chair with needlework." Other 
articles mentioned are a pewter cistern 
and a candlestick. The livery cup- 
board above mentioned was probably 
the "dresser" against which the Gov- 
ernor's violent wife thumped her step- 
daughter's (Mistress Mary's) head, 


Mahogany and gilt mirror profusely ornamented 
with gilt according to the style of the period 1700 
to 1776— Now in possession of Mrs. Wainwright. 
Hartford, Connecticut 

according to the servant's evidence at 
the lady's trial. 

Mr. Eaton's chamber contained a 
canopy bed with feather bedding, cur- 
tains, and valance, a little cupboard 
with drawers, another bed. bedding 
and curtains, two chests, a box. and 
two cases of bottles, a desk, two chairs, 
three high joint stools and three low 
stools. The room had hangings, ami 
curtains were at the windows. The 
hearth had its usual appointments of 
brass, and an iron back. 



e;ari,y colonial mahogany chairs 

Now in possession of Mrs. Wainwright, Hartford, Connecticut — The chair 
on the left is similar to the model in South Kensington, dated 1732 — The 
one on the right resembles the models dated about 1750 

Other apartments included the 
"Green Chamber," in which the table 
and cupboard cloths, carpets, cushions 
and curtains were green and some of 
them laced and fringed. There were 
also Turkey-work and needlework 
cushions and rich hangings about the 
chamber. A bedstead with down bed- 
ding and tapestry covering, a great 
chair, two little ones, six low stools, 
a looking glass, a couch and appur- 
tenances, a short table, a cypress chest 
and a valuable "cubbard with draw- 
ers" were also found here. The fire- 
place with brass furnishings was not 

The "Blue Chamber" was also plen- 
tifully furnished, the hangings, rugs, 
and curtains being of the same hue. 

The house contained china, earth- 

enware, pewter, silver plate, and the 
usual kitchen stuff ; and some books, a 
globe and a map valued at £48-15-0 
also occur. The total amounted to 
£1,440-15-0. The decline of prosper- 
ity had affected the Governor, in com- 
mon with the rest of the community, 
since in 1643 h* s possessions had been 
valued at £3,000. 

The illustrations here given and this 
brief descriptive matter affords ample 
evidence that comfort and even ele- 
gance were by no means rare in the 
New England home. The fanatical 
Puritan, with his hatred of images and 
idolatrous pictures of carving, gained 
fuller control and simplified household 
furnishings in later years. 

As Esther Singleton says: "New 
England was not settled exclusively 



by Nonconformists and schismatics. 
Roger Conan't was a good type of the 
Episcopalian, and Sir Christopher 
Gardiner was as dissolute and turbu- 
lent as the average cavalier was re- 
puted to be by the godly. Men of 
birth and breeding, men accustomed 
to courts and kings' chambers, men of 
means and respectibility, were by no 
means the exception in the various set- 
tlements. Sir Harry Vane was only a 
sojourner in the land ; but the Salton- 
stalls were aristocratic settlers. 
Ladies of title also did not hesitate to 
cross the seas and incur the hardships 
and dangers of a frontier life. Among 

others there was Lady Arabella John- 
son, the daughter of an English earl. 
She, however, died at Salem within a 
month of her arrival, in August, 1630 ; 
and her husband soon followed her. 
Lady Susan Humfrey, sister of the 
Earl of Lincoln, also arrived at Bos- 
ton in 1634. It was not poverty that 
brought them here. Then there was 
Lady Moody, a cousin of Sir H. Vane, 
who came to Salem in 1639. Unfor- 
tunately, she seriously differed with 
the local authorities on the subject of 
baptism and found it convenient to 
proceed further before very long. In 
1634 she went to Gravesend (L. L), 

Now owned by Thomas S. Grant, Enfield, Connecticut— It was made before 
the Revolution and was of dark cherry ornamented with the sun flower— 
This was the prevailing style in the middle of the eighteenth century 




Then known as the corner or round-about chair with 
a semi-circular back consisting of top rail supported 
by three turned columns and ornamentally pierced 
panels— Many of these chairs had square seats with 
movable stuffed cushions — Sample above now owned 
by Mr. Walter Hosmer, Wethersfield, Connecticut 

and died there in 1659. Isaac 
Allerton successfully steered his 
political craft through the 
shoals and breakers of the cor- 
rupt Stuart court ; and Brewster 
had been with Secretary Davi- 
son before he fell into disgrace 
with the Virgin Queen. Men 
of position, wealth and learning 
came to New England in con- 
siderable numbers." 

In 1638 Winthrop notes in 
his diary: "Many ships arrived 
this year, with people of good 
quality and estate, notwithstand- 
ing the Council's order that 
none such should come without 
the King's order." Among 
those who intended to come, 
history mentions Oliver Crom- 
ff well himself. If he had not 
been prevented, Charles I might 
not have lost his head." 

I have merely outlined from 
authorities the homes of our 
forefathers, intending to give 
only a general idea, but for those 
who may wish to continue this 
most entertaining subject the 
following bibliography is given. 

"The Furniture of Our Forefathers," by 
Esther Singleton (1901) ; "Furniture of 
The Olden Time," by Francis C. Morse 
(1902) ; "The Colonial Furniture of New 
England," by I. W. Lyon; "Ancient Furni- 
ture," by Shaw; "Universal System of 
Household Furniture," by Ince and May- 
hew; "Homes of Our Forefathers," by 
Wright; "Histoire due Mobilier," by Al- 
bert Jacquemart ; "Le Journal de Menui- 
serie" (begun 1863) ; "Le Meuble" (2 
vols.), by Albert de Champeaux ; "Diction- 
naire de l'Ameublement et de la Decora- 
tion" (4 vols.), by Henry Harvard; 'Illus- 
trated History of Furniture," by F. Litch- 
field; "Dictionnaire des Arts Decoratifs," 
by Rouaix; "Glossaire Archeologique du 
Moyen Age et de la Renaissance" (unfin- 
ished), by Victor Gay; The second volume 
of "Dictionnaire Raisonnee du Mobilier 

Francais," by Viollet-le-Duc ; "Recueil de F 
Exposition Retrospective de Lyon (1877), 
by J. B. Giraud; "Historische Ausstellung 
Kunstgewerblicher Ergengniesse zuFrank- 
furt-am-Main" (1875) J "Documents class- 
es de T Art dans les Pays-Bas du Ze au 
XVIIIe Siecle," by J. J. van Ysendyck; 
"La Collection Spitzer" (vol. ii.) ; "An- 
cient and Modern Furniture and Wood- 
work in the South Kensington Museum," 
by J. H. Pollen; "Carved Oak in Wood- 
work and Furniture," by W. B. Sanders; 
"Les Meubles du Mobilier Nationale," by 
Williamson; "Deutscher Zimmer der Ren- 
aissance," by Hirth; "Le Garde Meuble," 
by Pfnor; "Gentlemen's Cabinet-makers' 
Director," and other works by T. Chip- 
pendale; "Cabinet-maker and Upholster- 
er's Drawing-book," by T. H. Sheraton. 





Greatest of all Spirits, Lo! 

See me come, transforming Snow! 

Where I wave my icy hand 

Earth and sky in palsy stand: 

Hills and rocks and fields grow dead, 

Earth bows low her whitened head. 

Lesser Spirits of the Deep 

Own me Lord, Benumbing Sleep. 


See me kiss this raging Main, 
All her waters woo again. 
Fogs or clouds or mists or dews, 
Come whichever way ye choose. 
Come, oh, Winds ! and sit ye by, 
Kiss her breath and sip it dry. 
Softly now, love-singing Sea, 
Is thy soul transformed in me. 


I will whistle, I will blow. 
Look ye! Watch this Boaster, Snow. 
Ha! What makes thee quiver, tremble? 
All thy fleeing hosts assemble? 
Why do now thy scattered ranks 
Closely pack in serried banks? 
Ne'er thou knowest nor can spy 
Subtle Spirit such as I. 


Turn, Oh Night! thy shadows turn. 
Ah! I thirst, I pant, I burn; 
Hide me from this awful One, 
Mighty, all-consuming Sun. 
As from Ramah, comes my cry, 
Where my children faint and die ; 
Withered is my yearning breast, 
Turn, Oh Night! I long for rest. 


Is it thus thy fancies run ! 
Ho! I'll kiss thee, I the Sun. 
Long I've loved thy haughty face, 
Wondrous is thy frosted grace. 
Now I kiss thee, What, ye run! 
Is it thus one mocks the Sun? 
Hast thou power to defy 
Master Spirit, such as I ? 


Peace, I hear thee, I the Rain, 
Hush, I'll kiss thy face amain. 
Where my kindly tears I sow 
Fields of dainty flow'rets grow. 
See! I'm weaving on thy brow 
Green and golden garlands now: 
List thy brooklets singing free! 
Sweet, I'll loose myself in thee. 


Once again I feel my power, 
Sun and Wind gone is thine hour. 
See, how I exultant ride 
O'er the Earth my conq'ring tide! 
Wind and Sun, I own the Deep, 
Helpless o'er my breast ye sweep. 
Haughty Spirits I defy, 
Greatest of ye all am I. 


See me ride the tear-swept sky, 
Daintiest of Spirits I ; 
Love-child of the Sun and Rain. 
Pledge of peace and hope again 
Seven shall our Spirits be. 
Seven-tinted virgins we. 
Sisters of the rougish Wind, 
Sweetest we of spirit kind. 





GENERAL Lafayette placed 
great reliance in the sound 
judgment of Governor 
Trumbull of Connecticut, and to- 
gether they did much to assist Wash- 
ington in carrying out the measures 

An incident in connection with Laf- 
ayette, and Benedict Arnold is per- 
haps of sufficient interest to be re- 
lated. Washington and Lafayette, 
returning from Hartford where they 
had been in consultation, took the 
road for Fishkill, intending to visit 
West Point. On their way towards 
the headquarters of General Arnold, 
on the east side of the river, Wash- 
ington diverted in looking over some 
fortifications, and Lafayette, being 
disposed to press forward, was joking- 
ly taunted by Washington on his anx- 
iety to breakfast with Mrs. Arnold, 
who was a very charming woman. 
It was at this breakfast, with Lafay- 
ette seated at the table, that Arnold 
received the letter announcing the 
capture of Andre and his own immi- 
nent peril. With singular self-com- 
mand, Arnold concealed his emotions 
and left the room, leaving word for 

General Washington that urgent bus- 
iness had called him suddenly to West 
Point. Arnold's treason, however, 
was not discovered until two days 

In the campaign in Virginia, by a 
singular coincidence, Lafayette was 
brought into . immediate conflict with 
the British officer before whom his 
father had fallen twenty-three years 

The siege of Yorktown soon fol- 
lowed, and in this closing and deci- 
sive scene of America's Revolution 
Lafayette acted a most prominent 
and conspicuous part. Although 
opposed by superior numbers and by 
one of the ablest and most experi- 
enced generals in the British service, 
he suceeded in out-manouvering 
them, partly driving and partly lur- 
ing them into a corner where they 
were compelled at length to lay down 
their arms. 

His career of glory in America 
was now in a measure finished. His 
services, his fortune, and his influ- 
ence, direct and indirect, had won 
the gratitude and love of America. 
Swords were turned into plowshares, 



the voice of rejoicing and thanksgiv- 
ing went up from every dwelling in 
the land, and Lafayette was accorded 
the satisfaction of occupying the 
highest position in the hearts of the 
American people next to the immor- 
tal Washington. 

Returning to Paris, his talents, his 
energies and his influence were de- 
voted to advancing the interests of 
the United States, and procuring 
commercial treaties which would put 
this country on as favorable a foot- 
ing as possible with other nations. 
Through his influence the ports of 
Marseilles, Bayonne, L'Orient and 
Dunkirk were thrown open to ex- 
ports of merchandise from the 
United States, which, with the ex- 
ception of tobacco, were admitted 
free of duty. 

Having arrranged matters of this 
character as favorably as possible, he 
was impressed with a strong desire 
to once more meet his comrades of 
the Continental Army, and, urged by 
Washington and other friends, upon 
a cordial invitation being extended 
to him and Madame Lafayette, he 
visited America. He proceeded to 
Washington, and it is recorded that 
he embraced his beloved General. 
For twelve days they devoted them- 
selves to each other. 

The circumstances and conditions 
of the meeting of these two men 
upon this occasion were remarkable. 
One a venerable patriarch, father of 
his country, laden with the honors 
of a grateful people and the homage 
of the world ; the other a youth in the 
prime of life and the morning of his 
manhood, like a son by the side of his 

father. Each had assisted in achiev- 
ing the fortune and fame of the oth- 
er. Their work accomplished, their 
triumph achieved, each was emphati- 
cally the man of the age. 

Lafayette was everywhere wel- 
comed by the people as the hero who 
had fought their battles. Accom- 
panied by Washington, he traversed 
the scenes of the recent war, and 
visited the Continental Congress 
then in session at Trenton, where he 
received the most distinguished 
marks of attention, and an honorable 
and complimentary welcome from 
the president. In reply his last sen- 
tence was as follows: 

"May this immense Temple of 
Freedom ever stand as a lesson to 
oppressors, an example to the op- 
pressed, and a sanctuary of the 
rights of mankind ; and may these 
happy United States attain that com- 
plete splendor and prosperity which 
will illustrate the blessings of their 

He left New York on Christmas 
Day, 1784. One of the last inci- 
dents of his presence here was the 
interest which he took in a young 
man who had recently started a news- 
paper known as the Volunteer Jour- 
nal, loaning him $400 for the enter- 
prise, which was the foundation of 
a fortune for Matthew Care\ 

Again in France, he became ex- 
ceedingly popular with the common 
people, and much respected by the 
royalty in consequence of his great 
influence, his ability and his fairness. 
Personally, Louis XVI and Marie 
Antoinette could not endorse and 
were not in sympathy witli his demo- 



cratic sentiments and opinions, yet 
his influence over the masses of the 
people made him a valuable ally for 
them, and they realized, in the threat- 
ening aspect of the French horizon 
at that time, that Lafayette would 
be useful, as he was in reality neces- 
sary to them. He was therefore 
made Commander of the National 
Guard, which position he filled with 
distinguished ability and diplomacy. 
He was also a member of the French 
Court, where he always advocated 
the cause of the people, the reduction 
of taxes, and the radical reforms 
that seemed imperative in conse- 
quence of the extravagances and 
follies of the reign of the Louis. 

The Declaration of Independence, 
framed, was hung upon his wall, and 
a corresponding space on the oppo- 
site side left vacant, as he expressed 
it, for the ''Declaration of Rights for 
France." For eight years that space 
remained unoccupied. 

The spirit of freedom was abroad. 
A new order of things was demand- 
ed. The French Revolution, which 
ended with the rise of Napoleon, was 
born and in its infancy. Lafayette, al- 
though in sympathy with reform and 
exceedingly popular with the people, 
was nevertheless loyal to his King, 
and held the nation in a balance for 
a long time before actual hostilities 

The Bastile was demolished, and 
the formidable key was sent to his 
friend Washington, and to-day may 
be seen at Mt. Vernon. 

Twice he saved the life of the King 
and Queen. Proposal was made that 
the King should be deposed and La- 

fayette appointed Regent; but he 
would not listen. "If the King re- 
jects the Constitution," he said, "I 
will oppose him ; but if he accepts it, 
I will defend him." In this he 
never faltered, although his popular- 
ity far exceeded that of any other 
man, and after the French fashion, 
the huzzas and the enthusiasm were 
always for Lafayette. "Lafayette 
forever! Vive le Lafayette!" With 
great diplomacy he quieted the mob 
at Versailles in the famous riot, 
standing on the balcony beside the 
King. Sincere in his professions of 
Republicanism, he relinquished his 
rights of nobility and dropped the 
title of Marquis. 

During the exciting scenes accom- 
panying the Reign of Terror, Lafay- 
ette, by his magnificent frame and 
physique, by his own personal efforts 
and his strong arm and muscle, fre- 
quently rescued some poor fellow 
whom the mob was inclined to hang- 
to a lamp-post or pierce with the 

The year 1797 found Napoleon 
General-in-Chief of the Army of 
Italy, and Lafayette a prisoner in 
Austria, where he remained for sev- 
eral years. 

In November, 1799, a little more 
than a hundred years ago, the Direc- 
torate gave way to 'the Consulate, 
with Napoleon at its head, and the 
banished and proscribed of all Eu- 
rope were ordered to return to the 
homes of their youth. The password 
of the day was "Liberty, Paris and 
Lafayette." His return was some- 
what of a surprise to Napoleon, as 
Lafayette was a formidable rival in 



the affections of the French people. 

Upon the fall of Napoleon and the 
establishment of a Provincial Gov- 
ernment, Lafayette was placed at the 
head of a commission to treat with 
the allied powers, which position he 
filled, in spite of his advanced age, 
with the same honor and fearless in- 
tegrity that had characterized his en- 
tire life. 

He had almost reached his three- 
score years and ten. He longed to 
visit once more the country to which 
he was so much attached, and view 
the evidences of her growing wealth 
and power. Accompanied by his 
son, George Washington Lafayette, 
he arrived in the harbor of New 
York on the 15th of August, 1824. 
To describe the brilliant parades, the 
triumphal processions, the costly 
fetes, the balls, the parties which 
followed him upon his journeys as 
be visited the various scenes of his 
early campaigns ; to recite the fine 
speeches and describe the great en- 
thusiasm of his triumphal tour, 
would be impossible. He visited 
the tomb of Washington and was re- 
ceived by Congress in a speech by 
Henry Clay. 

He went to Charleston, Augusta, 
Nashville, Buffalo, New York, Bos- 
ton, stopping at New Haven in the 
month of August. The Second 
Company of Governor's Foot Guards, 
through whose courtesy, the Sons of 
the American Revolution, are per- 
mitted to hold our gatherings, in 
this hall, acted as escort upon his 
arrival in this city, where he was 
most cordially received, and during 
his stay he visited the house (still 
standing) of the late Miss Foster, 

on Elm Street, next to Ex-Gov. In- 

He was present on the 17th of 
June, at the laying of the corner- 
stone of Bunker Hill Monument, 
fifty years after the first battle of the 
Revolution. Some of the old sol- 
diers and officers were present and 
participated in the celebration of the 
day, some scarred and wounded and 
bent with years, leaning on their 
staves, and with their children and 
grandchildren and hundreds of 
thousands of loyal Americans as- 
sisted in laying the foundation of 
that monument on the historic spot 
where Warren fell. 

Can we do better than leave him 
here standing on this sacred spot, 
tall, well proportioned and strongly 
built, with ample forehead and regu- 
lar features, eyes of grayish blue, 
prominent, expressive, and full of 
kindness ; in deportment, noble and 
dignified ; with manners easy, grace- 
ful and winning; voice agreeable 
and of great capacity ; habits simple 
and regular ; diet abstemious and 
temperate, benevolence unbounded, 
ability demonstrated. In the words 
of John Quincy Adams in his elo- 
quent eulogy : 

"Pronounce him one of the first 
men of the age, and you have not yet 
done him justice. Turn back your 
eyes upon the records of all time, ex- 
amine from the creation oi the world 
to this day the mighty dead oi every 
age and clime, and where among the 
race of mortal man shall one be 
found who, as a benefactor of his 
kind, shall claim to take precedence 
of Lafayette." 




"Hain't got heart to say good-bye" old And yet its dear to me, I don't know why, 

Higgins said, Somehow can't git heart to say good-bye/' 
And stood there, at the gate, with drooping 

h ea( * : " 'Twas here these hands got calloused and 

With now and then a tear, — and now a sigh, so rough 

"Somehow can't git heart to say good-bye." And yet, it seemed they couldn't toil 

enough ! 

"I've strived and labored here through rain These fields, that brook, the birds, the 

and shine; summer sky,— 

I've learned to love it all and call it mine ; Somehow can't git heart to say good-bye." 
I've lived here all my life or purty nigh, — 

Somehow can't git heart to say good-bye.' Re ^ a Hngering gIance around the p i ac<!) 

"My old feet wore that path there to the And Iove Ht U P the old man ' s kindly face ' 

we ll He turned away and this, his parting sigh, 

But that was long ago: — yes, quite a spell; "Somehow can't git heart to say good-bye." 


A sailor's son, in my far — inland home, The dusk crew chant, the tide is at the 

I held a murmuring shell against my ear; flood. 

Strangely familiar, ocean's furore I hear j ^ tQ thfi she ll_ M y father's blood, 

And on my cheek I feel the flying foam. , . . «, « * • 

Leaps in my veins to alien wave and sails ! 

The tightening cordage sings to freshen- 
ing gales, Lulu Whedon Mitchell 





Author of "Pocket Island," "Uncle Terry" and " Rockhaven' 

INTO every boy's life, there is 
apt to creep some ghost story, 
some uncanny legend or grue- 
some tale of bygone happening more 
or less imaginary, but to him, real 
enough. It may have been told to 
amuse him, — just possible some of it 
was true; but fanciful or otherwise, 
to him and in his youthful imagina- 
tion, it was all real enough, and even 
worse than told. 

In my case this usual episode cen- 
tered about an old deserted ruin of 
a house that once stood in the south- 
west part of Southington, out of 
sight of the highway and at the end 
of a bush-choked lane a mile from 
my home, and known as the Tim 
Buck Place. 

Here, many years before I was 
born, there had lived an ill-tempered 
and (according to the legend) 
drunken and quarrelsome old farmer 
by the name of Buck. His only fam- 
ily was a patient and long-suffering 
wife who bore his abuse because 
forced to do so by law and poverty, 
and who, leaving him one day to visit 
the village and exchange eggs for 
groceries, returned just at dusk to 

find her liege lord dangling lifeless 
from a rafter in the attic. 

How she had fainted at sight of 
the horrible discovery, and gaining 
her senses had run, screaming with 
fright, to the nearest neighbors, a 
mile away; how the suicide looked, 
with tongue protruding and eyes 
glassy, as the astonished neighbors 
reached him with lanterns, were but 
the ornamental parts of a tale told 
and re-told countless times. 

As might be expected, the now re- 
lieved woman, deserted her unhappy 
home, carrying away all of value, 
and went to live with distant rela- 
tives ; and also, as might be certain, 
no one could be found who cared 
either to buy the stony farm, or even 
live there to work the land for noth- 
ing. In due time it reverted to the 
town for taxes, and worse than that. 
the house soon achieved a reputation 
of being haunted. A party of coon 
hunters taking refuge in it from a 
sudden shower, left in a hurry upon 
hearing footsteps upon the floor 
above. Some one else asserted that 
he, in passing by during a night 
storm, had seen by a flash of light- 


ning a ghastly form standing upon 
the ridge pole. Uncanny and un- 
earthly sounds had been heard to is- 
sue from it by others, until so many 
and so gruesome were the stories 
told, no one would venture near it 
after dark. 

All these legends reached my 
youthful ears, and of course, were 
fully believed. And also, like all 
boys, as I grew up, the spot held for 
me a most fascinating interest, and 
though I did not dare at first to ven- 
ture close, I would often walk around 
it, each time a little nearer, and each 
'time asserting to myself that when I 
grew big and strong, I would go 
there some day and, braving the 
ghost, enter the ruin and learn if 
there really was a spook to be seen, 
— not alone, of course, but with one 
or more other boys, to give me cour- 
age. But my mates were as timid 
as I, and though together we threat- 
ened to do brave things and often 
crept near to the uncanny ruin (our 
hearts beating a tattoo meanwhile), 
at the least sound of a loose board 
creaking in the wind, or aught else, 
we took to our heels. 

By this time the house had nearly 
collapsed — at least the roof had rot- 
ted and fallen inward, the door and 
every pane of glass were missing, 
weeds and bushes doing their best to 
hide it; and the tall well-sweep in 
front, pointing like a warning finger 
to the gaunt rafters that, like the 
bleaching ribs of a skeleton, still held 
in place. 

An old deserted house, especially 
on a byroad, has a certain uncanny 
interest, or at least pathetic, and we 

approach it with a sense of awe. It 
was once a human temple where peo- 
ple like ourselves lived, loved and 
maybe died. Children were born 
there ; it was home to them ; and how 
many hours of joy, how many pangs 
of sorrow, how many night hours of 
vigil when hope had fought against 
the Grim Spectre, and human hearts 
knew the best and worst of life, had 
these now tenantless rooms known ! 
In the dooryard, perchance, stands 
an old, gnarled apple tree and be- 
neath it what was once a child's 
playhouse. Here the few toys that 
gave those children joy, still remain. 
A rag doll, mayhap its dress mil- 
dewed and rotten, bits of broken 
china, an empty can that served as a 
drum, a broken rattle, and all the 
flotsam and worthless trinkets a child 
will gather. Once those mouldy 
playthings gave delight — now where, 
and what has become of the little 
hands and feet, and curly heads that 
made this aged tree their Mecca? 
We pause and wonder, then ap- 
proach the house with awe and peep 
in at an open window cautiously, as 
though peering into a tomb. The 
floor is covered with fallen plaster, 
strips of paper half detached from 
the wall, swing idly in the breeze. 
On one side a floor board is missing, 
and a musty, mouldy smell exudes 
from the dark cellar. We go around 
to the other side and again peer cur- 
iously in. This room is darker, and 
a bat, scared at our approach, flies 
from side to side, to alight in hiding. 
A loose board creaks in the wind — 
maybe it's a ghost down in the dark 
and mouldy cellar! We step back, 



glad of the sun still shining and the 
breeze still rustling in the nearby 
trees. These at least shelter neither 
bat nor ghost. Then as we approach 
and peer in once more, impelled by a 
curiosity we cannot resist, those 
empty rooms seem filled with whis- 
pers. Up-stairs, in half open closets, 
behind doors, in the gruesome cellar 
— all about we hear them, — now 
faint like a baby's cry beneath the 
bed clothes, now loud, as if warning 
us away. It is a strange mood that 
old and empty house has wrought, 
and as we peer and peep and listen 
long, just a little louder do we feel 
our hearts beating. 

At last we turn and walk away to 
look backward again at that uncanny 
ruin whose open windows seem like 
monster eyes watching us out of 
sight. Were some pallid face to 
suddenly appear at one of them, or a 
maniac's shriek issue forth, it would 
not seem strange, and it is only when 
that grinning mockery of what was 
once a home is lost to view, that one 
breathes naturally again. 

As all empty and long deserted 
houses seem to most, so did the Tim 
Buck place seem to us boys whenever 
resistless curiosity drew us near. 
And yet ten times more so, for in 
our minds, a certain and sure ghost 
was there, by day or night. It tinged 
our dreams, it spoiled our pleasures 
when some trout brook lured us down 
dark and shadowy gorges ; it pur- 
sued us along swamp-bordered roads 
and kept us out of deep and silent 
forests. When night storms came 
and lightning flashed, we in thought 
saw the rib-like rafters of that haun- 

ted house and perched upon them 
that spectral form. 

At last, after years of this haunting 
fear, we grew bolder and determined 
to put that weird spectre to the touch, 
to meet it face to face in its lair, or 
learn that no such spook existed. It 
was an autumn day when this crisis 
in our lives was reached, and as we 
bravely entered the bush-choked lane 
and followed it until the old ruin 
came in sight, it was curious how our 
courage ebbed as we drew near. But 
to do and dare we had determine* 1. 
and holding hands to brace our wills, 
and step by step, each one a little 
shorter, and halting often to listen, 
we slowly approached the uncannv 

The day was still; not a breath of 
wind stirred a solitary leaf on the 
trees that grew close by it ; and yet 
as we paused — nearer to it than ever 
before, it seemed the same haunted 
ruin. The rafter-ribs, now bleached 
a brownish-white by sun and storm, 
were still in place, and the well-sweep 
still pointed its warning finger to- 
ward them. To go a little nearer 
seemed awful ; to return we would 
not, and so 'twixt fear and a slowly 
growing anger at ourselves, or the 
ghost that had tortured us so long, 
we finally crept up and peeped in at 
a window. Had a board creaked at 
this moment, or the slightest sound 
came from within, we should have 
fled like scared deer. But a silence 
that seemed to creep out of the win 
dows and around the walls, brooded 
over it, and we held our ground. 
Once we had conquered and peeixnl 
into one window, the next was easy, 



and a little bolder now, we peered 
into the next one. It looked into a 
back room the floor of which had 
fallen downward and sloped into the 
cellar, letting the light in. Down 
there we saw something white — 
bones, maybe! and we stepped back. 
For a moment we looked at one an- 
other in grim silence, then forward, 
to peer in again. Surely they were 
bones. 1 — and once more our courage 
began to ebb and we edged away to 
try another window. This opened 
into still another room, and entering 
it was a stairway that led aloft. We 
wondered if it was down them they 
carried the dead man so long ago. 
In one corner, and just beyond these 
stairs, a door half opened into an 
inner room that was dark. That 
seemed more ghostly than all the rest. 
What might it not contain ! And sup- 
pose some one were in there! Once 
more our courage began to go, but 
still we looked. Then slowly — very 
slowly, as our hearts throbbed, that 

door began to close. Inch by inch it 
moved, until at last it closed entirely. 
Then, as the awful realization that 
some ghostly and invisible hand had 
shut it, we turned, chilled by a 
deathly fear, and never ceased run- 
ning until a mile away. 

We had met the ghost of old Tim 
Buck, and fled before it! 

It was long years after, and when 
I had almost reached manhood, be- 
fore I again sought that old ruin. 
But in that time I was slowly out- 
growing the ghost taint that had 
crept into my imagination. It did 
not die easy, and many times I lived 
over that awful moment and "saw 
things" in dark and uncanny places. 

But I escaped them at last, and one 
day, quite in anger at all I had suf- 
fered, I boldly walked up the bush 
grown lane and when the ruin was 
reached, set it on fire and exultingly 
watched it burn. 

And so the ghost of old Tim Buck 
went up in smoke. 





Regular Correspondent of the National Museum at Washington, D. C. 

ANOTHER form of lamp much 
in use among the first set- 
tlers of New England, par- 
ticularly those from the north of 
England, Ireland and Scotland, was 
a clay vessel known as a "Cruisie." 
This was simply a shallow, saucer- 
shaped dish, with the outer, upper 
edge slightly prolonged, or depressed, 
to support the rag wick. We are 
told that in some of the more remote 
parts of Ireland and Scotland it is 
still in use, an ordinary crockery 
saucer being used. 

As the Pilgrims found the Indians 
using the pine torch, they availed 
themselves of this convenient 
mode of producing a light. As 
the virgin forests furnished abun- 
dant material, the prudent settlers 
supplied themselves with what 
proved to be a very good substitute 
for the domestic lamp. This torch 
was simply a portion of a dry limb of 
the pitch pine cut into convenient 
lengths, and was usually selected so 
that the terminal point would expose 
a knot, as this was more abundantly 
supplied with the pitch, and the hard 
knotty fibre burned away more 

slowly than the softer portions of 
the wood. What is more properly 
known as "candle-wood" was sec- 
tions of an old, dry pitch pine log cut 
into lengths of about eight inches, 
then these were split into thin slices, 
the portion about the heart of the 
wood furnishing a better material 
for burning. These were burned 
several at a time where much light 
was required, or singly for carrying 
about the room. Much of the Bible 
reading at night by the pious colon- 
ists was done by the flickering, 
smoky light of these primitive illu- 
minators. Although the smoke of 
the pine torch was at first somewhat 
offensive, and the pitchy drippings 
from the burning wood a source of 
no little annoyance to the tidy house- 
wife, still, the easily obtained "can- 
dle-wood" was religiously regarded 
as a special gift of Divine Provi- 
dence. The historian Wood, who 
wrote in 1642 in his "New England 
Prospects," made this observation : 
"Out of these Pines is gotten the 
candle-wood that is so much spoken 
of which may serve as a shift anion? 
the poore folks, but I cannot com- 


mend it for singular good, because it 
droppeth a pitchy kind of substance 
where it stands." 

For a light to be carried out of 
doors, the pine torch was em- 
ployed. These torches were also 
used in the houses, and it is with 
pride that the Rev. Mr. Higginson 
referred to their use in the homes of 
many of the earlier settlers, and 
makes the statement that not a little 
of the early literature was written by 
the smoky flame of these primitive 
lights. It is said that Elliot made 
the whole of his translation of the 
Bible into the Indian tongue by the 
light of the pine torch. As late as 
1820, we have been told, the pine 
torch was in use in some of the 
northern settlements of New Eng- 
land. It is not uncommon to see the 
negroes in some of the Southern 
States still using the pine torch, not 
only as an illuminator of the rude 
cabins, but for out of door work at 
night. The writer saw in 1900 in 
the southern portion of Alabama, an 
old colored man driving cattle 
through the piney woods at night by 
the flickering flame of a huge pine 
torch, while in the distance the pow- 
erful glow from the search light of 
an ocean steamer cast its penetrating 
rays along the shore. The thought 
came to us then, how closely the new 
impinges on the old. 

A form of so-called torch that may 
be regarded as a progenitor of our 
present street light was early used 
in the streets of some of the provin- 
cial towns, and was known as the 
basket torch. This was a rudely 
shaped iron basket about the size of 

an ordinary peach basket, and when 
suspended from the corner of the 
street, or over a doorway, as was 
quite common in early colonial days, 
and filled with pitchy pine knots 
which when ignited afforded a ver;/ 
satisfactory street light. It was a 
part of the watchman's duty to sup- 
ply the pine knots for these lights 
during the early hours of the long 
winter evenings. A torch, not un- 
like this in shape and form, secured 
to a long iron upright was used on 
the Mississippi and other southern 
rivers as a head light on the river 
steamers as late as i860. One of 
these is shown in Plate IV. The river 
men called this a "Jack Light/' 

At first there were no cattle in the 
Plymouth colony. About 1630 three 
cows were brought from England. 
There is no authentic record of other 
importations of domestic cattle until 
1652. By 1660 candle making had 
become quite a common occupation 
for the hosuewives of the colony. 
Tallow was still far from plenty, and 
in order to piece out this deficiency, 
deer and bear suet were mixed with 
the beef tallow and used for candle 
making. Rush lights were simply 
the pith of the common rush dipped 
in melted tallow the same as candles. 
By 1680 tallow candles had become 
more commmon, but must still have 
been regarded as somewhat of a lux- 
ury, for we are told that they sold for 
four pence apiece. Large quantities 
of English-made candles were im- 
ported, as was also cotton and 
flax for the wick. Among the first 
letters that Governor Winthrop 
wrote home to his wife upon his ar- 


( )7 

Plate XIII 

Graced the dining table when Washington and Lafayette were the gnesti 
—Imported from France 1768 

rival in Boston was one in which he 
directed her to bring a supply of can- 
dles and wicking with her when she 
sailed for New England. 

Wax for candles was supplied by 
the wild bees which roamed the great 
forests and the vast meadows. An 

excellent substitute for tallow was 
found in the fragrant wax refined 
from the Bayberry, the fruit of a 
hush growing abundantly all along 
the New England coast. An excel- 
lent variety o\ candles was made from 
the fatty substance taken from the 


Plate XIV 



Brass candlestick of Russia antique design — 
Brought to this country from town near Tula, 


Marine candlestick which was part of furnish- 
ings of captain's cabin — On base is stamped " U. 
S. S. Constitution" 

head of the sperm whale, and was 
called "Spermaciti." One of these 
candles afforded more light than 
three tallow candies. They were, 
however, regarded as costly in com- 
parison with the "tallar dip," and 
were at first only used by the more 
wealthy. The streets of Boston in 
1730 were lighted by spermaciti can- 
dles enclosed in little square lanterns. 
One of these with a wood frame is 
shown in the chapter on Lanterns. 
Over the front doors, and in the 
front "entries" of the larger and 
more elegant residences were fre- 
quently suspended more costly lan- 

terns in which were burned sperma- 
citi candles. One of these lanterns 
which formerly illuminated the front 
"entry" of the Hancock mansion on 
Beacon Hill, Boston, Mass., is shown 
in the chapter on Historic Lanterns. 
The manufacture of candles early 
became an important industry in 
New England, and the wealth ac- 
cumulated by some of the thrifty 
tallow chandlers became the founda- 
tions upon which were built the so- 
cial distinction of not a few of Bos- 
ton's most aristocratic families. 
Josiah Franklin, father of the im- 
mortal Benjamin, was a tallow 


chandler, and in his father's shop 
the future philosopher, began his 
life of labor at the age of ten years, 
cutting wicks. 

The making of candles, while a 
simple operation, involved much care 
and labor. The earliest method was 
by the process known as "Dipping." 
The twisted or braided cotton or flax 
wicks were suspended from a stick 
called a candle rod, the number on 
the rod being determined by the size 
of the pot or kettle. When care- 
fully straightened the wicks were 
dipped into the melted tallow, receiv- 
ing a coating of the hot fat. When 
cool, the operation was repeated un- 
til the candle had grown to the de- 
sired size. Some housewives first 
immersed the wick in a solution of 
saltpetre. This was said to make 
the wick burn more evenly, and pre- 
vent what was called ''candle rob- 
bers," which were simply the burn- 
ing wicks bending over and coming 
into contact with the body of the can- 
dle, thus melting away what was 
called gutters. Later the candle 
moulds were introduced, Fig. 2, 
Plate V-VI. These were groups of 
tin or pewter cylinders into which the 
melted tallow was poured, the pro- 
duct being a moulded candle, much 
superior to the "dip." Men known 
as "candle-makers" traveled about 
the country with large candle moulds 
holding from thirty-six to fifty can- 
dles. These men could easily make 
in two days a sufficient supply of 
candles to last a large family all win- 
ter. The coming of the candle- 
maker was regarded in many families 
as an event, for usually he was a 

jolly, jovial fellow, full of good 
stories and bringing much cheer 
into the household. All candles, 
after being made, were carefully 
cared for by the prudent housewife. 
They were packed away in boxes 
and stored in cool places, protected 
from the ravages of the rats and 
mice. Those intended for immedi- 
ate use were kept in what was called a 
candle-box, Plate V-VI, Fig. 1. which 
was a round, tin cylinder with a 
hinged lid, which hung horizontally 
from the wall of the living-room. 

Plate w 1 


Light used by the chaplain who accomp 
the great general to the [sland ol St. H< 


The candle-box also protected the 
candles, so that they did not turn 
yellow, which they would do if ex- 
posed to light. 

The candlestick was always an im- 
portant article of house furnishing, 
and was frequently ornamental and 
costly. The most primitive that we 
have seen was a potato or turnip 
candlestick, which was at the best 
but a makeshift, and was not re- 
garded as a part of household fur- 
nishings, although in quite common 
use in poorer households. 

The rude iron and tin candlesticks, 
shown in Plate VII, were in common 
use among the people, and were 
among the first articles of purely do- 
mestic manufacture produced in 
New England. The curved, hook- 
like projection on the upper rim of 

the iron candlestick shown in Fig. i, 
Plate VII, was for the purpose of 
suspending the candlestick from the 
high back of the old "Splint bottom" 
chair, as was done in the case of the 
"Betty" lamp before mentioned. This 
particular form or shape of candle- 
stick early became known as the 
"Hog Scraper," because of its use- 
fulness at hog killing time as a 
scraper, or tool used by the farmers 
to remove the bristles after scalding 
the hog. 

A "Pricket," Fig. 4, Plate VII, 
was a form of candlestick in which, 
instead of a socket to hold the candle, 
a sharp, slender point, or prick, was 
used on which to stick the candle. 
These were made in many shapes. 
The country blacksmith often turned 
out a handy and useful Pricket. 

[to b£ continued ] 

Plate XVII 

Candlestick on the left is from home of Governor Seymour, the first mayor of Hartford— Second 
and third candlesticks were imported by Sir John Wentworth while Governor of New Hampshire 
Province in 1768 





Many of the distinguished men and historical homes mentioned in these last two articles were 
illustrated in Volume IV Number 1 of The Connecticut Magazine in an article by Grace Irene Chaffee 
(1898). At this time illustrations were given of the Gaylord place, the G. Johosaphat Starr home- 
stead, the Alsop Mansion, the Douglas home, the General Mansfield place, the Russell house and the 
portraits of Commodore Thomas McDonough and General K. F. Mansfield with picturesque scenes 
of historic old Middletown. The article in our last issue and here concluded by Miss Jackson makes 
another important addition to the history of Middletown— Editor 

IN my last writing I was telling 
of John Alsop and his cour- 
ageous mother who believed 
that the hardships he would en- 
dure would once and forever 
cure him of his passion for a sea- 
faring life. But he returned 
more than ever enamored of his 
profession, and like a sensible 
woman, Mrs. Alsop determined to 
make the best of it, and rejoiced in 
the rapid promotion of her son. 
Captain Alsop built a house in Wash- 
ington Street, below Main Street, 
which is one of the handsomest Co- 
lonial mansions in the town. Now, 
alas ! It has passed out of the pos- 
session of the family, and been con- 
verted into an apartment house, 
while its once ample garden has been 
cut up into building lots, and two 
modern houses crowd with undue 
familiarity on either side of the time- 
honored dwelling. It is surely a 
great loss to Middletown, that such 

a beautiful place should be blotted 
out, but the mania for using ever" 
inch of available space for building 
lots is fast converting the once bow- 
ery yards and fragrant gardens into 
not always decorative piles oi bricks 
and mortar, or frame houses whose 
fantastic gables and angles and color 
schemes yield little sense (^\ harmony 
or repose. 

Time will not permit us to linger 
on old Main Street, though there 
were many houses of interest on both 
sides, some of which are standing to- 
day. At the extreme end. just when 
three roads met. stood the old Epis 
copal Church, built in 1750. Tlu 
handful of people who lovingly dune 
to the Church oi the mother country 
were not cordially received in this 
Puritan town, and had great diffi 
cultv in securing a lot oi any kind 
whereon to build their first plao 
worship. But finally this lot was -. 
cured at "The meeting of the ways,* 1 



a low and marshy spot, so wretched 
that it was said nothing built on such 
a place could ever grow and flourish, 
and the building, stiff and square in 
the "ugliness of holiness," was erect- 
ed. Inside was a three decked pul- 
pit, which some witty divine called 
"the summit of ecclesiastical promo- 
tion," behind which was painted a 
crimson curtain supported by cher- 

names appear often and prominently 
in its history. The family homestead, 
built in 1746, is on the Meriden 
Turnpike, about half a mile beyond 
the city limits. It stands on a steep 
hill commanding a glorious view of 
hills and river, woods and meadows, 
surrounded by majestic old trees, a 
typical Colonial country home. The 
rooms are large and low, with heavy 


Erected by one of the first families settling in Middletown and stands on the Meriden turnpike 
about half mile beyond present city limits 

ubs. For seventeen years occasional 
services had been held, the first, in 
the Wetmore house on Washington 
Street, long since demolished. The 
Rev. James Wetmore, who had gone 
over to England for ordination, was 
instrumental in founding this parish, 
and the Rev. Ichabod Camp, a native 
of Durham, was the first rector. 

The Wetmores were among the 
earliest settlers of the town, and their 

beams running across the middle of 
the ceiling, a wide hall with a beau- 
tifully carved staircase, broken by a 
broad landing ; the fireplaces very 
large with high narrow mantle 
shelves. Over one of these is a cu- 
rious old painting on a remarkably 
large woden panel, in the Italian 
style of a century or two back. A 
landscape of twisted tree trunks, and 
ruined temples, interspersed with 


' r J.3 


Army officer under Generals Clinton, St. Clair and Wayne — Served 
through Indian War which raged in Ohio — Recruiting officer at Mid- 
dletown in 1791— Personal friend of Lafayette and was his chief escorl 
on his visit in 1824 — Member of the State Legislatures in 1799, 1^06, 
1807, 1808, 1809 

cascades and picturesquely costumed 
peasants — altogether more quaint 
than artistic, but harmonizing well 
with the old time dignity of its sur- 
roundings. A very charming old 
house, charmingly situated — may it 
not share the fate of many of our 
New England homes, but remain for 
generations in the family who have 
always lived beneath its roof. 

The Wetmores were great build- 
ers. Another country home of their 
founding is Walnut Grove, bought a 

hundred years ago by Mr. Khen 
Jackson, and now in the possession 
of his great-grandchildren — a large 

rambling white brick house, shaded 
by noble trees, its lawn and terraced 
garden falling to tiie banks of the 
Arawana stream. Some oi the fire- 
places are decorated in true Colonial 
style, with figures and garlands in 
high relief, and heavy cornices ran 
around the ceilings. 

Many more houses deserve men- 
tion here, but want oi space forbids 




even the enumeration of many of 
them. The Gaylord house on Wash- 
ington Street, below Main, built 
in 1720, is supposed to be the old- 
est now standing in the city. In 
1756 Jehoshaphat Starr bought a 
house also in Washington Street, 
just above Main, and enlarged it so 
generously to suit his growing 
family, that it now easily accommo- 
dates two ordinary households. 
Here for some years lived Mrs. Bal- 
lustier, mother of Mrs. Rudyard 
Kipling, a little further up the street 
stands the Phillips' house, a substan- 
tial yeliow-brick Colonial mansion, 
where lived as Mrs. Phillips' adopted 
daughter, Mrs. Lee, mother-in-law 
of Count Von Waldersee, late com- 
mander-in-chief of the allied forces 
in China. So Middletown touches 
the hem of the garment of world- 
wide celebrities. 

The Henshaw house, now occu- 
pied by Mr. Boardman, looks back 
through two centuries to its begin- 
ning. The quaint old Hinsdale 
house close to the river bank, stands 
in its paved courtyard, under a 
spreading elm, much the same as 

when, years ago, the Belles of Mid- 
dletown lived there, and their ador- 
ers serenaded them, Venetian fash- 
ion, from their boats. 

The struggle for independence 
was felt in Middletown in every 
house and every heart. 

Ten years before the Revolution- 
ary War actually began, Middletown 
was preparing for it. On Novem- 
ber 2d, 1765, a local newspaper says: 
"Yesterday being the day prefixed to 
enslave America by an unrighteous 

and oppressive some of the 

principal gentlemen of this place, to 
show the sense they had of their na- 
tive liberty and freedom, which con- 
cluded with that fatal day, met to- 
gether and agreed that the bell 
should toll all day with the tongue 
muffled ; that minute guns should be 
discharged, and a pennant hoisted 
half-mast high before the Town 
House, which was accordingly 
done." In the evening some effigies 
were displayed of persons in high 
places in the English government, 
and a lantern with the words, "Lib- 
erty Property and no Stamps." 

Three companies marched to the 
front immediately after the news of 
the battle of Lexington reached 
here. One of light horse, was com 
manded by Captain Comfort Sage ; 
one of light infantry under Captain 
Return Jonathan Meigs, and a third 
raised in Chatham (now Portland) 
by Captain Silas Dunham. These 
were later formed into a regiment. 
An officer from Middletown, Gen- 
eral Samuel Holden Parsons, was 
prominent in the formation of the 
scheme for the taking of Ticonde- 


roga. He made a successful attack 
upon the British at Morrisania in 
1 78 1, for which he received the 
thanks of Congress, and was one of 
Andre's judges. Colonel Meigs 

went with Arnold to Quebec, where 
he endured many trials, was impris- 
oned and exchanged. Later he dis- 
tinguished himself at Sag Harbor. 
General Comfort Sage was at Valley 
Forge with Washington, and wrote 
home begging for supplies for the 
suffering troops. When, in 1789, 
the commander-in-chief visited Mid- 
dletown, General Sage was too ill to 
pay his respects to him, and Wash- 
ington, unwilling to leave town with- 
out seeing his faithful follower, went 
to his house, and sat for some time 
at his bedside, in a certain straight 
high-backed chair, which has ever 
since been preserved as an heirloom 
by General Sage's descendants. Af- 
ter Arnold's treason, his two little 
sons were sheltered and concealed 
for a time by Mrs. Comfort Sage, in 
her home in Washington Street, near 
the river bank. One night when the 
streets were full of a wild crowd, 
burning Arnold in effigy, Mrs. Sage 
drew the wooden shutters closely, 
and passed hours of great anxiety, 
fearing that the children might dis- 
cover the cause of the uproar, or 
that their identity might be betrayed 
to the excited mob. 

Another prominent Middle'town 
man at this period was Mr. Nehe- 
miah Hubbard, who in May, 1776, 
was appointed paymaster in a regi- 
ment serving near Lake Champlain. 
"Major General Greene made him 
his deputy for the State of Connec- 
ticut in 1777. and he held this office 

till he went with the French Colony 
to Yorktown, and was present at the 
surrender of Cornwallis." 

"As a provider of public supplier 
all his movements were marked by 
decisive promptness and punctuality. 
The resources of Connecticut were 
brought forward at the most critical 
juncture and while the army was en- 
during the greatest privations, it was 
frequently relieved by this State, 
through his energy and extraordin- 
ary exertions, and it is said that 
Washington, Greene, Trumbull and 
Hamilton reposed the utmost confi- 
dence in him." 

Between the Durham and Middle - 
field Turnpikes, a mile or so south 
of. the Town, stands the Steuben 
farm, originally a Crowell home- 
stead. When Baron Steuben was 
stationed near New London he no- 
ticed one day at roll call, the name 
of Arnold, and requested the man 
bearing it to step out of the ranks. 
He did so, and saluted. The Baron, 
looking him over carefully, said : 

"You are too good looking a sol- 
dier to bear the name of a traitor." 

''What name shall I take then?" 
demanded the soldier. 

"Mine," replied the baron, and 




from that day he and his descend- 
ants have been known by that name. 
There is also a tradition that Wash- 
ington and Lafayette on their way 
to Middletown, stopped to rest under 
the beautiful chestnut tree which still 
stands near the house, and an old 
lady was proud of relating how she 
as a very small girl, saw Washing- 
ton in his grand coach with four 
grey horses, and "a little negro boy 
sitting up behind." That was a 
great day for Middletown, when our 
best and greatest countryman vis- 
ited us. Loving memories of his 
passing cling to certain old trees and 
houses, and the narratives of some 
persons, lately gathered to their rest, 
whose young eyes beheld him, will 
long be handed down through future 

In the three wars which followed 
the Revolution, Middletown com- 
memorates heroic sons. Commo- 
dore McDonough, the hero of Lake 
Champlain, General Mansfield, who 
won his spurs in Mexico and laid 
down his life at Antietam, are among 
the most prominent. Eight days af- 
ter the first gun was fired at Sump- 
ter, a full company of volunteers was 
ready to go to the front. In i860 
there were 958 men from this city in 
the army. Throughout the war the 
patriotism of the citizens was in- 
tense, and many were the sacrifices 
made to send money and provisions 
to the soldiers in camp and hospital. 
As each Memorial Day recurs the 
little flags on many a grave record 
with silent eloquence how many of 
Middletown's sons fought for their 
country in her hour of need. 

So much for the past. How has 
the Middletown of to-day fulfilled the 
promise of her youth? She surely 
is not unworthy of those who in faith 
and hope laid her foundations in the 
wilderness. Her broad streets so 
thickly shaded that she is well named 
"The Forest City," present in every 
direction beautiful vistas of bowery 
branches, sunny gardens and velvet 
lawns. "The hills stand around" 
her fold on fold to the distant hori- 
zon and the broad blue river and its 
tributary streams wind in and out 
among them forming a series of pic- 
tures endless in variety. 

In 1 77 1 President Adams drove 
for many miles down the shores of 
the Connecticut, and was so filled 
with admiration of its beauty that he 
said: "This is the finest river in 
America, I belie ve," but when he 
stood on Prospect Hill three miles 
above our town, and looked down the 
valley, he exclaimed, "Middletown, 
I think, is the most beautiful of all !" 

The Weslyan University with its 
numerous and increasing buildings, 
and beautiful campus, the Berkeley 
Divinity School whose quadrangle, 
chapel and dormitories, form with 
the massive pile of the Episcopal 
Church, a block of quiet ecclesiasti- 
cal dignity, and the handsome new 
Pligh School on Court Street, give 
a literary atmosphere to the place 
which has helped to preserve the 
spirit of conservatism which has al- 
ways characterized it. 

Some of its very progressive citi- 
zens deplore this spirit, and complain 
that Middletown does not keep 
abreast of her sister towns in the 



march of progress. Is not this a 
mistake ? Let the old city retain her 
individuality in a time when modern 
ideas tend to reduce all places and 
people to a dead level of dull same- 
ness. She has her traditions, her 
history, her past generations of great 
and good men and women who made 

her what she is. Let the younger 
towns evolve after the approved 
Twentieth Century pattern. The 
older one should be contented to fol- 
low at a slower pace, assured that 
those who possess a past need not be 
so eager to build up a future. 


\ 1 '"^ 

i k^ % m?>§mk£k.-;:- 

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1 a Kb**: • * - ---J^ m 

■Trl If- ^/l 




Reproduction from a canvas by Walter Griffin whose exhibits in the Salon have brought him recog- 
nition as a portrait painter — Now in the collection of Mr. H. D. Winans, New York 





THERE are those who would 
have us believe that "Amer- 
icans have no well-defined 
art culture ; that we rush to foppish 
fads and misconceive spectacular ef- 
fects for harmonious blending, that 
we are now in the age of the art dilet- 
tante and that it will be some time 

before we develop an individuality 
which may be accredited as distinctly 
and truly American." 

I am art optimistic and believe that 
the American people have an inbred 
art refinement ; it portrays itself at 
every opportunity. This is exempli- 
fied here in Connecticut by the fact 


Reproduction from, a portrait of Miss Elizabeth Beach, by Charles Noe! Flagg, a distinguished 
painter from a family of art culture 

that over ten thousand people in the this country to be favored with the 

City of Hartford visited the Athe- exhibition of some thirty paintings 

nemn galleries in the recent exhihi- by Hendrik Willem Mesdag, the 

tions. Dutch artist. Mesdag s work is 

Hartford was one of the cities in strongly individual, ami has great 


Reproduction from one of the Venetian scenes by Gedney Bunce, whose painting for Queen Victoria 

now hangs in Osborne Castle 

boldness and breadth, qualities espec- 
ially required in depicting the rough 
seas, the lumbering fishing boats, and 
the fitful cloud-masses of his native 
Holland. In this collection the artist 
confines himself for the most part to 
the picturesque coast of Schevenin- 
gen, and sketches of the North Sea. 
He is alive to all the varying moods 
of sea and sky. In contrast to the 
storm and action shown in many of 
the pictures is the one called "A 
Misty Morning." In this we catch 
those elusive impressions which fas- 
cinate us, the indefinable subtlety of 
color suggested by sunshine and mist. 
This canvas was considered by many 
the gem of the collection, and Hart- 

ford is to be congratulated on having 
added it to its collection in the Wads- 
worth Atheneum. 

The Mesdag collection of paint- 
ings, after having been exhibited in a 
few of the leading cities of the United 
States, remains in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Fine Arts in New York 
City through the summer. 

Mr. Mesdag has recently given his 
private collection of works of art to 
the government of Holland, and it will 
remain permanently at the Hague. 
The collection is rich in the works of 
distinguished artists, oriental rugs, 
tapestries, porcelain, pottery, etc. 

Those interested in knowing of 
this man Mesdag, and of the work he 



Reproduction from a canvass painted by Allen B. Talcott, whose masters were Lefebre, 
Jean Paul T,arens and Jarome 

has done, will find an interesting ar- 
ticle thereon in the February issue of 
Brush and Pencil. 

The Mesdag exhibit at Hartford 
was followed by one representing 
four of Connecticut's best known ar- 
tists, Allen B. Talcott, Charles Noel 
Flagg, Walter Griffin and William 
■Gedney Bunce. A critic might say 
it required courage to follow the noted 
Dutch painter so closely on the same 
walls. That may be so ; nevertheless, 
there was no evidence of suffering 
by comparison. The character of this 
•exhibit differed from that of the for- 
mer. Mr. Talcott dealt with Con- 
necticut landscape; Mr. Flagg 
showed portraits mainly; Mr. Grif- 
fin's work embraced both landscape 
and portraits; while Mr. Bunce gave 

the evanescent charm of color and 
sentiment of that dream-city, Venice, 
so unlike all else. 

This exhibition has again con- 
firmed the statement that we have in 
our mildst men of unmistakable abil- 
ity — in the handling of brush and 

Brief biographies of these four 

Connecticut artists will be given in 
the next issue oi this magazine, hav- 
ing been prepared and reserved for 
another article. At that time will also 
be given an interesting story of the 
work oi the Cowles sisters, formerly 
of Farmington, but now oi New 
Haven, with reproductions. 

Our reproduction is oi a sketch 
for a memorial window which has 



just been completed for Ex-Lieut. 
Governor J. D. Dewell, and which is 
to be placed in the new chapel of 
Evergreen Cemetery, at New Haven. 
It is the work of Mr. joline B. Smith. 
The window is in memory of a child. 
There is a marked significance in the 
coloring: from the dark clouds of 
earth the ascending angel is bearing 
the infant into the celestial light 
above. The conception is a happy 
one, and the effect of the whole is 
impressive. Specimens of Mr. Smith's 
work may be seen in the Congrega- 
tional church at West Winsted, in St. 
Paul's and the center churches of 
New Haven, as well as in many 
homes of that, his native city. 

His studio, at 149 Orange Street, 
is one of the most unique and attrac- 
tive places in New Haven, and a 
royal welcome always awaits the in- 
terested visitor there. 

The Arts and Crafts Club of Hart- 
ford has recently been organized with 
Solon P. Davis as President, and H. 
D. Hemingway as Secretary and 
Treasurer. The aims of the club 
will be the same as of clubs of a simi- 
lar nature in other cities. While the 
work has been started by educators, 
it is hoped that artists and artisans 
will contribute much to its develop- 

Mr. John B. Talcott, of New 
Britain, has recently made a gift of 
$20,000 to the New Britain Institute 
of which he is president. It will be 
known as the "Talcoct Art Fund," 
and will be held in trust, the income 
to be used by the institute for the 
purchase of original oil paintings of 

Memorial window by Joline Smith 





Portraits from reproductions from paintings at state capitol.— Photographed exclusively for The 
Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 

1866— 1867 

THF oldest living ex-governor of 
this State is the Hon. Joseph 
Roswell Hawley, at present a 
United States Senator, and a man with 
a great national reputation. 

He was born in Stewartsville, North 
Carolina, October 31, 1826, is of Eng- 
lish-Scotch ancestry, and his ancestors 
were among the first settlers of Strat- 
ford. His father, Rev. Francis Haw- 
ley, a native of this State, was tempo- 
rarily in North Carolina when he mar- 
ried Mary McLeod. Returning to 
Connecticut "Father Hawley" as he 
was called, became prominently iden- 
tified with the anti-slavery leaders, and 
was one of the best known men in Con- 

J. R. Flawley attended the Hartford 
grammar school, and a school in Caze- 
novia, N. Y., where the family had 
moved in 1842. 

Entering Hamilton College in 1843, 
Mr. Hawley was graduated in 1847 
with high honors. He then studied law 
in Cazenovia, and commenced practic- 
ing in 1850 at Hartford, as a partner of 
the late John Hooker. 

Mr. Hawley entered at once into the 
free-soil discussion, became chairman 
of the State Committee, and did every- 
thing in his powers to bring about a 

union of all those who opposed slavery. 
He issued a call for a meeting in his 
office at Hartford, February 4, 1856, 
which resulted in the organization of 
the Republican party in this State. 

During the campaign of 1856, Mr. 
Hawley devoted three months to 
speaking for John C. Fremont. The 
next year he gave up the practice of 
law and commenced his long career as 
a journalist. Forming a partnership 
with William Faxon, afterwards as- 
sistant Secretary of the Navy, became 
editor of the "Evening Press," the new 
Republican newspaper. 

Mr. Hawley responded to the first 
call for troops in 1861, was actively 
concerned in raising a regiment, and 
was the first man to volunteer in Con- 
necticut. Going to the front as Captain 
of Company A, 1st Connecticut Volun- 
teers, he was in the battle of Bull Run 
and was commended for his bravery by 
General Keyes. 

Mr. Hawley afterwards assisted Col- 
onel Alfred H. Terry in forming the 
Seventh Connecticut, and was elected 
lieutenant colonel of the regiment. Go- 
ing South the regiment was in the Port 
Royal expedition, and engaged in the 
operation around Fort Pulaski. Haw- 
ley now succeeded Colonel Terry in 
the command of the regiment, and par- 
ticipated in the battles of James Island, 
and Pocotaligo. 



The Seventh afterwards went to 
Florida and in April, 1863, was in the 
expedition against Charleston. In 1864 
Mr. Hawley commanded a brigade at 
the battle of Olustee, Florida, where 
the Northern forces lost almost forty 
per cent, of their men. 

Mr. Hawley was in command of a 
brigade in the Tenth Army corps in 
April, 1864, and later participated in 
the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep 
Run, Derbytown Road, Bermuda 
Hundred and Deep Bottom. 

General Hawley afterwards took an 
important part in the seige of Peters- 
burg, and had command of a division 
in the battle of Newmarket road. 

During the fall of 1864, he was ap- 
pointed a brigadier-general, and dis- 
patched to New York in command of 
a brigade of picked men to preserve 
order during the presidential election. 
In January, 1865, General Hawley 
succeeded General Terry in the com- 
mand of a division. Later General 
Hawley joined the Tenth Army corps 
as General Terry's chief of staff, and 
when Wilmington was captured, he 
was selected by General Schofield, to 
form a base of supplies for Sherman's 
Army. Joining General Terry again 
as chief of staff in June, 1865, he re- 
mained in the Department of Virginia 
until June when he returned to Con- 
necticut, and was brevetted a major- 

He was mustered out of the service 
on January 15, 1866, after having made 
a record for himself of which Connec- 
ticut has always been proud. 

In the spring of 1866, General Haw- 
ley was considered to be the best man 
to succeed Buckingham, and he was 
elected Governor of Connecticut at the 
following election. The next year he 
was re-nominated, but was defeated by 
James E. English of New Haven. 

He now turned his attention to jour- 
nalism again, and the "Press" was uni- 
ted with the "Courant." General Haw- 
ley became editor, and entered into 
the discussion of the problems of re- 
construction days with all his might. 
He wielded an able pen in dealing with 
national and State politics and was in 
great demand everywhere as a forceful 
and eloquent speaker. 

In 1868 General Hawley was presi- 
dent of the Republican National 
Convention. In the convention of 1872 
he was secretary of the committee on 
resolutions and chairman of the same 
committee in 1876. 

When Julius L. Strong of Hartford 
died in 1872, causing a vacancy in 
Congress, General Hawley was elected 
to that position, and then commenced 
his long congressional career. 

He was a member of the 43rd Con- 
gress, and afterwards of the 46th. 

General Hawley was made president 
of the United States Centennial Com- 
mission in 1872, and remained at the 
head until the affairs of the Centennial 
were settled in 1877. 

General Hawley was elected United 
States Senator in January, 1881, and 
has been re-elected to the position in 
1887, 1893 and 1899. 

While in the Senate General Hawley 
has been a member of the committees 
on coast defences, railroads, printing 
and military affairs. He has been 
chairman of the Civil Sen-ice Commit- 
tee, and was at the head of a picked 
committee on war ships and ordnance. 

General Hawley received fifteen 
votes for President in the Republican 
National Convention of 1884, the Con- 
necticut delegation voting for him on 
every ballot. 

Hamilton College conferred the de- 
gree of LL.D., on her distinguished 




graduate in 1875, an d Yale followed 
with the same degree in 1868. 

General Hawley is easily one of the 
foremost men in this country and his 
influence in the United States Senate 
is as great as any member of that 

His life long friend, the late la- 
mented Charles Dudley Warner, has 
written of General Hawley : 

"General Hawley is an ardent re- 
publican, one of the most acceptable 
extemporary orators in the republic, 
a believer in universal suffrage, the 
American people and the 'American 
Way,' is a ''hard money' man, would 
adjust the tariff so as to benefit native 
industries, urges the reconstruction of 
our naval and coast defences, demands 
a free ballot and a fair count every- 
where, opposes the tendency to federal 
centralization, and is a strict construc- 
tionist of the Constitution in favor of 
the rights and dignity of the individual 

1 867- 1 869- 1 870- 1 87 1 — 3 Years 

James Edward English one of the 
most distinguished men that New Ha- 
ven ever produced should be classed 
with Roger Wolcott, Samuel Hunting- 
ton and Matthew Griswold, governors 
of Connecticut, who were entirely self 
made. Probably no resident of New 
Haven, with the possible exception of 
Roger Sherman and ex-Governor 
Baldwin, ever attained greater honors 
in his State and the nation than did 
Mr. English. 

Every success in his life was the 
product of his own self-exertion, and 
his life furnishes a brilliant example 
to any boy who is born without 
wealth or influence to help him in his 

The ancestors of Governor English 
were thrifty people. His great grand- 
father lost his life during General 
Tryon's invasion of the city on July 
5, 1779, when so many citizens were 
murdered and others made homeless. 
His grandfather engaged in the West 
India trade and was captain of a vessel 
sailing out of New Haven. 

The father of Governor English was 
a man of intelligence, and his mother 
a member of the Griswold family 
which has furnished two governors to 
the commonwealth. 

James E. English was born at New 
Haven, on March 13, 1812, and his 
boyhood was uneventful. At the agt 
of eleven years he was " bound out" to 
a farmer. During the two and a half 
years he spent on the farm the boy only 
attended the district school for eight 
months, and his father awakened to 
the fact that his son should have more 
of an opportunity for obtaining an ed- 
ucation. Returning to his home the 
young man attended school for the 
next two years, and he made rapid 
progress in his studies. 

When sixteen years of age, the fu- 
ture statesman was apprenticed to At- 
water Treat a prominent builder of 
New Haven to learn the carpenter 
trade. The latent ability of the young 
man soon manifested itself and before 
he reached his majority had become a 
master builder. 

His first work of a public character 
was in the old Lancasterian school in 
New Haven, built on the site of the 
present Hillhouse High School. The 
establishment of this latter school was 
one of the philanthropic acts of Gov- 
ernor English when he had reached 
years of prosperity. When twenty-one 
years of age Mr. English went into 
business for himself, and began the 
erection of various buildings. The his- 


&. G/T^V< / ^ < ^V' 



torian of New Haven, Mr. Atwater, 
remarks that "several houses designed 
and erected by him (Mr. English), in 
a style more elaborate than was com- 
mon in New Haven, bear creditable 
testimony to his architectural taste." 

Mr. English prospered in business 
and made money very rapidly. En- 
gaging in the lumber business later on 
he was so successful that after follow- 
ing it twenty years he was able, with 
two other gentlemen, to purchase the 
manufacturing business of the Jerome 
Clock Company. After a few years 
this company, originally started in 
Bristol, became one of the largest of its 
kind in the world. The business was 
afterwards merged with the New Ha- 
ven Clock Company. During this pe- 
riod he was interested in various real 
estate deals, banking, and other enter- 
prises, so that by the time Mr. English 
had reached middle life he was one of 
the richest men in Connecticut. 

It is said of him that not a dollar of 
his vast fortune was made by specula- 
tion, and it was all the product of his 
uncommon business ability. His won- 
derful success in business made him 
conspicuous in public life, and the peo- 
ple of his native city began to look to 
him for important trusts. 

In 1848 he was elected a member of 
the New Haven Common Council, and 
in 1855 served as a representative from 
the city in the General Assembly. 

He was elected a State Senator in 
1856, re-elected in 1858. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. English was elected a 
member of Congress as a "war demo- 
crat," and he served as a representative 
for four years. During the years of 
the Civil War his course was eminently 
honorable. While in Congress he voted 
with the Republicans on important 
questions, although a Democrat all 
his life. 

Mr. English supported the war and 
the administration and voted for the 
abolition of slavery in the District of 

He was a member of the committee 
on naval affairs, opposed the legal ten- 
der bill and national banking system. 

At a time when almost every State 
was in the hands of the Republican 
party, Mr. English, solely on account 
of his great popularity, was nominated 
and elected by the Democrats in 1867, 
as Governor of Connecticut. 

He was re-elected in 1868 and his 
term in office was very satisfactory. 
Re-nominated in 1869 he was defeated 
at the following election by Marshall 
Jewell of Hartford. 

Governor English was re-elected 
again in 1870, and served one more 
year as chief magistrate of the com- 

In national politics Governor Eng- 
lish was also an important factor. He 
was a presidential elector at large in 
the election of 1868, and at the Demo- 
cratic National Convention which met 
in Tammany Hall, New York, July 4, 
of the same year, he received nineteen 
votes on the fifth ballot for President 
of the United States. 

In 1875 Governor English was ap- 
pointed United States Senator by Gov- 
ernor Ingersoll to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of the Hon. Orrin 
S. Ferry. He served in this capacity 
until the spring of 1876. 

During the later years of his life he 
did not hold any public office, but spent 
his time in attending to the various 
manufacturing and other enterprises 
in which he was interested. 

Among other things he was presi- 
dent of the New Haven Savings Bank, 
and a manager of the Adams Express 



Governor English gave freely to va- 
rious worthy objects, and among his 
many acts of a philanthropic character, 
may be mentioned his gift of $10,000 
to the Yale Law School, and $20,000 
for the improvement of East Rock. 

Governor English died at his home 
in New Haven on March 2, 1890, aged 
78 years. 

His son, Henry F. English, is one 
of the most prominent residents of 
New Haven and inherits the liberal 
spirit of his distinguished father. He 
has presented a handsome building on 
Grove Street to the New Haven Col- 
ony Historical Society, as a memorial 
to his father and mother. 

1 869- 1870- 1 871 -1 873— 3 years 

Marshall Jewell was born in Win- 
chester, New Hampshire, October 20, 
1825. His father was a tanner, as was 
also his grandfather and great-grand- 
father, so at an early age he became an 
apprentice in his father's tan yard. Af- 
ter learning the trade he decided not to 
follow it for a business, and went to 
Boston where he studied electricity. 
Paying special attention to telegraphy 
he afterwards went to Rochester where 
he became a telegraph operator. From 
that city he went to Akron, Ohio, 
where he remained a short time, and 
then roved through several states. At 
the age of twenty-three Mr. Jewell had 
charge of the construction of a tele- 
graph line between Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and New Orleans. 

Tn T849 ne wa s offered and accepted 
the position of general superintendent 
of the New York and Boston telegraph 
lines. When he came North to com- 
mence his duties he was called to Hart- 
ford to engage with his father in the 
manufacture of leather belting. 

His father, Pliny Jewell, a promi- 
nent whig in New Hampshire, had re- 
moved to Hartford, and established the 
belting business in 1845. It had now 
become very successful, and Marshall 
Jewell was made a partner in the con- 
cern which was rapidly developing into 
one of the great enterprises of the 
State. He remained in partnership 
with his father until the latter's death. 
In 1859 ne visited Europe, and made a 
special study of the large tanneries in 
England and France. He went abroad 
in i860 and in 1867 visiting Asia and 
Africa. In 1867 Mr. Jewell attended 
the great exposition at Paris where he 
extended the business of his company 
to a large extent. The great ability of 
Mr. Jewell, his public spirit, and inter- 
est in public affairs, gave him promi- 
nence as a private citizen, and his un- 
wavering support of the Union cause 
during the dark days of the Rebellion 
drew special regard to him as a man 
qualified by his energy, integrity and 
patriotism for the public service. He 
was one of the first members of the 
Republican party in Connecticut. In 
1868 he was nominated for Governor 
of Connecticut, but was defeated by a 
small majority. The next year he was 
elected Governor, and served one vear, 
when he was defeated again by Mr. 
English, but in 1871 and 1872 he was 
re-elected. His work as Governor is 
summed up by a writer as follows : 

"Mr. Jewell's administration of the 
State government was marked by vari- 
ous legislative and executive reforms. 
Among these were the reorganization 
of the State militia, a change in the 
laws regarding the married woman's 
right to property, the laws of divorce, 
the government of Yale College, bi- 
ennial elections, and the erection of 
the new state house at Hartford." 



Retiring as Governor in 1873, Presi- 
dent Grant immediately appointed him 
Minister to Russia. Although his resi- 
dence in Russia was brief, yet during 
the time he was at the Russian Court 
he arranged a convention protecting 
trade marks, and made the most of a 
golden opportunity to learn the art of 
manufacturing the far famed "Russia 

He made a practical application of 
his knowledge when he returned to 
the United States and introduced the 
Russian process of tanning leather into 
this country. 

In July, 1874, Governor Jewell was 
appointed by President Grant, Post- 
master General of the United States to 
succeed A. J. Creswell of Maryland. 
Hurrying home from his foreign mis- 
sion, Governor Jewell accepted this 
honorable position in the President's 
cabinet, and began the duties of the 
office, August 24, 1874. While at the 
head of the post office department he 
instituted several needed reforms in 
the service, and was the pioneer in es- 
tablishing the system of fast mail train 
which has since been extended, and 
become such an inestimable boon to the 
public. He was also active in the whis- 
key ring prosecution. 

In 1876, owing it is said, to the sel- 
fish interest of a political cabol, Presi- 
dent Grant asked for Mr. Jewell's res- 
ignation, although he was on the best 
of terms with the chief executive. Mr. 
Jewell resigned and left the cabinet the 
same time as Benjamin H. Bristow, 
Secretary of the Treasury. Seven years 
later the New York Tribune declared 
that Mr. Jewell's removal was brought 
about in order to strengthen the Repub- 
lican party in Indiana for the fall elec- 
tion. On July 12, 1876, Mr. Jewell 
was succeeded by Mr. James M. Ty- 
ner of Indiana. 

Governor Jewell's return to Connec- 
ticut was made the occasion of a loyal 
demonstration in honor of her distin- 
guished son. At Hartford he was met 
by a great concourse of citizens, and 
the celebration was one of the largest 
ever held in the city. A great proces- 
sion was formed, salutes of artillery 
fired, speeches of welcome were made 
by distinguished men and in various 
other ways the city paid tribute to the 
faithful public servant who had re- 
turned to private life. 

After this he held no political office, 
but was always in great demand as a 
popular campaign orator. He was in- 
terested in various business enterprises 
including the great belting establish- 
ment, and was president of the Jewell 
Pin Company, The Southern New 
England Telephone Company, and the 
United States Telephone Association. 

Governor Jewell was not in sympa- 
thy with General Grant's candidacy for 
re-nomination, but did not openly op- 
pose him on account of having been a 
member of his cabinet. After General 
Garfield was nominated, Governor 
Jewell was immediately elected chair- 
man of the Republican National Com- 
mittee, and on him fell the duty of su- 
pervising the campaign. This task he 
fulfilled with great energy and success 
as was shown by the following elec- 
tion. The vast amount of work con- 
nected with this campaign seriously 
affected his health, and shortened his 

Returning to Hartford he spent the 
remaining years in business, and died 
at his home in that city on February 
10, 1883, aged 58 years. 

It is related that shortly before he 
died, Governor Jewell said to his phy- 
sician : "Doctor, how long docs it 
take?" The physician inquired what 
he meant, and he replied : "How long 



does it take for a man to die?" "In 
your condition, Governor, it is a mat- 
ter of only a few hours," answered the 
physician. "All right, doctor," said 
the dying statesman, and he settled 
back quietly upon his pillow to await 
the end. 


1873- 1 877 — Four Years 

For five generations members cf the 
Ingersoll family were prominent in the 
affairs of this commonwealth. 

Jonathan Ingersoll, the great grand- 
father of Charles R. Ingersoll, was a 
graduate of Yale College in the class 
of 1736, pastor of a church in Ridge- 
field for forty years, a chaplain in the 
French War in 1758, and a brother of 
the Hon. Jared Ingersoll, chiefly 
known in Connecticut history from 
his having accepted the office of 
"Stamp Distributor" just before the 

A son of the first Jonathan bearing 
the same name was also a Yale grad- 
uate, and for many years held a dis- 
tinguished place at the Connecticut bar. 
He died while holding the office of 
Lieutenant Governor. His son, the Hon. 
Ralph Isaacs Ingersoll, father of the 
late Governor Ingersoll, was a leading 
member of the Connecticut legislature, 
and afterwards went to Congress 
where he represented his district in 
an able manner from 1825 to 1833. 
Later in life he was Attorney General 
of the State, and United States Minis- 
ter to the Court of St. Petersburg. 

Charles Roberts Ingersoll was born 
in New Haven September 16, 1821, 
and entered Yale College in 1836, 
where he gained many honors as a 
thoughtful, brilliant student. He was 
graduated in 1840, near the head of 

his class, and prominent for his at- 
tainments in the social and literary 
circles of the college. Soon after 
graduation Air. Ingersoll sailed for 
Europe on the United States frigate 
Preble, of which his uncle, Captain 
Voorhees, was commander. Remain- 
ing abroad for two years, he visited 
various portions of the continent, and 
then returned to his home to study 
law. He entered the Yale Law 
School, graduated in 1844, and was 
admitted to the bar in New Haven the 
following year. Commencing at once 
to practice in New Haven he remained 
there the remainder of his life follow- 
ing his profession. His superior abil- 
ity soon brought him success, and 
gave him a prominence in the political 
life of the State. In 1856 Mr. Inger- 
soll was elected a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and was re-elected in 
1857 and 1858. He was elected a del- 
egate to the Democratic National Con- 
vention in 1864, and in 1866 was chos- 
en for the fourth time a member of the 
House of Representatives. The sena- 
torship was offered him from his dis- 
trict in 1871, but he declined the hon- 
or, and then represented New Haven 
in theLower House of another session. 
Mr. Ingersoll was now one of the most 
prominent Democratic leaders in Con- 
necticut, and in 1873 he was elected 
Governor by a flattering majority. The 
following year he was re-elected by a 
majority of 7,000. His administration 
proved so successful that he was nom- 
inated and elected for the third time in 
1875. In that year the term of office 
for a Governor was changed from one 
to two years, and by constitutional 
amendment the term from 1876-7 was 
made to expire in 1877. 

The opponents of Governor Inger- 
soll in the two last elections were both 




graduates of Yale College, Henry B. 
Harrison, afterwards Governor, and 
Henry C. Robinson of Hartford. In 
1876 Governor Ingersoll was a Presi- 
dential elector, and in 1877 declined 
a renomination as Governor of the 
State. A curious fact of his political 
career is that he was never defeated 
for an office. 

A writer, commenting on his career 
in politics, has said: 

"His record in political life is one 
which most statesmen can only hope 
for or envy, and has received the praise 
of his bittterest political antagonists." 

After his retirement from the gov- 
ernorship, Mr. Ingersoll never held 
any political office, but devoted his 
time to the practice of his profession 
in New Haven. On resuming his pro- 
fessional work in 1877 he was often 
called not only into the State and Fed- 
eral courts, but into the United States 
Supreme Court at Washington. One 
of the important cases before the Su- 
preme Court in which he was counsel 
was that of the Bridgeport Bran Com- 
pany, in which the law on the reissu- 
ing of patents was finally determined. 
He was after engaged as counsel for 
Yale University, and his arguments in 
the case of Yale vs. the Connecticut 
Agricultural College, over a congres- 
sional appropriation, attracted wide 
attention. A writer has said that Gov- 
ernor Ingersoll was the last survivor 
of a famous quartet of Connecticut 
lawyers, who were in the prime of 
their bar leadership twenty-five years 
ago. The other three were Jeremiah 
Halsey of Norwich, Richard D. Hub- 
bard of Hartford and John S. Beach 
of New Haven. 

"His career in the Elm City," says 
a newspaper biographer, "for the past 
fifty years, his venerable white head, 

his military bearing and his thorough- 
ly attractive personality, is a by-word 
throughout the State." His venerable 
figure was until recently familiar about 
the streets of the city he loved so well. 

Many honors were bestowed on 
Governor Ingersoll, and in 1874 Yale 
University conferred the degree of 
LL. D. upon her distinguished grad- 
uate. Governor Ingersoll once told 
the writer that he had seen and con- 
versed with every Governor of Con- 
necticut under our present constitution 
from Oliver Wolcott, who was a fre- 
quent visitor at his father's house, to 
George P. McLean. 

Governor Ingersoll died at his home 
in New Haven on January 25, 1903, 
and his funeral was attended by the 
State's most prominent citizens. The 
Hartford C our ant in commenting edi- 
torially on his death said : 

"He was the oldest of Connecticut's 
honored ex-Governors. He inherited 
a distinguished name, and enriched it 
with added distinction. One of the 
handsomest men of his generation, he 
lived up to his looks; his nature was 
fine and his life was fine. New Haven, 
the city of his birth, watched with 
pride but not with surprise his suc- 
cesses at the bar, where he was long a 
leader, and his growth in the respect 
and confidence of his political associ- 
ates. He was a popular Governor, re- 
linquishing the chair at last (more 
than a quarter-century ago) of his own 
volition. Once and again he was 
mentioned' for the Senate. He con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession 
after his retirement from politics. In- 
deed, up to a comparatively recent 
time he went to his law office on pleas- 
ant days and stayed there for an hour 
or two, sitting at the window, looking 
out on his beloved New Haven Green, 



hearing the details of cases from the 
younger men, and bringing to bear on 
their difficulties his ripe experience 
and learning. He lived to see his 
eighty-second year." 

His children are Miss Justine In- 
gersoll of New Haven, a writer of 
prominence ; Mrs. Henry Ganz of Wil- 
mington, Delaware ; Mrs. George Ha- 
vens of New York, and Francis 
Gregory Ingersoll of New Haven. 


1 877- 1 879 — 2 years 

Governor Hubbard was a poor boy 
who rose by his own exertion to the 
highest place at the bar, and became 
an orator of national reputation. 

Born in Berlin, September 7, 1818, 
he was the son of Lemuel Hubbard, an 
old resident of the town who descend- 
ed from George Hubbard, one of the 
early magistrates of Guilford, and a 
frequent deputy from that town to the 
General court. 

The young man was left an orphan 
early in life, without means to pay for 
an education. However, he decided to 
attend college, and after a preparatory 
course at East Hartford, entered Yale 
College in 1835. He was obliged to 
support himself while studying at Yale, 
but he took high rank in his class and 
was graduated in 1839. Then he stud- 
ied law in the office of William Hun- 
gerford at Hartford and was admitted 
to the bar in 1842. In 1846 Mr. Hub- 
bard was chosen State's attorney for 
Hartford county, and this office he held 
with the exception of two years until 
1868. He often represented the city in 
the General Assembly and rose to a 
lofty position as an able lawyer. 

Entering into politics early in life 
Mr. Hubbard was always prominently 
identified with the Democratic party, 

yet during the Civil War he was an un- 
wavering supporter of the Federal 

In 1867 he was elected to Congress 
from his district, and was a member 
of that body during the 40th session. 
Life at Washington was apparently 
uncongenial to Mr. Hubbard, for at 
the next election he declined being re- 
nominated. He again took up his law 
practice and having formed a partner- 
ship with Hon. Loren P. Waldo ana 
Alvin P. Hyde devoted the remaining 
years of his life to his profession. 

In 1877 Mr. Hubbard was nominat- 
ed for Governor of the State, and elect- 
ed by a good majority. He was the 
first one to serve under the two years' 

Governor Hubbard was renominated 
in 1879, but failed to be elected. His 
administration as Governor was 
marked by his earnest desire to serve 
the State as well as possible, and to do 
his whole duty irrespective of any part- 
nership whatever. Retiring from the 
office, he never held a public!' position 
afterwards and his lucrative practice 
engaged his attention until his death, 
which occurred on February 28, 1884, 
at his home in Hartford. 

When George D. Sargeant died in 
1886 it was found he had left $5,000 
for a statue of Governor Hubbard. 
One was made, placed in a con- 
spicuous place on the Capitol gounds, 
and it faces Washington street. The 
statue represents the Governor stand- 
ing in a position as though addressing 
the court or jury. It was unveiled on 
June 9, 1890, in the presence of the 
State officials and other prominent citi- 
zens. It bears the inscription : "Rich- 
ard D. Hubbard, Lawyer, Orator, 

"As an example of a self-made 
man," says a biographer, "there was 

tyc^r t^^^tx^&C 



none more shining. From a poor boy, 
through years of patient toil and stud- 
ied application to his books he forced 
himself to the top and compelled ad- 
miration and respect of everybody in 
his native state, not excepting" political 

The following professional estimate 
of Governor Hubbard is taken from 
the "judicial and Civil History of Con- 

"It was, however, in the field of the 
law T that he won his great success. He 
was not only the first lawyer in the 
State, but its greatest orator. His su- 
periority as a lawyer was owing less 
to a laborious study of books, though 
he was always a diligent student and 
very thorough in the preparation of 
his cases, than to his perfect compre- 
hension of legal principles. He ob- 
tained a complete mastery of the sci- 
ence of law. He had strong common 
sense, by which he tested everything, 
and with sound men of judgment he 
united great quickness of apprehen- 
sion and brilliancy of imagination. His 
mind was eminently a philosophical 
one, and found recreation in abstract 
speculation ; nothing interested him 
more than the great mysteries and baf- 
fling questions of life. 

"It was as an orator that he was best 
known to the general public. With 
great natural powers of speech he im- 

proved himself by a good classical ed- 
ucation and by a life-long study of an- 
cient and modern classics. There was 
in his speeches a special quietness of 
manner, an exquisiteness of thought, 
a fertility of imagination, and a power 
and grace of expression that made 
them captivating. Some of his ad- 
dresses, in commemoration of his de- 
ceased brethren at the bar, are re- 
markable for their beauty. That upon 
Mr. William Hungerford is one of the 
finest pieces of composition that our 
language contains. To his profession 
he was ardently attached ; he loved its 
science, its eloquence, its wit, its no- 
bility. He was proud of its history, 
of its contribution to philosophy and 
literature, and its struggle in defense 
of human rights, and assaults upon 
human wrongs. While he was the 
ablest and most accomplished lawyer 
of our state, his culture was peculiarly 
his own. He sought and studied the 
great arguments and orations of the 
past and present. He was a profund 
student of Shakespeare and Milton ; 
he delighted in John Bunyan, Thomas 
Browne, Thomas Fuller and Jeremy 
Taylor. He was cultivated in the 
French language, and enjoyed the 
suggestive methods of French wit, and 
was familiar with their great dramat- 
ists and public orators." 







Associate Judge of Hartford County Court of Common Pleas 

THE history of Moses Dunbar 
seems to me to be a story full 
of interest to all students of 
Connecticut's history, because he is 
the only person who has ever been ex- 
executed, except by military proce- 
dure for treason against this State; 
and full of interest to all who love 
heroism and high-minded devotion to 
principle, because of the fidelity and 
consecration with which he served the 
church and the king to which he be- 
lieved his loyalty to be due, consecra- 
tion alike of the affections and the ac- 
tivities of life, fidelity even unto death. 

Moses Dunbar was born in Walling- 
ford, on June 14, 1746, the second of 
a family of sixteen children. When 
he was about fourteen years old, his 
father removed to Waterbury; that 
is, I suppose, to what is now East Ply- 
mouth. The present town of Ply- 
mouth was then a part of Waterbury, 
afterward set off as a part of Water- 
town in 1780, and set off from Water- 
town by its present name in 1795. 

In 1764, when not quite eighteen 
years old, he was married to Phebe 
Jerome or Jearam of Bristol, then 
New Cambridge. In the same year, 
"upon what we thought sufficient and 
rational motives," he and his wife left 

the Congregational church, in which 
he had been brought up, and declared 
themselves of the Church of England. 

The Rev. James Scovil was then lo- 
cated at Waterbury as a Church of 
England missionary of the "Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," Connecticut being 
foreign missionary ground from the 
standpoint of the English church; he 
was also in charge of the little Angli- 
can church in New Cambridge, which 
perished in the storm and stress of the 

To his Episcopal surroundings we 
are undoubtedly justified in tracing 
Dunbar's later toryism, and particu- 
larly to the influence of Mr. Scovil, 
and of the Rev. James Nichols, who 
succeeded him in charge of the New 
Cambridge church. 

When the war of the Revolution 
broke out, the king's cause had no 
other such zealous supporters, in Con- 
necticut at least, as the Anglican mis- 
sionaries stationed in the State. 

We can easily see the reasons for 
this. These men, brought up in the 
English church, accustomed to look 
on the king as the head of the church, 
and, by the grace of God, Defender of 
the Faith, came to New England only 



to find here the despised separatists, 
who in England were entitled to noth- 
ing more than contemptuous tolera- 
tion, and who had not always had that, 
ruling in church and state with a high 
and not at all a gentle hand. 

Their own church, which at home 
had every advantage, political and so- 
cial, whose Bishops sat in the House of 
Lords, whose services were maintained 
in splendid pomp by the public funds, 
which was the spiritual governor of 
England, as king and parliament were 
its civil governors, was weak and de- 
spised, and suffering great legal disad- 
vantages as compared with its Puri- 
tan rival. 

To give an extreme instance of the 
hardships which the Episcopal clergy- 
man sometimes suffered, William 
Gibbs of Simsbury was required by 
the authorities of that town to pay 
taxes from his own scanty income to 
support the Congregational ministry. 
When he refused, he is said to have 
been bound on the back of a horse, 
and in that harsh way carried to Hart- 
ford jail, where he was imprisoned as 
a delinquent taxpayer. He was then 
an old man, became insane, and con- 
tinued so until his death. 1 

While the law for the support of 
the Congregational churches by taxa- 
tion was finally relaxed for the benefit 
of Episcopal dissenters, and their 
treatment probably tended to become 
more friendly as their numbers in- 
creased, the position of constant in- 
feriority and occasional oppression in 
which they found themselves must 
have been very galling to the clergy- 
men of the English church, who doubt- 
less felt that it was entitled by 
English law to be the dominant, in- 
stead of the inferior, church. 

The Puritan government was not 
one likely to be beloved by those who 
were out of sympathy with its theol- 
ogy and practice ; still less by those 
who devoutly believed it to be both 
schismatical and heretical, and who 
constantly felt the weight of its op- 
pressive hand upon them. 

But the churchmen had always the 
crown, and the powerful mother church 
at home, to look to as their backer and 
defender; and, though neither church 
nor crown seem ever to have interested 
themselves much in the lot of their 
co-religionists here, the distinguished 
connection there was at least a matter 
of pride and fervent loyalty to the os- 
tracized churchmen here. 

And, naturally enough, they be- 
lieved that the fear of the wrath of 
the powerful church at home was all 
that restrained the Puritans here ; and 
feared a withdrawal of all privileges, 
and an attack on the very existence of 
their churches, if the Puritan colony 
should succeed in establishing its in- 

"It was inferred from the history 
of the past, that, if successful, few 
would be the tender mercies shown by 
the Independents in New England to 
a form of Protestant religion which 
was in their eyes 'dissent/ and which 
nothing but the want of power hitherto 
had prevented them from fully destroy- 
ing. It was the remark of a Presby- 
terian deacon, made in the hearing of j 
one who put it upon record, 'that if 
the colonies should carry their point, j 
there would not be a church in the 
New England States'." 2 

And so, when the hated rulers of the 
colony openly defied the king, denied 
the authority of Parliament over them, 
and finally determined to make their 

iWelton's sermon and notes concerning 
the Episcopal church in New Cambridge. 
Bristol Public Library. 

2Beardsley's History of the Episcopal 
church in Connecticut, vol. I, p. 312. 



Puritan commonwealth independent 
altogether, it is not difficult to under- 
stand how bitter the opposition to the 
revolutionary movement must have 
been among the churchmen, and what 
firebrands of tory zeal the missionary 
clergymen, in their circuits through 
the state, must have been. 

The position of active hostility to 
the colonial cause taken by the Epis- 
copal clergy led to their being specially 
marked out by the intolerant patriot- 
ism of the day for persecution; and 
this in turn, no doubt, reacted to in- 
crease their hatred of the colony, its 
Puritan religion, and the possibility of 
its acquiring independence. 

Nineteen days after the Declaration 
of Independence, the clergy of the 
State met to determine their course; 
one point of peculiar difficulty was the 
prayer for the King, and that he might 
be victorious over all his enemies, in 
the prayerbook. 

At least one Congregational minis- 
ter in Massachusetts suffered embar- 
rassment from a similar cause. He 
had prayed so long for "our excellent 
King George," that, after the war 
commenced, and independence had 
been declared, he inadvertently insert- 
ed the familiar phrase in his prayer, 
but, recollecting himself in time, he 
added: "O Lord, I mean George 
Washington !" 

But the Church of England clergy 
could not so readily evade their pre- 
scribed prayer for the king. They 
could not omit it without unfaithful- 
ness to the canons of the church, nor 
include it without incurring the wrath 
of their neighbors, and the accusation 
of open disloyalty. They therefore re- 
solved to suspend public services until 
the storm of revolution should blow 

over; which they probably thought 
would be but a few months. 3 

But one old man, John Beach of 
Newtown and Redding, absolutely re- 
fused his consent to this resolution, 
and declared that he would "do his 
duty, preach and pray for the King, 
till the rebels cut out his tongue." The 
doughty old loyalist kept his word, and 
yet died peaceably in his bed, in the 
eighty-second year of his age, just in 
time to escape the bitter news of Corn- 
wallis's surrender. 4 

But he had some exciting experi- 
ences in the meantime. While he was 
officiating one day in Redding, a shot 
was fired into the church, and the ball 
struck above him, and lodged in the 
sounding-board. Pausing for a mo- 
ment, he uttered the words, "Fear not 
them which kill the body, but are not 
able to kill the soul; but rather fear 
him which is able to destroy both soul 
and body in hell." He then proceeded 
with the service, without further in- 

At another time a party of men en- 
tered his church, and, as he was about 
reaching the prayer for the King, 
pointed a musket at his head. He 
calmly went on, and, whether they did 
not fire, or missed, he escaped injury. 5 

But many of his brethren, though 
less bold than he, suffered more. 

Dunbar's last days in jail were com- 
forted by the sacred offices of the 
church administered by Rev. Roger 
Veits, a fellow-prisoner, who had been 
tried at the same term with Dunbar 
and convicted of assisting captured 
British soldiers to escape, and giving 
them food. Nor was Dunbar's own 
pastor, Rev. James Nichols, treated 
much better. "Once, says reliable tra- 
dition, he was discovered hiding in 

3Welton's sermon, cited before. Also 
see Beardsley. 

^Welton's sermon, and Beardsley. 
^Beardsley, I, 319. 



a cellar near the residence of the late 
Sextus Gaylord, captured, tarred and 
feathered, and dragged in the neigh- 
boring brook." 6 At the same term of 
court at which Dunbar was convicted 
of treason, this Mr. Nichols was also 
tried, but was acquitted. 7 

A new convert to the religious faith 
of the Church of England, under the 
teaching of its persecuted ministers, 
a man evidently of courage and reso- 
lute energy, we can hardly wonder that 
Moses Dunbar was a devoted and fear- 
less supporter of the royal cause. In 
his own words, "From the time that 
the present unhappy misunderstanding 
between Great Britain and the Colo- 
nies began, I freely confess I never 
could reconcile my opinion to the ne- 
cessity or lawfulness of taking up 
arms against Great Britain". 8 

His adherence to the Church of 
England had already caused a breach 
between himself and his father, in 
which he seems to have been practi- 
cally driven from home, and it was 
then probably that he began living 
near his wife's home in New Cam- 

During the twelve years from his 
marriage in May, 1764, to his wife's 
death ,he had seven children, of whom 
four survived their father. On May 
20, 1776, his wife died, as wives and 
mothers usually did in those days 
when they reached the age of thirty 
or so. 

Not many months afterward, he was 
married again to Esther Adams. 

The Revolutionary war, with its ac- 
companying divisions of neighbor- 
hoods and families, was now in full 

progress, and Dunbar was already an 
object of suspicion. "Having spoken 
somewhat freely on the subject," he 
says, "I was attacked by a mob 01 
about forty men, very much abused, 
my life threatened and nearly taken 
away, by which mob I was obliged to 
sign a paper containing many false- 
hoods." 9 

The family of which he was a mem- 
ber by marriage was as much divided 
politically as any could be. Zerubba- 
bel Jerome, the father, and his three 
sons, Robert, Thomas and Asahel, 
were all four soldiers in the American 
army. Asahel died in the service. 10 
Chauncey and Zerubbabel, Jr., were 
tories, and were, in 1777, imprisoned 
for some time in Hartford jail for dis- 
loyalty, and finally released on profes- 
sion of repentance, and taking the oath 
of allegiance to the state. 11 Chauncey 
was also once flogged, or escaped flog- 
ging only by slipping out of his shirt, 
by which he was bound, and fleeing to 
shelter. 12 

Phoebe married Dunbar ; Ruth mar- 
ried Stephen Graves, who was a noto- 
rious tory leader, and lived for a time 
in the "tory den," where his wife, then 
nineteen years old, carried him food 
at night; Jerusha married Jonathan 
Pond, who, Mr. Shepard says, was 
probably a tory, and the other daugh- 
ter, Mary, married Joseph Spencer, 
whose political position is now un- 
known. 13 Of Stephen Graves, Mr. 
Welton speaks as follows : "Stephen 
Graves, a young churchman residing 
in the southeast corner of Harwinton, 
was drafted for the Continental army, 
and sent a substitute. The next year, 

eWelton's sermon. 

^Connecticut Courant, Jan. 27th, 1777. 

sDunbar's statement, in The Town and 
City of Waterbury, vol. I, page 435. 

»*Dunbar's statement, ut supra. 

io**The Tories of Connecticut, by James 
Shepard, Conn. Magazine, IV. 262. 

n***Records of the State of Connecti- 
cut, vol. I, p. 259. 

12 ****Welton's sermon, ut supra; The 
Tories of Connecticut, supra, p. 260. 

is*MS. notes of Mr. James Shepard. 
See Conn. Magazine, IV 260. 



while he was paying wages to the sub- 
stitute, he was drafted again, an act so 
manifestly oppressive and cruel that 
he refused any longer to maintain his 
substitute, and thenceforth became the 
object of relentless persecution by the 
lawless band who styled themselves 
the 'Sons of Liberty.' Once they 
caught him and scourged him with 
rods, tied to a cherry tree, on the line 
between Plymouth and Harwinton, at 
the fork of the roads. Again he was 
captured in Saybrook, whither he had 
gone to visit his grandfather's family, 
and brought back, but when within 
three miles from home he escaped, 
while climbing Tine Hollow Hill/ 
and reached home safely; but did not 
enter his house till his pursuers had 
come and gone without him. The loy- 
alists of the neighborhood for a while 
worked together on each one's farm 
for safety. Their wives kept watch for 
first sighted them blew her tin horn or 
the Sons of Liberty and she who 
conch, all the others in turn repeating 
the warning, till the men had time to 
get well on their way to their cave, 
which the man-hunters never discov- 
ered." 14 

After his first wife's death, Dunbar 
says : "I had now concluded to live 
peaceable, and give no offence, neither 
by word nor deed. I had thought of 
entering into a voluntary confinement 
within the limits of my farm, and mak- 
ing proposals of that nature, when I 
was carried before the committee, and 
by them ordered to suffer imprison- 
ment during their pleasure, not exceed- 
ing five months. When I had remained 
there amout fourteen days, the author- 
ity of New Haven dismissed me. Find- 
in my life uneasy, and, as I had rea- 
son to apprehend, in great danger, I 
thought it my safest method to flee to 

Long Island, which I accordingly did, 
but having a desire to see my friends 
and children, and being under engage- 
ment of marriage with her who is my 
wife, the banns of marriage having 
been before published, I returned, and 
was married. Having a mind to re- 
move my wife to Long Island, as a 
place of safety, I went there the second 
time, to prepare matters accordingly. 
When there I accepted a captain's war- 
rant for the King's service in Colonel 
Fanning's regiment. 

I returned to Connecticut, when I 
was taken and betrayed by Joseph 
Smith, and was brought before the 
authority of Waterbury. They re- 
fused to have anything to do with the 
matter. I was carried before Justices 
Strong and Whitman of Farmington 
and by them committed to Hartford, 
where the Superior Court was then 
sitting. I was tried on Thursday, 23rd 
of January, 1777, for high treason 
against the State of Connecticut, by 
an act passed in October last, for en- 
listing men for General Howe, and 
for having a captain's commission for 
that purpose. I was adjudged guilty, 
and on the Saturday following was 
brought to the bar of the court and 
received sentence of death." 16 

Several things in this statement at- 
tract attention ; firstly, the great pow- 
ers stated to have been exercised by 
the "Committee," who could imprison 
a man at their pleasure, "not exceeding 
five months," without trial ; again, he 
persistent activity in the royal cause, 
which even his marriage hardly inter- 
rupted. During his very honeymoon, 
he was pledging himself irrevocably to 
the King's cause, and receiving the for- 
mal commission, which would neces- 
sarily condemn him, if it were discov- 
ered upon him. The regiment in 

14* *wel ton's sermon, ut supra. 

ie**Dunbar's statement, ut supra. 



which he was commissioned was made 
up of American loyalists, and Rev. 
Samuel Seabury, afterward the first 
American Bishop of the Episcopal 
church, was its chaplain. 

The refusal of the Waterbury au- 
thorities "to have anything to do with 
the matter," for which Miss Prichard, 
in the history of Waterbury, already 
cited, expresses herself as thankful, 
evidently thinking that it denoted 
greater moderation on their part, 
seems to me to mean simply that in in- 
quiring into the facts the Waterbury 
magistrates found that the specific acts 
charged were committed in Farming- 
ton, and therefore sent him thither 
for trial. It was only the usual and 
necessary procedure, since a criminal 
trial must always be had in the juris- 
diction where the criminal acts are 

Judge Jones, in his history of New 
York, a bitterly loyalist book, says of 
the charge against him : "His commis- 
sion and orders from Gen. Howe were 
in his pocket. There happened to be 
no existing law in the colony which 
made such an offense punishable with 
death. A law was therefore made on 
purpose ; upon which ex post facto law 
he was indicted and tried for trea- 
son." 17 

This charge that the law was passed 
after the criminal acts were commit- 
ted, if well-founded, would be a seri- 
ous one ; for such legislation is univer- 
sally recognized as contrary to natural 
justice. By the constitution of the 
United States, not then in force, of 
course, any ex post facto law in inva- 
lid and null. But I do not believe 
that the statement is true. 

The act defining treason under 
which he was convicted was the second 
act, the first having been a ratification 

of the Declaration of Independence, 
passed by the General Assembly which 
ment October 10, and adjourned No- 
vember 7, 1776. 

Jones himself says that Dunbar was 
taken up early in 1777; Dunbar says 
that by the justices he was committed 
to Hartford, where the Superior Court 
was then sitting, by which he was tried 
on January 23, 1777. This was the 
January, 1777, session of the court. 
The indictment charges his treason- 
able acts to have been committed on 
November 10, 1776, and January 1, 
1777; very likely the latter date was 
charged because he was arrested on 
that day, and the royal commission 
was then found in his possession. 

So that it is quite clear that his ar- 
rest, and the acts for which he was 
tried, occurred a considerable time after 
the passage of the act against treason. 

Doubtless it is true that he and 
other tories had been arrested and im- 
prisoned as dangerous characters, and 
there had been no sufficient statute 
under which to punish them ; and the 
legislature, at the earliest possible mo- 
ment after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, supplied the omission. But 
when they instituted a prosecution 
under the act, they clearly set up acts 
occurring after its passage. 

The indictment of Dunbar read as 
follows : 

"The jurors for the Governor & 
Company of the State of Connecticutt 
upon their Oaths present that one 
Moses Dunbar of Farmington in said 
county being a person belonging to & 
residing within this state of Connecti- 
cutt, not having the Fear of God be- 
fore his Eyes & being Seduced by the 
Instigation of the Devil on or about 
the 10th day of Novembr Last past 
& also on or about the 1st day of Jan- 

i7*Jones's History of New York, voJ I, page 175. 



uary Instant, did Wittingly & feloni- 
ously wickedly & Traitorously proceed 
and goe from said Farmington to the 
City of New York in the State of New 
York with Intent to Join to aid Assist 
& hold Traitorous Correspondence 
with the British Troops and Navy 
there Now in Armes, and Open Warr 
and hostilities against this State and 
the rest of the United States of Ameri- 
ca, and also that the said Moses 
Dunbar on or about the said 10th 
Day of November last & 1st day 
of January Instant Did unwittingly 
and knowingly feloniously wickedly 
and Traitorously at New York afore- 
said Join himself to the British Army 
and Enter their Service and Pay and 
did Aid and Assist the said British 
Army and Navy Now in Arms and 
Enemies at Open Warr with this State 
and the rest of the United States of 
America and did Inlist and Engage 
with said British Army to Levy Warr 
against this State and the Government 
thereof and Did procure and perswade 
one John Addams of said Farmington 
and Divers Other Persons belonging 
to and Residing within this State to 
Inlist for the purpose of Levying Warr 
against this State and the Government 
thereof and Did Traitorously Corres- 
pond with said Enemies and Give 
them Intelligence of the State and Sit- 
uation of the State and did plot and 
Contrive with said Enemies to Betray 
this State and the rest of the United 
States of America into their Power 
and hands against the peace and Dig- 
nity of the State and Contrary to the 
form and effect of the Statute of this 
State in Such Case lately made and 

His sentence was: — 

"that he Go from hence to the Gaol 
from whence he Came and from 

thence to the place of Execution and 
there to be hanged up by the Neck 
between the heavens and the Earth 
untill he Shall be Dead." 18 

The name of the man whom Dunbar 
was charged to have persuaded to en- 
list, John Adams, suggests that he was 
probably a father or brother of the 
Esther Adams whom he had just mar- 
ried. Apparently Dunbar carried on 
his courtship and his loyalist campaign 
together, and won the heart of the 
daughter for himself, and of the father 
or brother for the King, at the same 

There were quite a number of other 
trials and convictions under the same 
statute ; but no one was executed but 
Dunbar. I presume that the colonists 
felt it necessary to make an example 
of some one, to show that the law had 
teeth, and to drive the tory sentiment 
of the state into concealment and si- 
lence. For this purpose they may have 
desired a shining mark, and selected 
as the victim a man of high character 
rather than the reverse. 

He was ordered to be hanged on 
March 19, 1777. On March first, 
with the aid of a knife brought him by 
Elisha Wadsworth of Hartford, he 
cleared himself of his irons, knocked 
down the guard, and escaped from the 
jail. Wadsworth was indicted for his 
part in this escape, and was sentenced 
to be imprisoned for one year, to pay 
forty pounds fine, and the costs of his 
prosecution. Half of his term of im- 
prisonment, and his fine, was after- 
ward remitted. 

Dunbar was soon recaptured, and 
was executed on March 19, 1777, ac- 
cording to the sentence. The gallows 
was erected on the hill south of Hart- 
ford, where Trinity College now is, 
"A prodigious Concourse of People 

^♦Superior Court Records, Sec'y of State's office, vol. 18. 


were Spectators on the Occasion," of Connecticut, at the jail to Dunbar 

said the Connecticut Courant of March himself ; and one by Rev. Nathan 

24th. Strong, of the First Church in Hart- 

"It is said that at the moment when ford, in his church. Mr. Strong says : 

the execution took place a white deer "For reasons we must in charity hope 

sprang from the near-by forest, and honest to himself, he refuses to be 

passed directly under the hanging present at this solemnity ; my discourse 

victim. This tradition," says Miss therefore will not be calculated, as 

Prichard in the History of Waterbury, hath been usual on such occasions, to 

"is pretty firmly established." the dying creature who is to appear 

Two official sermons were preached immediately before the Great Judge; 

on the occasion of Dunbar's execution : but to assist my hearers in making an 

one by Rev. Abraham Jarvis, of Mid- improvement of the event, for their 

dletown, afterward Episcopal Bishop own benefit." 

[to be concluded] 




Just for a little, 'tis well to fare 

Out of the highway and down the lanes, 

Under the roofs of old homes, to share 
Nature's balm for the struggling world's pains; 

Just for a little to turn aside 

Out of the rush of the seething tide. 

Out of the high-roads, come, let us go ! 

Out of the thoroughfares of care, 
Into the quiet of ' 'apple row;" 

Into the paths of the valley, where 
Shadow the memories of days of old, 

Sweeter, more precious than silver or gold. 

Let us all follow the homeland cry; 

Return once again to jrour kinsmen, and hear 
The whip-poor-will calling, the old pine tree sigh; 

Rest in the calm of the meadowland near, 
Just for a little, — and then to fare 

Back to the toil of the world and its care. 





Former Dean of the I<aw School of Yale University 

WITHIN the last century 
English and American 
periodicals have con- 
tained hundreds of articles devoted 
to the topic of capital punishment. 
It has occupied large space in the col- 
umns of our most influential news- 
papers, religious and secular. It has 
been discussed in many sessions of 
many legislatures of our Union. It 
has again and again received the 
thoughtful consideration of the Eng- 
lish Parliament. 

It has been argued on Scriptural 
grounds, on ethical grounds, on hu- 
manitarian grounds. The old-fas- 
hioned Tory has feared that infidelity 
lurked behind "the attempt to set 
aside that great principle which God 
had laid down, that 'Who so shed- 
deth man's blood, by man shall his 
blood be shed.' " The tender-hearted 
Quaker has pleaded for the sanctity 
of human life. The conservative 
jurist has predicted a carnival of 
crime if the gallows no longer bore 
its gastly burden; the progressive 
jurist has doubted the deterrent ef- 
fect of a penalty which is rarely en- 

forced. So wise and experienced a 
statesman as Earl Russell thought 
"nothing would be lost to justice, 
nothing to the preservation of inno- 
cent life if the punishment of death 
were altogether abolished." 

It has come to be practically con- 
ceded that society has the right to 
protect life, liberty and property by 
the adoption of any measures best 
fitted to secure that end. Crime is a 
breach of the social compact, a viola- 
tion of some law enacted for the pro- 
tection of the individual. The of- 
fender must pay the penalty pre- 
scribed by law for such violation. 
No thought of passion, or vengeance, 
or retribution, or expiation must dic- 
tate or shape or color this punish- 
ment. The sanguinary instincts of 
the middle ages no more belong to 
the criminal jurisprudence of the 
nineteenth century than do the de- 
crees of that merciless magistrate. 
Judge Lynch. The sole considera- 
tion with which the legislator of to- 
day has to deal is the simple inquiry: 
What kind of degree of punishment 



will most effectually protect society 
from the consequences of crime? 

In deciding this question, the 
acknowledged principles of human 
nature and the teachings of mature 
experience must alike be taken into 
account. It must be remembered 
that while undue leniency brings law 
into contempt, undue severity pre- 
vents the uniform enforcement of law 
by weakening its hold upon the moral 
sentiment of the community. 

By the very nature of the social 
compact, society is bound to afford 
the amplest possible protection to 
human life. Does capital punish- 
ment give such protection? It is 
said that one object in visiting crime 
with a penalty is to deter others from 
committing a similar offence. Does 
capital punisment act as such a deter- 
rent? Does its existence on the stat- 
ute book tend to strengthen or to 
weaken public respect for law? 

Let us inquire whether in our 
times and in this country capital pun- 
ishment is so enforced as to afford 
adequate protection to human life; 
in our Union for general intelligence, 
and, secondly, if not so enforced, 
whether the reasons for its non-en- 
forcement are temporary and acci- 
dental, or well considered and prob- 
ably permanent. 

We shall be materially aided in 
these inquiries by reliable statistics 
from two States not second to any 
respect for law and love of social or- 
der. I refer to Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. It will not be ques- 
tioned that they are fair specimens of 
our best civilization, fortunate in pos- 
sessing competent courts of justice, 
able lawyers, admirable systems of 

common school education and many 
well-endowed and well-equipped uni- 
versities of learning. Whatever may 
be truthfully said of other communi- 
ties, here the administration of jus- 
tice is singularly free from political, 
mercenary or other corrupting in- 
fluences. In these States, if any- 
where in our broad land, we should 
expect to find laws in sympathy with 
the temper of the people. Certainly 
we should be surprised to discover 
any obvious reluctance to punish high 
crimes with suitable serverity, or a 
manifest disposition to shield the 
criminal from "The due reward of 
his deeds." 

Beginning with Massachusetts, we 
find that during the year from i860 
to 1882, both inclusive (omitting all 
cases which were not actually passed 
upon by juries), there were one hun- 
dred and seventy trials for murder 
in the first degree. Twenty-nine per- 
sons were convicted of the crime as 
charged. Twelve of the twenty-nine 
had their death sentences commuted 
to imprisonment for life. Sixteen of 
the seventeen whose sentences were 
not commuted were hung, and one 
committed suicide before the day 
fixed for execution. In twenty-six 
cases verdicts of murder in the sec- 
ond degree were rendered. 

If there are any who believe that 
Massachusetts is controlled by a 
spirit of philanthropy verging some- 
what too closely upon fanaticism, we 
call their attention to a few statis- 
tics from the neighboring Common- 
wealth of Connecticut, a State which 
no sane man has ever suspected of 
entertaining sentimental views of 
crime or its penalty. During the 



thirty years from January 1, 1850, 
to January 1, 1880, ninety-seven per- 
sons were tried for murder in the first 
degree. Thirteen were convicted of 
murder in the first degree. In six 
of the cases the sentence was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life. 
Seven were executed. Forty-two 
were convicted of murder in the sec- 
ond degree. Seven were acquitted 
on the sole ground of insanity. 

There are instructive statistics 
from New Haven County covering 
the same period of time. The county 
seat is the City of New Haven, the 
home of Yale College and formerly 
one of the capitals of the State. For 
this thirty years preceding the year 
1880, the number of trials for mur- 
der in the first degree was twenty- 
three. In one case the sentence was 
commuted to imprisonment for life. 
Two were hung. Three were acquit- 
ted on the sole ground of insanity. 
Nine were conviceted of murder in 
the second degree. 

During the same period the num- 
ber of trials for the crime of burglary 
in the same county was three hun- 
dred. Now, bear in mind that a 
trial for murder is not only not a 
I hasty proceeding, commenced with- 
out much preliminary investigation 
and pressed forward with very little 
ceremony, but that it usually sup- 
poses three previous hearings — be- 
fore the coroner's jury, a magistrate, 
and a grand jury, all for the purpose 
of ascertaining if there is a probabil- 
ity of guilt — and, farther, that in the 
State of Connecticut, the crime of 
burglary is never brought before a 
grand jury, but is tried on "informa- 

tion" of the presecuting attorney for 
the county, and you will be prepared 
to appreciate the startling contrast 
presented by the fact that out of the 
three hundred trials for burglary to 
which I have alluded, two hundred 
and seventy-three resulted in convic- 
tions. In three cases the accused 
were acquitted on the ground of in- 

In 1852 the State of Rhode Island 
abolished the death penalty, substitu- 
ting imprisonment for life. Its most 
populous county is Providence, of 
which the county seat is the City of 
Providence, not exceeded in intelli- 
gence by any community in our coun- 
try; possessing, like New Haven, 
public schools of unsurpassed excel- 
lence, to say nothing of the civilizing 
and enlightening influences of an an- 
cient university. Turning to the rec- 
ords of this county, we find that 
during the thirty years next succeed- 
ing the date of the abolition of capi- 
tal punishment, out of twenty-seven 
trials for murder in the first degree, 
there . were seventeen convictions ; 
considerably more than fifty per cent. 

But let us take more concrete illus- 
trations. Three trials for murder in 
the State of Connecticut within the 
last twelve years of the period men- 
tioned attracted extraordinary atten- 
tion, not only by reason of the ex- 
ceptional atrocity of the offences as 
proved, but also of the astounding 
character of the verdicts rendered. 
In each case the killing was by poi- 
son administered by somebody, de- 
liberately, systematically, persist- 
ently. There was no suggestion of 
insanity. It was not urged that the 



deed was done in self-defence, or in 
the heat of passion or under great 
provocation. There was no conceiv- 
able escape from the conclusion, 
either that the accused were innocent 
not only of any criminal intent, but 
of any homicidal act, or else that they 
were guilty of murder in the first 
degree. In two of these cases, the 
verdict was murder in the second de- 
gree, the penalty for which was, as 
the jury had, of course, been in- 
structed, imprisonment for life. In 
the third case, a plea of murder in 
the second degree was accepted by 
the Court. When, a little later, one 
of the women — for two of the ac- 
cused belonged to the gentler sex — 
confessed to having poisoned eight 
persons within twenty years, it could 
not have been a surprise even to the 
jury who had saved her from the 

About twelve years before in the 
same State, a man was tried for mur- 
der in the first degree under the fol- 
lowing circumstances: Having a 
grudge against a neighbor, the ac- 
cused armed himself with a shot gun, 
concealed himself behind a stone 
wall on the road side not far from his 
house, and awaited his opportunity. 
When, presently, the unsuspecting 
farmer seated in his wagon was 
driving past the place of ambush, the 
assassin took careful aim and fired. 
As the victim fell, an arm pressed 
upon one of the reins and the horse 
obeying the impulse thus unconsci- 
ously given, bore his bleeding and 
dying master into the yard and be- 
fore the door of his murderer. The 
result of the trial was a verdict of 

murder in the second degree. This 
occurred in a county in which there 
were twenty-seven trials for murder 
within thirty years and in which the 
hangman's office has been a sinecure 
for a century. 

Take another case occurring three 
years earlier in another county of 
the same State. A man after several 
quarrels with his wife of whom he 
professed to be jealous, invited her 
to bathe with him in a shallow stream 
near their home. Having in a very 
deliberate manner held her head un- 
der water until she was drowned, he 
secreted her dead body in an adjoin- 
ing thicket, and subsequently trans- 
ferred the remains from place to 
place to diminish the danger of dis- 
covery. I believe, that when finally 
arrested, he was engaged in this 
somewhat unenviable if not repre- 
hensible occupation. Tried for mur- 
der in the first degree, he was con- 
victed of murder in the second de- 
gree. It is only fair to add that dur- 
ing the period to which I refer — from 
1850 to 1880 — Connecticut has al- 
ways been represented in its crimi- 
nal courts by competent prosecuting 
officers, abundantly able to cope with 
the counsel for the defence. 

The story during the last twenty 
years bringing us down to the pres- 
ent day is but a corroboration and 
the illustrations would be very simi- 
' It is asserted that in Massachu- 
setts fifty per cent, of life prisoners 
are pardoned. Of the fifty-six com- 
mitted to the Connecticut State 
prison during the thirty years from 
1850 to 1880 on life sentences for 



murder or on commutation of sen- 
tence, eight died in prison, four were 
transferred to the State Hospital for 
the Insane; leaving forty-four to be 
accounted for. Of these, thirty-four 
were pardoned, after an average per- 
iod of confinement of nine years and 
two months. 

In view of such facts as these, the 
statement does not seem extrava- 
gant, "that imprisonment for life is, 
to all intents and purposes, an un- 
known punishment in this country." 
And it is very important that we bear 
in mind that verdicts of murder in 
the second degree as a substitute for 
the death penalty, are rendered with 
a full knowledge of the probable con- 
sequences we have described. 

It may be well to remember at the 
outset, that not a few thoughtful men 
who have made crimes and their pen- 
alties the subject of special study, 
have seriously questioned whether 
there is any appreciable deterrent in- 
fluence in punishment. For, it is said, 
if the offence be committed in cold 
blood, the offender counts upon es- 
caping detection, and if in hot blood, 
he takes no thought of the future. 

It will, we think, be conceded by 
the vast majority of those who have 
had occasion to be familiar with pro- 
ceedings in criminal courts, as well 
as by our most accomplished penolo- 
gists, that the difficulty of securing 
convictions in capital cases arises al- 
most exclusively from reluctance to 
take human life. In many instances, 
of which some examples have been 
given, this feeling has been so strong 
as to override all evidence, and 
at defiance inevitable inferences from 
undisputed facts. 

It sometimes seems as if the jury 
and the prisoner's counsel were 
joined in a conspiracy to save the ac- 
cused from the gibbet. And yet, af- 
ter all, the venerable anecdotes to 
prove that by circumstantial evidence 
the innocent have been condemned 
to die and the guilty have been 
screened from punishment; the well- 
worn stories of convictions procured 
by perjured testimony, and, where 
the edge of these familiar weapons 
is somewhat dulled by proof of the 
prisoner's confession, the easy sug- 
gestion of insanity — these and sim- 
ilar devices which perhaps to a spec- 
tator weighing the evidence with im- 
partial mind because having nothing 
at stake, seem pitiably weak, may fill 
the anxious twelve with most dis- 
tressing doubts. Have they not, or 
at all events, do they not believe that 
they have the life of a fellow being 
in their hands? 

But for this predisposition to 
mercy among jurors founded on the 
fear of making a fatal mistake, mur- 
der trials would be reduced to much 
more moderate dimensions and the 
ends of justice be more speedily at- 
tained. The eclat of cheating the 
gallows of a victim with so many 
chances in his favor will usually 
tempt an able advocate to undertake 
a capital case and will stimulate him 
to greater zeal — not always limited 
to legitimate efforts — than is mani- 
fested in any other criminal proceed- 
ing where professional activity is not 
stimulated by a generous fee. 

With what follows you are all fa- 
miliar — the countless pretexts for 
postponing the trial ; the pains taken 
to secure twelve men having no de- 



cided convictions on any subject; the 
characteristic treatment of the wit- 
nesses for the State; and last of all 
the fervid appeal to the weary, con- 
fused jurors to "beware how they 
usurp the attributes of the Almighty 
and allow their fallible inferences 
from human and therefore imperfect 
evidence to send a fellow creature to 
the scaffold;" and all the rest of it: 
I dare say some of you know it by 
heart — from the daily papers. Some 
times it has the ring of true elo- 
quence; sometimes it is the merest 
rant. But whether it be eloquence 
or rant, it serves to remind the jury 
of the sacredness of human life, the 
danger of being misled to the injury 
of the accused, and the possibility, 
however remote, of sacrificing an in- 
nocent man. 

Over against this, as the point to 
be carried, the advocate masses his 
heaviest artillery. Hear him. "Of 
all penalties, capital punishment 
alone is irreparable. Property may 
be restored; reputation may be re- 
trieved; but human life once taken, 
can never be recalled. Fatal mis- 
takes have been made; will be made 
again," etc., etc. True, every word 
of it; and because true, rarely with- 
out its effect upon a jury. More- 
over, we think it demonstrable that 
reluctance to convict on this precise 
ground is increasing rather than di- 
minishing in our most enlightened 

But if, as will occasionally happen, 
the case is too clear for even a spec- 
ulative doubt, and a verdict of guilty 
is returned, the prisoner's counsel 
need not dispair. There remain the 

various expedients which we have 
neither space nor time to enumerate; 
terminating with the petition for par- 
don or commutation, which almost 
everybody seems willing to sign — all 
intended to set at naught the delib- 
erate judgment of the jurors, and 
save the forfeited life of the convict. 
Another consideration should be 
by no means overlooked. If capital 
punishment is to be retained on our 
statute books and is ever to be en- 
forced, we shall still be confronted 
with that most embarrassing if not 
insoluble problem: How shall exe- 
cutions be conducted? Public hang- 
ing is now almost universally con- 
demned on account of its brutalizing 
effect upon the spectators. Secret 
hanging will never be and ought 
never to be tolerated among a free 
people. If hanging is within the 
prison enclosure and representatives 
of the press are permitted to be pres- 
ent — and it is difficult to see how 
they can be excluded — then every in- 
cident, moment by moment, of the 
last hours of the doomed man, with 
all the hideous and harrowing details 
of the final tragedy, will soon be eag- 
erly devoured by millions of readers 
from Maine to Mexico, with results 
hardly less demoralizing than those 
which accompany and follow the 
public enforcement of the death pen- 
alty. For it should be observed — al- 
though the gloomy picture hardly 
needs a more sombre tint — that one 
consequence of our infrequent hang- 
ings is that the clumsy because un- 
practiced hand and the troubled be- 
cause humane heart of the execu- 
tioner often turns what should be 



made an impressive spectacle into a 
scene which excites only disgust, hor- 
ror and indignation among the be- 

We are now prepared for the final 
inquiry: What is proposed as an ef- 
fectual substitute for the death pen- 

Let us see if imprisonment for life 
will not answer this reasonable re- 
quirement. As has already been re- 
marked, the design of the death pen- 
alty is two fold. First: To incapa- 
citate the criminal from repeating his 
crime; and second: To deter others 
from committing a like offense. This 
is all. Restitution is impossible. 
Reformation, in the brief period be- 
tween the sentence and the scaffold 
is highly improbable. 

But, clearly, society at large is as 
perfectly protected from the violence 
of a man who is confined in prison 
for life, as though he were "hung by 
the neck until dead." Hanging does 
nothing more than put him out of the 
way. Does imprisonment for life do 

But observe; the convicted mur- 
derer has forfeited the right to be at 
large; therefore he is imprisoned for 
life. He has even forfeited the right 
to the society of those who have been 
guilty of crimes, but of lesser degree ; 
therefore his only fellow prisoners 
should be fellow murderers. If in 
any given commonwealth, there 
should not be a sufficient number of 
life prisoners to warrant the erec- 
tion of a separate building to confine 
them, it would only be necessary to 
add a wing to the main prison ad- 
joining yet distinct. A life prisoner 

should have regular hours of labor, 
nutritious food, clean and well-ven- 
tilated cells, suitable clothing; but no 
diversions ; no relaxations ; no com- 
munication with the outer world; no 
correspondence with relatives or 
friends. In a word, he must be so- 
cially dead, as much so as if his body 
were mouldering in a felon's grave. 

Solitary confinement should be re- 
served for additional punishment — 
or for violation of prison rules ; per- 
haps permanent solitary confinement 
for the murder of a keeper or a fel- 
low prisoner. In Rhode Island, 
where, for other murders, capital 
punishment is abolished, it is enacted, 
"that every person who shall commit 
murder while under sentence of im- 
prisonment for life shall be hung." 
This statute was probably passed in 
the belief that juries would always 
convict under such circumstances, but 
within five years, in another New 
England State, a convict who, while 
endeavoring to escape, killed his 
keeper, was convicted of murder in 
the second degree. And although 
this was really a case of murder in 
the first degree, and should have re- 
ceived the highest punishment known 
to the law, yet it must always be re- 
membered that if there are exception- 
ally wicked prisoners, there are also 
brutal keepers and a long series of 
exasperating indignities may trans- 
form a human being into a wild beast. 

Consider now the probable deter- 
rent effect of the suggested substi- 
tute for the death penalty. Impris- 
onment for life under the conditions 
which have been indicated, is a form 
of punishment which may well ap- 



peal to the stoutest heart. A man 
condemned to die and cherishing a 
hope, however faint, of a reprieve, 
may, at the last, when all hope has 
fled, brace himself by a supreme ef- 
fort, against the brief agony of the 
gallows and meet his fate with forti- 
tude. Indeed, we know that men 
have done this. But now if we look 
forward to the certainty of a life- 
long seclusion from his fellowmen? 
There is no room here for mock hero- 
ism or bravado. There is no specta- 
cle : . There are no spectators. Noth- 
ing which the world can give will 
ever minister to his enjoyment or 
comfort, or break the sad monotony 
of his weary days. There will be no 
tidings from home; he has no home 
but a cell; no horizon beyond the 
prison walls. He is, in sober ear- 
nest, "A man without a country." 

To others, his punishment is a 
standing menace; a perpetual warn- 
ing. The lessons taught by the gal- 
lows are short lived. The man dies 
and is forgotton. But the prisoner 
for life preaches from his lonely cell 
a daily sermon to deter from crime. 

Again, the deterrent influence of 
this form of penalty will be materially 
enhanced by the greatly increased 
certainty of conviction after detection 
and of punishment after conviction. 
From the moment when it is made to 
appear that a possible mistake is not 

irreparable, trials for murder will be 
deprived of their anomalous and ex- 
ceptional features. The gallows will 
no longer cast its dark shadow across 
the court room. Evidence will be 
weighed, and inferences drawn, and 
probabilities balanced, and verdicts 
rendered, as in other criminal cases. 
There will be less feverish excite- 
ment; fewer angry controversies, di- 
minished attraction for the idle and 
vicious; in a word, a much more 
wholesome atmosphere, material as 
well as moral, for the exercise of 
calm reflection and deliberate judg- 
ment. It would be strange, more- 
over, if much impassioned, not to 
say lurid eloquence of the Old Bailey 
variety were not lost to the world. 
But our life is controlled by compen- 
sations and we should hope to be rec- 
onciled, in time, even to this result, 
in view of the more rapid dispatch 
of criminal business, and, as we firm- 
ly believe, the added security to hu- 
man life. 

And now, if the question be asked — 
and certainly nothing could be more 
natural than such an inquiry — How 
can the literal execution of a life sen- 
tence be ensured? I answer: By 
a constitutional provision, making 
release from confinement impossible 
until, before the court in which the 
prisoner was convicted, it shall be 
made to appear that he was innocent. 







"The father of the animal story as 
we have it to-day was doubtless 
Charles Dudley Warner, who, in his 
'A Hunting of the Deer/ forever 
killed all taste for venison in many 
of his readers. The story of the 
hunt is given, from the standpoint 
of the deer, and is, I think, the most 
beautiful and effective animal story 
yet written in this country. It is 
true in the real sense of the word. 
The line between fact and fiction is 
never crossed. 

"But in Mr. Thompson Seton's 
Wild Animals I Have Known, and 
in the recent work of his awkward 
imitator, the Rev. William J. Long, 

I am bound to say that the line be- 
tween fact and fiction is repeatedly 
crossed, and that a deliberate attempt 
is made to induce the reader to cross, 
too, and to work such a spell upon 
him that he shall not know that he 
has crossed and is in the land of 
make-believe. Mr. Thompson Se'ton 
says in capital letters that his stories 
are true, and it is this emphatic as- 
sertion that makes the judicious 
grieve. True as romance, true in 
their artistic effects, true in their 
power to entertain their young read- 
er, they certainly are ; but true as 
natural history they as certainly are 


R. Burrough's criticisms quo- 
ted above are interesting, 
not only because they pre- 
sent the hard cold severity of the 
aging naturalist whose last few 
weeks have been spent roughing it 
with President Roosevelt in the great 
northwest, but because the three dis- 
tinguished men mentioned are now, 
or have been, residents of Connecti- 
cut. The late Charles Dudley War- 
ner resided and died in Hartford, 
and his wife is still at the late litter- 
ateur's home. Ernest Thompson 

Seton resides at Cos Cob, while Wil- 
liam J. Long is living in Stamford. 

Dr. Long, who for many years has 
been a quiet and patient observer of 
animals in their native wilds, has of 
late given us some delightful books 
that profess to record these observa- 
tions. Mr. Burroughs denies these 
observations categorically ; calls them 
inventions, on the sole ground that 
he is himself an observer and has not 
seen these things ; and condemns Dr. 
Long for perpetrating a fraud upon 
an innocent public. 



This is a personal question be- 
tween two writers; the personal ele- 
ment must therefore enter into the 
discussion of it. Dr. Long, is by re- 
putation, and by the testimony of all 
who know him, a gentleman of honor 
and integrity. His life has been one 
long search for the verities. At 
eighteen years he made the sacrifice 
that few can measure of giving up 
home, friends, money, position, to 
follow what seemed to him the truth. 
He is a scholar, a graduate of Bridge- 
water Normal School ; of Harvard 
University; of Andover Theological 
Seminary; of Heidelberg University, 
where, he took the degrees of A. M. 
and Ph. D., and a student also of the 
Universities of Paris and Rome. He 
speaks four or five languages ; reads 
as many more; and his specialties are 
philosophy and history. The study 
of nature and animal life is to him 
purely a recreation in a life of con- 
stant hard work; and it must be ad- 
mitted that he brings to this study a 
rare training. If his observations are 
unusual, so also are his qualifications 
and opportunities. For over twenty 
years he has spent part of each sea- 
son, summer or winter, deep in the 
woods. Sometimes he has lived in 
the wilderness alone for months at a 
time; again he follows his animals 
with Indian hunters, whose whole 
life has been a study of the natural 
and animal worlds. No danger or 
difficulty seems too great to stop him 
when he is on the trail of an animal 
"to find out," as he says, "just what 
the animal is doing, and why he is 
doing it." Moreover, as his work 
shows, he is intensely sympathetic ; his 

knowledge of the animal world has 
the added force of intuition as well 
as of long study, and The Dial calls 
him "our foremost animal psycholo- 
gist." Every pre-supposition there- 
fore is in his favor. He would nat- 
urally speak truth, first because truth 
is natural to him, and second because 
with his position and profession he 
would have no conceivable object in 
speaking otherwise. As Mr. Bur- 
roughs and every other close obser- 
ver will testify, there are wonders 
enough to be seen in the animal world 
without invention. 

Mr. Burroughs, who denies Dr. 
Long's observations, has spent his 
life largely on the farm. In training 
and opportunity he is the exact oppo- 
site of the man he condemns. Of 
the great wilderness, and of the ani- 
mals among whom Dr. Long is most 
at home, he has until recently had no 
direct knowledge or personal exper- 
ience. His observations of the small- 
er animals and birds of the farm are 
accurate and excellent; but there is 
absolutely nothing in these observa- 
tions to preclude the possibility or 
even the probability of those recorded 
by Dr. Long. It is passing the 
bounds of criticism, as well as of rea- 
son, to say that what one observer 
sees on his farm in New York must 
limit what another observer may see 
in the Maine wilderness — especially 
when one remembers the fact that is 
emphasized by most modern obser- 
vers, namely, the individuality of 
every animal of the higher orders, 
which gives him habits more or less 
different from every other individual 
of the same species. 



The writer of this editorial has 
spent many years in the west among 
the Indians, and incidentally watch- 
ing the animals, in which I have more 
than a passing interest. I was first 
drawn to Dr. Long's books by the 
wonderful keenness and accuracy of 
the observations recorded there. I 
bear willing testimony to the truth of 
many of Dr. Long's records of ani- 
mal life, which I have personally 
witnessed, but which I had never be- 
fore seen recorded; and I have seen, 
or heard from reliable Indians, facts 
of animal cunning and intelligence 
quite as remarkable as any of those 
that are denied so absolutely by Mr. 
Burroughs. Of the facts recorded 
in "The School of the Woods," 
"Beast of the Field" and "Fowls of 
the Air" I have no doubt whatever; 
for I know Dr. Long's habit of never 
publishing an observation till he has 
verified it, either by a second obser- 
vation or by the witness of reliable 
trappers and Indians. Some of his 
theories of animal education and 
psychology may be modified or 
changed by further observations ; and 
no one will rejoice more than Dr. 
Long to receive proof or disproof of 
what is to him, at best, only a work- 
ing hypothesis. At present his theory 

of animal education seems to have a 
pretty strong backing of fact, and we 
are grateful to him for having 
opened our eyes. We remember 
many things that we have seen in 
animal life that cannot be accounted 
for by the words "nature" and "in- 
stinct;" and that, if training and in- 
dividual motive can enter into the 
lives of our dogs and cats and modify 
their natural habits, the same thing 
must be true in a more marked de- 
gree of their free, wild kindred. Cer- 
tainly Dr. Long presents a remark- 
able array of observations on this 
subject, and they can hardly be swept 
aside by the mere negation of another 
naturalist who has not seen them, 
and who, indeed, could not see them, 
for he has never put himself under 
the difficult conditions where alone 
such observations are possible. Not 
one observer in a hundred would ever 
have put himself in the place where 
Dr. Long has been to watch his ani- 
mals, and not one in a thousand 
would have the patience or courage 
to stay there. He has seen more 
than other observers simply because 
he has put himself in a position to do 
so. In a word, he has paid the price 
of his success. 




In a personal letter regarding the controversy with Mr. Burroughs many interesting truths were 
told by Mr. I^ong and his position was possibly more strongly expressed than it has been in the 
published articles. After some persuasion Mr. I,ong has given his permission to reproduce the per- 
sonal letter sent me directly following Mr. Burrough's attack— Editor 

I thank you heartily for the kindly 
spirit of your letter and edi- 
torial and for the courtesy 
which submits the latter to me before 
publication. I could wish that your 
contemporary, which first published 
Mr. Burroughs' attack, had been 
governed by a like courtesy and con- 

Mr. Burroughs falls into a very 
natural mistake in his criticism, the 
mistake by a man who assumes final 
authority in a matter of which he has 
not sufficient knowledge. I say this 
advisedly; for, notwithstanding Mr. 
Burroughs' observations on the farm 
and his nature book which I read with 
delight and to which I give full meas- 
ure of praise, all our animals and 
birds differ widely in habits and intel- 
ligence, and no man has sufficient 
knowledge of any class of animals to 
affirm or deny absolutely what other 
animals of the same class will do in 
a different locality under different cir- 
cumstances. Curiously enough his 
mistake and spirit are precisely these 
of the New England theologians fol- 
lowing Calvin's good example. They 
discovered a certain amount of truth 
undoubtedly. Then they built a 

fence around it; called it a creed; 
limited the divine wisdom and ordin- 
ation to their own small horizon ; and 
sent all those to endless perdition who 
dared to see the truth differently and 
without the fences. 

One expects more freedom in na- 
ture than in theology; but, spite your 
eyes and experience, to set an intelli- 
gent animal down as a creature of 
mere habit and instinct — instinct that 
has no increase, and habit that knows 
no modification — and to limit what 
the bear can do in Canada by what one 
has seen the rabbit do in West Park, 
that surely is a bondage of the letter 
such as Edwards never approached. 

As I said recently in the Boston 
Transcript: There is a storm in the 
forest, but fortunately in the forest 
storms never strike the ground. One 
may sit there in peace and quiet amid 
the great trees, watching a wood- 
mouse tunnel for a crumb that he 
dares not take openly from your hand, 
while a tempest rages overhead. One 
hears the sound thereof, but scarcely 
feels a breath of it upon his face 

Unfortunately this is not the first 
time that Mr. Burroughs has ex- 



pressed himself in print with less 
courtesy and accuracy than we could 
wish to see. Some of us remember 
his controversy anent the classics with 
Maurice Thompson, a gentleman, a 
scholar, and a rare naturalist. But 
to pass over that in which the per- 
sonal element entered too strongly 
and in which knowledge on one side 
found itself opposed to dogmatism on 
the other, I recall his cutting criticism 
of Lowell and Bryant in Scribner's 
Monthly (December, 1879). For in- 
stance — and this is but one of many 
points — he criticised Lowell for hav- 
ing buttercups and dandelions bloom 
freely together, a thing to be seen in 
a hundred meadows. As it turned 
out he had never seen and did not 
even know the species of buttercup 
that grows here. In the Atlantic 
Monthly (March, 1880), Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson showed the ex- 
treme inaccuracy and arrogance of 
this whole criticism. 

To take an extreme case, as I did 
in the Transcript: I suppose that 
there is one point upon which nearly 
all dog owners will agree — namely: 
The extreme devotion of the mother 
dog for her young. Yet this is by no 
means an invariable habit. Once, 
when following dogs through a Ger- 
man game preserve to compare the 
habits of foreign species with our 
own, the birth throes came upon a 
pointer — a gentle, playful dog belong- 
ing to my friend, Baron von Horn- 
stein. She flung the pups savagely 
aside one by one as they were born, 
and rushed on to join the hunt, leav- 
ing them to die in the bush. 

This extreme variety and adaptive- 

ness in the same species is quite as 
true in the wild as in the domestic an- 
imals. The only difference is that we 
see much less of the wild animal's life, 
and we are still too much governed 
by the prejudices of the old natural 
history. The black bear of Florida 
differs widely in habits from his 
brother of the Mississippi cane 
swamps, and still more widely in hab- 
its and disposition from the animal of 
the Canada wilderness. The panther 
of Colorado is afraid of the smallest 
of dogs ; the panther of northern New 
Hampshire and the Adirondacks will 
kill the biggest of them without prov- 
ocation. The salmon of the east 
coast tastes no food for months after 
entering fresh water; the salmon of 
the west coast is a voracious feeder. 
For thirty years I have heard the rob- 
in's song — every note and variation 
of it. Yet last summer in the Maine 
woods Mr. Pearl Young, a well- 
known guide, and myself spent an 
hour trying to find a rare wild singer 
that neither of us had ever heard be- 
fore ; and when we found him he was 
a common robin. 

Mr. Burroughs denies that a por- 
cupine ever rolls himself into a ball. 
That may possibly be irue of the por- 
cupines that he has seen. Here the 
porcupine has no longer any natural 
enemies that he is afraid of, and there 
is no need of the habit. In the wilder- 
ness I have found them when I had 
to poke them with a stick, so closelv 
were they rolled, before I was sure 
where the head and tail were. Neg- 
lect of this habit cost the life of one 
porcupine that I have seen. It was in 
deep, soft snow. A fisher attacked 



the porcupine, which struck his head 
against a log and kept his tail flat to 
the ground, ready to strike. The 
fisher tunnelled deep in the snow, 
passed under the tail and body of the 
porcupine, stuck his head out of the 
snow under the porcupine's throat, 
gripped him and killed him without 
receiving a single barb. 

Mr. Burroughs will call this a lie, 
because he has not seen it. Fortu- 
nately Mr. Young, the guide referred 
to, once saw the same thing in a dif- 
ferent locality. 

The critic accuses Mr. Seton of de- 
liberate falsehood and misrepresen- 
tation. While I differ radically from 
Mr. Seton in many of his observa- 
tions and theories of animals, my 
notes, covering a period of twenty 
years of close watching of animals, 
bear out some of the things which 
Mr. Burroughs assures us are pure 
inventions. The fox, for instance, 
that deliberately led the hounds in 
front of a train is ridiculed as a piece 
of pure absurdity. Yet two dogs of 
mine were killed by the same fox in 
this way at different times, and a 
third in a way much more remark- 
able. There was also a fox in West 
Upton, Mass., in the winters of 1887- 
1890 that would play around the hills 
until he heard the hoot of a distant 
train, when he would lead the hounds 
straight for the railroad tracks. He 
succeeded in killing one of them, at 
least, to my own knowledge. 

Mr. Burroughs is quite as far 
astray about the fox in many other 
particulars. He claims that a fox 
knows a trap by inherited knowledge. 
Now a fox is like a caribou in that 

he believes only his nose. When he 
avoids a trap it is not because he 
knows it is a man's invention, but for 
exactly the opposite reason; namely, 
that it has a smell on it that he does 
not know. Put the same trap in 
shallow running water to take away 
the unknown smell, put a bit of green 
moss from a stone upon it, and a fox 
will put his foot into it without a 
question. He claims also that a fox 
in the wilderness knows as much as 
in a settled community. That must 
be a priori knowledge, for he has cer- 
tainly never tried the wilderness fox. 
Personally, I have trapped foxes in 
both places and I have invariably 
found that the wilderness fox is an 
innocent when compared with his 
brother of the settlements. And this 
— contrary to Mr. Burroughs' abso- 
lute decree — is the result of teaching 
and experience. 

Mr. Burroughs denies absolutely 
the story of the fox that brought poi- 
son to her young. There is a diffi- 
culty in that story which I hope some 
day to have Mr. Seton explain; but 
Mr. Burroughs does not discover it. 
Yet most of it is true to both fox and 
wolf natures as I know them. Mr. 
Richard Maddox, an English gentle- 
man who has hunted each year for 
over twenty years in the Canadian 
Rockies and in Ontario, told me that 
a mother wolf brought poison to her 
two cubs that were kept chained on 
his ranch and killed them both in pre- 
cisely this way. 

Mr. Burroughs treats my own 
books, and especially my "School of 
the Woods'' with even less courtesy. 
He denies the facts absolutely because 



he has not seen them on his farm, and 
therefore they cannot be true. He 
also denies the theories. There is ab- 
solutely no such thing as an animal 
teaching her young — "there is noth- 
ing in the dealings of an animal with 
her young that in the remotest way 
suggests human instruction.'' Teach- 
ing is not primarily instruction, by 
the way. It is not giving something 
new to the young animal or boy, but 
rather an inducement bringing out 
what is already in him. This is the 
theory of all good teachers from 
Froebel to the Boston supervisors. 
But let that pass. How any man 
could watch the mother birds and ani- 
mals for a single season, to say noth- 
ing of fifty years, and write that state- 
ment passes my comprehension. In 
my notes are a hundred instances to 
deny it (and my notes were not in- 
tended to be published when they 
were written but, lest my own witness 
should be cast out, let me bring in two 
others on a single subject. Anna 
Botsford Comstock, who is one of our 
best and most careful naturalists, tells 
of a cat that learned to open a door, 
and taught two out of her litter of kit- 
tens to do the same thing. Rev. 
Magee Pratt, of Hartford, formerly 
literary editor of the Connecticut 
Magazine, who is an authority on 
horticulture, had a cat that learned 
from a dog to sit up on her hind legs 
and beg food. She taught four out of 
five kittens to do the same thing. I 
could quote a hundred other instances, 
in both wild and domestic animals, 
and show the same thing. 

Mr. Burroughs' whole argument in 
this connection misses the point alto- 

gether. He tells us what animals do 
by instinct (though he is vastly mis- 
taken in saying that young birds build 
their nests as well as old ones) and 
says simply that this is enough. 
" School of the Woods" does not deny 
instinct — I have watched an ant and 
the bee and the water spider too long 
for that — it shows, and conclusively I 
think, that instinct is not enough. 
For an animal's knowledge is, like 
our own, the result of three factors: 
Instinct, training and experience. In- 
stinct begins the work (for the lower 
orders this is enough), the mother's 
training develops and supplements 
the instinct, and contact with the 
world finishes the process. 

"A wild animal is a wild animal as 
soon as it is born, and it fears man 
and its natural enemies as soon as 
its senses are developed," he writes. 
But all our domestic animals were 
wild yesterday ; how, then, are they 
now tame? Young fawns when 
found in the woods just after birth 
have no fear of man : how does fear 
come? The Arctic animals had no 
fear of the first explorers : now they 
are wild; whence this change? Here 
are two animals, an otter and a fisher ; 
both belong to the weasel family, 
and in a general way are alike. The 
first is gentle and harmless to all ani- 
mals ; the second is a savage and per- 
sistent hunter. Now, without the 
mother's influence and teaching how 
shall the young grouse know, as they 
soon do know, which of these ani- 
mals to avoid and which to ignore? 

Again he says, "Let a domestic cat 
rear its kittens in the woods and they 
are at once wild animals." That de- 



pends entirely on the cat. Let a 
motherly old tabby drop her kittens 
anywhere, and at your approach she 
will rub against your legs, and the 
kittens will be like her. Let a half- 
starved wild creature drop her kit- 
tens in the same spot, and she will 
fight at your approach, and the kit- 
tens will show the same wildness. 
Mr. Burroughs dogmatizes here; but 
he can test the theory if he will, as I 
have done. In the Nantucket swamps 
are scores of wild cats that are a 
scourge to the game. Summer visi- 
tors bring cats with them and fre- 
quently when they go away abandon 
their pets thoughtlessly. Little by 
little they drift off to the swamps and 
become wild. I have found and stud- 
ied them there often. At first these 
abandoned cats will come to you. The 
young are timid, as all defenceless 
things naturally are (timidity and 
watchfulness on the part of the ani- 
mals are not fear in one sense of the 
word, as a chapter in "School of the 
Woods" tries to show), but the 
mother by her example teaches them 
to trust you. Gradually they grow 
wilder, in successive generations, and 
I spent three weeks once trying to 
tame a half-starved savage mother 
and her three kits. Twice she sent 
her teeth through my hand, but in the 
end the fear vanished. I had taught 
them what the mother would have 
taught them a few years earlier. 

Not only have I watched these an- 
imals myself, but I have taken infinite 
pains to compare my observations not 
with the books but with the exper- 
ience of trappers and Indians who 
know far more of animal ways than 

the books have ever provided; and I 
have heard from old Indians whose 
lives have been spent in the woods, 
stories of animal cunning and intel- 
ligence beside which my own small 
observations seem very tame and 

You know the wonderful things 
that your own particular dog will 
do? That is not because he is more 
intelligent than all other dogs, but 
simply because you have watched him 
more and know him better. You 
would find much more wonderful 
things of the wolf and fox could you 
but watch them with the same thor- 
oughness and sympathy. For these 
wild animals are not spoiled by men ; 
and they are in every way more cun- 
ning and individual animals. 

Your editorial is quite right when 
it intimates that I may by further ob- 
servation modify my theories of ani- 
mal education and psychology. That 
is what I am doing all the time. 
Meanwhile the facts remain as I have 
recorded them, and every modifica- 
tion must be the result of more facts. 
And I shall probably continue to 
watch animals for myself and believe 
my own eyes and ears rather than 
listen to the voice of authority in 
these matters ; for otherwise of what 
use is it either to watch or write ? 

Your critic is too kind and esti- 
mates my ability too highly. He 
should read Dr. Lockwood and find 
out how little he knew. But his crit- 
icism is a refreshing contrast, and so 
I let it go gladly. 

With kindest regards, very sin- 
cerely yours, W. J. Long. 

Stamford, Conn. 


Conducted by Edwin Stanley Weeees 

This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries 
should be as precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his 
personal attention to questions relating to Hartford records free of charge. Extended investigations 
will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. 

Persons having old family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are 
requested to communicate with him with reference to printing them. 

Anything that will help to enhance the value and usefulness of this department will be gladly 

Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many of 
which can only be answered by recourse to original records. 

Querists are requested to write clearly all names of persons and places so that they cannot be 
misunderstood, and to write on only one side of the paper. Queries will be inserted in the order in 
which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CON- 
NECTICUT MAGAZINE, Hartford, marked Genealogical Department. Give full name and post- 
office address— Editor 


Norton. Nicholas Norton and 
wife, Elizabeth, of Martha's 
Vineyard, had first son, Isaac, 
born at Weymouth, May 3, 1641, 
married Ruth Bayes. They had 
son, Joseph. Was he not the 
Joseph Norton, who married 
Sarah Swain, and father of Sol- 
omon, born about 171 5, and mar- 
ried after 1742 Deborah Smith? 
If, as I am told by a descendant, 
Solomon had deeds of land on 
the Vineyard from his father, 
Joseph, dated 1752, it could not 
have been Joseph (3), Joseph 
(2), Nicholas (1), for both 
Joseph, Sr., and Joseph, Jr., 
were dead at that time, one in 
1734 and the other in 1744. And 
if Joseph, Jr., married Sarah 

Swain, born in 1670, she was 
eight years his senior, which is 
not possible of course. 

Joseph (3) Norton, son of 
Joseph (2), Nicholas (1), waa 
born in 1778. 

I have no dates of the children 
of Isaac and Ruth Bayes. They 
were Jacob, married Dinah Cof- 
fin ; Samuel married Content 
Coggeshall ; Joseph — did he 
marry Sarah Swain? 

Benjamin married Avis . 

Was she Avis Stanton? Isaac 
born 1680 (?), and five daugh- 
ters, only two of whom I have 

Hannah married Joshua Dag- 
get, and Ruth married Israel 
Daggett. I sincerely wish that 



we might get some light on this 
Norton line. 

Mrs. Jennie F. Stewart, 

Rensselaer, N. Y. 

52. (a.) Preston. Esther Pres- 
ton was born at Torrington, 
Conn., August 6, 1772. Her 
mother was Sarah (Cooke) 
Preston, probably daughter of 
Joseph Cooke, of Torrington. 
Who was Esther Preston's 
father, and what was the line? 

(b.) Preston. Sarah Cooke, 
born May 12, 1753 or 1754, 
probably daughter of Joseph 
Cooke, of Torrington, married 

Preston, who was mortally 

wounded at the "Battle of the 
Brandy wine," September 11, 
1777. He started to go home, 
but died before reaching there, 
and was buried in New Haven. 
What was his given name? To 
what company did he belong? 
Give his genealogy. 

(c.) Preston. Stephen Preston, 
Corporal of Captain Durkee's 
"Independent Company," of 
Wyoming Valley, was in the 
"Battle of the Branywine," Sep- 
tember 11, 1777. Was he the 
husband of Sarah Cooke, of 
Torrington? Give any genea- 
logical or Revolutionary War 
Records regarding him. 

(d.) Preston. Aaron Cooke, 
born in Windsor, Conn., October 
1, 1745, died May 19, 1804, mar- 
ried Lydia Preston, born in 1748, 
who died February 13, 18 14. 
Give Lydia Preston's genealogy. 

(Miss) Esther H. Thompson, 

Box 407, Litchfield, Conn. 

53. (a.) Williams. Who was 
the "Mr. Williams" mentioned 
with eight other men, who 
served as committees from the 
three towns of Hartford, Wind- 
sor, and Wethersfield, May 1, 
1635-36, at the General Court 
held at Hartford, and was he the 
father of my ancestor, Mary 
Williams, who married 1647, 
Joshua Jennings, of Hartford, 
supposed son of John Jennings, 
of Hartford ? A Court was sum- 
moned at Hartford, May, 1635- 
36, to deliberate on the subject 
of the Pequot War, and for the 
first time the towns were allowed 
to send "Committees" (besides 
the Deputies) and these commit- 
tees were: Messrs. Whiting, 
Webster, Williams, Hull, Chap- 
lin, Talcott, Mitchell, Sherman 
and Geffords. (See Barber's 
"Conn. Hist. Colir P. 2.) 

The names of the children of 
Mary (Williams) Jennings 
were: Joseph, Michael, Joshua, 
Matthew, Horace, Mary and 
Elizabeth (as taken from their 
father's will), but Savage gives 
them sons, John and Isaac. 
C. L. S. 

(b.) Jennings. Wanted proof of 
Joshua Jennings, of Hartford, 
(in above query) as being a son 
of John Jennings, 1st, of same 
town? During my one brief 
visit to Hartford I found proof 
in the oldest Land Records there 
of one of the two Nicholas Jen- 
nings in New England, being a 
son of John, 1st, of Hartford, 
and think that proof of the par- 



entage of Joshua exists. Also 
wanted information of John Jen- 
nings, 1st. Who was he and 
where did he come from? He 
d. 1641 in Hartford. (Memo. 
Hist, of H-) In N. B. Gen. 
Reg. Vol. 44, "John Hooker of 
Marefield, Co. Leicester, Eng- 
land, in his will of 1654, names 
cousins Wm. Jennings and Sam- 
uel Hooker in New England. 
Also names Wm. and John Jen- 
nings, sons of John of Chilcott, 
in Denbighshire." John Hook- 
er was brother of Rev. Thomas, 
of Hartford, so a connection be- 
tween the Hookers and Jennings 
is shown, both in old and New 
England, prior to 1654. 

(c.) Tilt on. Who was Elizabeth, 
wife of the Hon. Peter Tilton, 
of Windsor, Conn., later of Had- 
ley, Mass.? My records say 
they "m. May 10, 1639, in Wind- 
sor, Ct.," but her last name is 
not given. Some of their de- 
scendents ought to be able to 
answer this query. I have proof 
that Peter Tilton, of Windsor, 
was a son of William Tilton, of 
Lynn, Mass., which I should be 
pleased to give to any descen- 
dants who might like it. 

C. L. S. 
Miss C. L. Sands, 

66 Lincoln Street, Meriden, Conn. 

54. (a.) Blackly. Wanted ances- 
try of Thomas Blackly said to 
have been in Hartford in 1640. 
New Haven in 1643, anc * Bran- 
ford in 1645. "He signed the 
agreement with those who mi- 
grated from Branford to settle 

in Newark, N. J. Who was 
his wife? 
(b.) Dodd. Thomas Blackly's 
son, Aaron, married Mary Dodd, 
of Guilford. W T as she a daugh- 
ter, or granddaughter, or of 
what relation to Daniel Dodd, 
who came from England in 1642, 
locating at Branford, some of 
whose descendants are known to 
have been in Guilford in 1703? 
J. M. Lindly, 
Winfield, Iowa. 

Note. — 54. (a.) Little appears 
to be known about Thomas 
Blackley. Miss Mary K. Tal- 
cott in her article on the Origi- 
nal Proprietors of Hartford 
says that he "embarked for New 
England in the Hopewell, Julv 
28, 1635, ae - 2 °; was granted a 
lot in Hartford conditionally, 
Jan. 7, 1639-40, removed to New 
Haven, 1643 5 was at Branford in 
1645 J signed the fundamental 
agreement of the settlers of 
Newark, in Oct., 1666. but re- 
mained in Connecticut : in his 
latter days he was at Guilford, 
and died in Boston, probably on 
a trading visit about 1674. His 
Widow, Susanna, afterwards 
married Richard Bristow. of 
Guilford. Memorial History of 
Hartford County, Conn.. Vol. 1, 
P. 231. 

Answer. — 54. (b.) Daniel Dod 

married Mary probably 

about the year 1646. He died 
in the winter of 1664-5. She 
died May 26, 1657. and were 
both buried in Branford. They 



had Mary, who married Aaron 
Blatchly (Blackley) about the 
time of her father's death. 

Family Record of Daniel 
Dod. P. 13. 

The diary of Rev. Stephen Mix, of 
Wethersfield, continued from Vol. 
VII, P. 402 : 

(Page 42.) 

17 17. May 26. Sarah, child of 
Joseph Curtice; Leonard, child of 
Leonard Dix. 

Sept. 1. Josiah, child of Josiah 
Goodrich; Sarah, child of Sam'll 
W'ms; Hanah, [child] of Sam: Col- 
lins; Elezabeth, [child] of Luther 

Dec. 8. Wm : child of Wm : War- 
ner ; Elnath : child of Wm : Good- 
rich, Jun'r. 

Dec. 22. Mary (I think), child 
of Jno: Wiard; and Kez[iah], child 
of Micael Griswold, Jun'r. 

Dec. 29. Elesabeth, illegitimate 
child of Joseph and Anne Clerk. 
She was David Wright's daughter. 

1717-18. Jan'y 3. Baptised 
Thankful, daughter of Nathan Hurl- 
but, at his own house; the child be- 
ing supposed dangerously ill. 

Jan'y 5. Eunice, child of Mr. 
Josh: Robbins, ye 2d. 

Feb. 2. Elisha, child of Mr. Elisha 
Williams ; Abigail, child of Capt. 
David Goodrich. 

Feb. 9. Jeremiah, child of Sam'll 
Griswold; Sam'll, child of Ziba 

Feb. 16. Elias, child of Ephraim 
W'ms ; and Ben jam : child of Ben- 
jam : Belding. 

Feb'y 23. Noadiah, child of Jno: 

Taylor, Jun'r; Ebenezer, illegitimate 
child of [Wds?] Abig'l Lattemer. 
The [The rest gone, at foot of page; 
about one line]. 

[A break, from 1718 to 1727, oc- 
curs here. S. W. A.] 

(Page 43.) 

1727. Oct. 1. Treat, ye son of 
Sam'll and Katharine Deming. 

Oct. 8. Christian, child of Sam'll 

Oct. 29. Martha, child of Jno. 
Smith; Elesabeth, child Ezra Beld- 

Nov. 5. William, child of Jonath: 

Dec. 3. Lois and Eunice Dem- 
ing, children of Nath'll Deming. 
One perhaps near 5, and the other 
perhaps abt 3 yrs old; Mehetabel, 
child of Sam'll Robbins; Timothy, 
child of Timothy Bordman. 

Dec. 10. Susannah, child of Jos- 
eph Dickinson. 

Jan'y 7. Susannah Goodrich, wid- 
dow of Ephraim Goodrich, deceased. 
She was daughter of Mr. Dan'll 
Hooker. She own'd ye cov't now. 
Ephraim, child of said Ephr: Good- 
rich, deceased ; and this Susanah, his 

Jan'y 28. Ishabod, child of the 
Widow Lucas. She was Joseph 
Crowfoot's daughter. 

Feb'y 11. Hezekiah, child of 
Timothy Begelo. 

Feb'y 18. Mary, child of Jno: 
Jillit [Gillette], illegitimate. Ye 
child of J. Jillit now own'd ye cov't. 

Feb'y 3. Solomon, child of Beza- 
leel Lattemer. 

March 17. Martin, child of Mar- 



tin Smith; George, child of Rob't. 

(Page 44.) 

1727-8. March 24. Elisha, child 
of Richard Lord; Jno: child of Tho: 

1728. Hon'r, child of Robert 
Francis. Apr. 14. 

Mary, child of Rich'd Montague. 
Apr. 21. 

May 19. Jno: child of Josiah and 
Sarah (my eldest daughter) Good- 
rich, of Tollon [Tolland.] 

[May] 26. Wm: son of Wm: 

June 2. Elizur, son of Sam'll 

June 9. Katharine, daughter of 
Charles Bulkly. 

June 23. Josiah, child of Ebene- 
zer Wright. 

June 30. Josiah, child of Josiah 

July 28. Elias, child of Peter 
Hurlbut; who now own'd the coven- 

Aug. 25. Rebecca, child of Moses 

Sept. 1. Henery, child of Henry 

Sept. 22. James, child of Jno: 

Octob'r 20. Jno: child of Jno: 
Deming, 3d ; i. e. Sam'll's son ; James 
and Mary, children of Jonath: Blin. 

Nov. 17. Hezekiah, child of Hez- 
ek'h May; Katharine, child of Dan'll 

(Page 450 
1728. Dec. 8. Sarah, child of 
Jno: Stilman; Sarah, child of Jos- 
eph Flowers. 

Jan'r 26. Lucy, child of Sam'll 
Wright, Jun'r. 

Feb. 9. Hezek: child of Noadiah 

March 2. Jno: ye child of Jno: 
Tyral [Tryon?] 

March 9. Sarah, child of Jonath: 

March 16. James, child of Nath'll 
Butler; Jno: (I think), child of Jno: 
Taylor, Jun'r; Sarah (I think), child 
of Isaac Goodin. 

[1729?] Apr. 13. Elisha, child 
of Nath'll Deming. 

April 20. Hezekiah, child of Jos- 
eph Dickenson. 

May 18. David, child of Ephr: 
W'ms; Elesabeth, child of Jno: Rus- 
sel; Benoni, child of Mary, ye daugh- 
ter of James Wright. This child 
unlawful; I think charg'd on one 
Wolf, of Glastenbury. 

June 8. Benjamin, child of Jno: 
Dix; Sarah, child of Sam'l Buck. 

June 22. Elisha, child of Sam'll 

July 6. Elias, child of Isaac 
Deming; Martha, [child] of Timothy 

(Page 46.) 

1729. August 10. Jno: child of 
Jno: Coleman, Jun'r. 

August 17. David, child of Da- 
vid Deming. 

August 24. Joseph, child of Jos- 
iah Talcot. 

August 31. Martha, child of Mr. 
Rob't Wells; Hezekiah, child of Na- 
th'll Hale. 

Sept. 21. Jno: child of Jno: Jil- 
lit [Gillette]. 

Sept. 28. Stephen, or Stephen 


Jno: [Joseph?]) child of Mr. Mar- March 22. Hanah, child of Jo- 

tyn Kellog. siah Belding; Joseph, child of Joseph 

Octob'r 12. Mary [a few words Flowers; Richard, child of Rich'd 

in short-hand], Thomas Belding; Montague. 

Zachary, child of Zachary Bunce. [!730?] April 19. Wm: child 

Octob'r 19. Sarah, child of Jon- of Dan'll, son of Josh: Robbins, ye 

ath: Robbins. 2d. 

Nov. 9. Joseph, child of Abigail May 3. Prudence, Martha, Israel; 

Miller; and I think ye father's name children of Jno: Blin; baptized at 

to be Joseph Miller ; a man who came their mother's motion, and on her 

from N. York government, I think acct; Bezaleel, child of Bezaleel 

from some w'r on Hudson's River. Lattemer; Lydia, child of Silas Beld- 

Nov. 23. Gideon, child of Nath'll ing. 

Wright. May 10. Mabel, child of Josiah 

Nov 24. Elesabeth, child of Mr. Griswold; Mercy, a Negro maid of 

John Curtice; w'ch child was priv- Capt. Josh: Robbins. 

ately baptiz'd; it being dangerously May 17. Prudence, child of Peter 

il ; died ye night following. Hurlbut. 

Nov. 30. Thankful, child of Wm: May 31. Timo: child of Timothy 

Blin; and George, the child of Benj : Begelo. [Bigelow, E. S. W.] 

Stilman. July 19. Charles, son of Leonard 

Decemb'r 7. Prudence, child of Dix; Jonath: child of Mary Hun- 

Jonath: Burnham. lock, who was Mary Hanmer. 

Dec. 14. Giles, child of Charles Aug. 9. Jno: child of Eben'r 

Bulkeley; Hanah, child of Timo: Belding. 

Bordman. Aug. 16. Lydia, child of Jno: 

[2] 8. Prudence, child of Ger- Blin. 
shorn Not; Christopher, child of 

Joseph Wells. (Page 48.) 

(Page 47.) Aug. 30. Mary, child of Rob't 

Jan'y 4. Ruth, child of Rich'd Maskee [Mackee].; Mabel, child of 

Lord. Jno: Smith. 

Feb'y 8. Hanah, child of Sam'll Sept. 13. Gideon, child of Gideon 

Stedman. Deming; Joshua, child of Josh: 

Feb'y 15. Wm: child of Rob't Woolcot. [A line of short-hand]. 

Francis. Oct. 11. James, child of Wm. 

Feb'y 22. Sarah, ye child of Wm : Deming. 

Barton. Oct. 25. Elesabeth, child of 

March 1. Abigail, child of Mr. Jonath: Robins. 

Dan'll Fuller; Pastor of ye ch'h at Dec. 6. Dan'l, child of Jno: Dem- 

Wellington. ing; Ann, child of Tho: Harris. 

March 15. Sarah, child of Sam'll Dec. 13. Elesabeth, child of Hez- 

Deming. ek'h May; George, child of David 



W'ms, and Mabel Rose, his wife. 
This last illegitimate. 

Dec. 20. James, child of Jonath: 
Blin; Nath'll, child of Henery Kir- 
cum. This was privatejy baptized, 
because ill, and feared likely to die. 

Jan'y 24. Stephen, child of Jacob 

Jan'y 31. Prudence, child of Jno: 

Feb'y 14. Hanah, child of Gideon 
Wells; Elisha, child of Jno: Stil- 
man: Sarah, child of Joseph Bore- 

Feb. 21. Tho: child of Tho: 
Fox; David, child of Joshua Carter; 
i. e., Joshua Carter [A line of short- 

1 73 1. March 7. Judith, child of 
Capt. Rob't Wells; Deliverance, 
child of Jno: Hurlbut and Elesabeth 
Dodg, al. Hurlbut. She now own'd 
ye cov't and had her child baptiz'd ; 
Israel, child of Josiah Talcott. 
(Page 49.) 

March 14. Wm: child of Mr. 
[William?] Manly; belonged to 
Charles Town ; Mary, child of David 

March 21. Elesabeth, child of 
Dan'll Butler. 

May 9. Sarah, child of Jno: Jil- 
lit [Gillette]. 

June 2y. Eben'r, child of Sam'll 

July 4. Moses, child of Capt. 
Sam'll Wright; Dudley, child of 
Noadiah Deming. 

July 18. Jno: the child of Sam'll 

Aug. 1. Benj : child of Charles 
Bulkeley; Nath'll, child of Nath'll 
I Butler. 

Aug. 15. Thomas, child of 
Thomas and Mary Belding; i. e. [A 
line in short-hand follows]. 

Sept. 12. Jno: child of Jno: 
Russel, Jun'r. 

Sept. 22. Benjamin and Hezekiah, 
twins; children of Jonathan Church- 
il. They were now privately bap- 
tized; the one of y'm being a poor 
thing, and the life of it doubted of. 
They were near 14 days old. I 
think he spake. 

Octob'r. Elesabeth, child of Mr. 
Jno : Curtice. 

Octob'r 20. Esther, child of Tho: 
Stedman; Elesabeth, (I think), 
child of Timo: Bordfman]. 

(Page 50.) 

Octob'r 31. Elesabeth, child of 
Jno: Coleman, Jun'r; Caleb, child of 
Caleb Griswold. 

Dec. 5. Sam'll, child of Benj : 
Stilman ; James, child of Jno : Smith ; 
Elijah, child of Jonath: Russel. This 
child illegitimate. 

Dec. 12. Ozias, child of Eb'r 
Gibbs, who came firstly from Wind- 

Dec. 19. I was at Hartford, to 
preach at the [1st?] Ch'h and Mr. 
Beckus preached here, and baptiz'd a 
child for Mr. Rich'd Lord ; and Flag's 
1st child. 

1732. March 26. Allyn, child of 
Nath'll Stilman; Anne, child of Tho: 
Harris ; Jno : Hon'r, Martha : child- 
ren of Timothy Baxter ; he and's wife 
now owning ye cov't. 

April 30. Jno: child of Josiah 

May 20. Patience, child of Wm: 



June 4. Hanah, child of Nath'll 

June 18. Rebecca (I think), 1st; 
a illegitimate of Josi'h Ryley; Pru- 
dence, child of Ephraim Williams. 

[Rev. Simon Backus of Newing- 
ton. E. S. W.] 

June 18. Anabel, child of Wm. 

(Page 51.) 

Aug. 13. Mehetabel, child of 
Gershfom Not.] ; Anne, child of 
Zachary Bunce; Wm: child of Wil- 
liam Deming. 

Aug. 20. Hanah, child of Rich'd 
Montague; Hezekiah, child of Ann 
Renalls [Reynolds] ; widow of 
James Renals, deceased. 

Aug. 27. Timothy, child of Tim- 
othy Wright; Abigail, child of Isaac 

Sept. 3. Solomon, child of Dan '11 

Sept. 10. Susannah, illegitimate 
child of Jonath: Renals [Reynolds]. 

Sept. 24. Jno: illegitimate child 
of Jno: No[tt?] ; baptized on its 
mother's account; she now owning 
the covenent. 

Oct. 1. Epaphras, son of Epaph- 
ras Lo[rd?] ; Daniel, son of Timothy 

Nov. 19. Lois, child of Hezekiah 
Butler; Oliver, child of Silas Beld- 

Decemb'r 3. Joseph, child of 
Tho: Belding; Jno: child of Jno: 
Rennals, Jun'r; Margaret, child of 
Wm: Manly; Elisha, child of Tim- 
othy Baxter. 

Dec. 31. Jno: child of Tho: 

Jan'y 14. Lydia, child of Am- 
asa Adafms]. 

(Page 52.) 

Jan'y 21. Katharine, child of 
Sam'll Deming; Rebecca, child of 
Joseph Miller; on his wiv's account; 
who is a daughter of Sam'll Wright. 

Feb'y 11. Esther, child of Joshua 
[a line of short-hand] Woolcot. 

Feb'y 18. Jahleel, child of David 
Williams; Ann, child of John Jillit 

March 4. Abigail, child of Jno: 

March 11. Timothy, child of 
Robert Francis. 

March 18. Hon'r, child of Jno: 
Deming; Eleazer, child of Hezekiah 
May ; Sarah, child of Josiah Talcott ; 
James, child of James Mitchell. 

1733. April 8. Wm: child of 
Jonathan Dickenson. 

May 6. Ephraim, illegitimate 
child of Lydia Griswold. She 
charged it on Ephraim Willard; 
Maria, child of Nicolas Ayrault. 

May 13. Esther, child of John 

May 20. 

June 24. Mary, illegitimate child 
of Joseph Curtice, Jun'r; Mary, ille- 
gitimate child of James Treat, Jun'r, j 
And James [The rest frayed off, at 
top of page] ; Rebecca, child of Mr, 
Martyn Kellog; Jerusha, child of 
Isaac Goodrich. 

July 1. Elizur, child of Jonath: 
Burn [ham]. 

August 26. John, child of Lt 
Joseph Treat. Sam: [Blank]. 

Sam'll, child of Jonth'n 




Sept. 2. Jonathan, child of Caleb 
Griswold ; Charles, child of Jno : 

Sept. 16. Jonath'n, child of Jno: 

Sept. 23. Eunice, child of Ezra 
Belding; Hezekiah, child of Dan'll 

Octob'r 14. George, child of 
Sam'll Buck. 

Novemb'r 4. Sarah, child of [Ja- 
cob ?] Goodrich ; Mary, child of 
Jos[iah] Buck. 

Nov. 18. Eunice, child of Joseph 
Bordfman] ; Rebecca, child of Jos- 
eph Flowers. 

1733. Jan'y 13. Ashbel, child of 
Isaac Ryly. 

Jan'y 20. Joshua, child of Jon- 
ath'n Robbins. 

I 733"4- Feb. I0 - George, child of 
Hezekiah Kilburn. 

Feb'y 24. Mary, child of Rich : 

[ ]• 

(Page 54.) 
March 3. Sarah, child of Tho: 
Harris ; Abigail, child of Amasa 
Adams. , 

1734. March 31. Anna, child of 
Nath'll Stilman. 

April 7. Abigail, child of David 

Deming; Hanah, child of Jno: Ren- 
als [Reynolds], Jun'r; Solomon, 
child of Wm: Blin, Jun'r. 

April 22. Mabel, child of Jno: 
Smith ; died in a little time after. 

May 12. Jno: child of Beza [Be- 
zaleel?] Lattemer. 

June 2. Prudence, child of Ephr : 

June 23. Jacob, son of Josiah ; 
son of Jacob Griswold, Sen'r. 

July 14. Chloe, child of Tosiah 

Sept. 22. Hannah, child of Jno: 
Coleman, Jun'r. 

Octob'r 4. Ye night following — 
baptized two twin children of James 
Treat, Jun'r. Ye names were: 
Jno : and Sarah. 

Octob'r 20. Abigail, child of Jno: 
Jillit [Gillette]. 

Octob'r 27. Absolom. child of 
David Williams. 

Nov'r 3. Sam'll Phillips Lord, 
child of Mr. Epaphras Lord. 

Nov. 10. Charles, child of Charles 

Dec. [8?]. Elijah, child of Timo: 

Dec. 29 (?) Mary, child of Mr. 
Sam'll Ta[lcott?]. 

[the End.] 







(Ou the editorial staff of The Meriden Morning Record) 

CEMETERIES are mute his- 
torians and evolution of 
thought can be traced on 
the marble slabs just as surely as by 
the written words of those who chron- 
icle events. There is as much differ- 
ence in cemeteries as there is "in 
folks." Some are totally lacking in 
individuality while others teem with 
what the novelist calls "heart inter- 
est," and awaken even in the veriest 
stranger, whose heart is not torn by 
personal memories, a wondrous sym- 
pathy and charity. 

The atmosphere of an old cemetery 
places one in a philosophic mood. 
The bits of history, the fleeting glimp- 
ses of customs and manners of years 
ago, the untold tales of sacrifice and 
devotion revealed "between the lines" 
on the silent stones, make the imagin- 
ation run riot, and one involuntarily 
attempts to fathom the mysteries of 
which these mute witnesses give the 
only clue. 

There is an impersonality, a re- 
moteness about an old burying 
ground, which obliterates the morbid 

feeling that attaches to the new ceme- 
tery. Things which happened a hun- 
dred years ago take on an unreal- 
ity which revives interest and di- 
vorces one's mind from the gruesome 
conditions. A modern shaft in a 
well-kept yard is "like the writing on 
the wall;" a warning or reminder of 
things which the world would feign 
forget. The simple little memorial 
-of a century ago, on the other hand, 
simply seems to be a milestone in his- 
tory and, as such, awakens a feeling 
of interest and curiosity. 

Oak Hill Cemetery in Southington 
is a delightful blending of the ancient 
and modern which admits of many 
deductions and surmises. Nature 
has done its utmost to rid this last 
resting place of the terrors of death. 
The growth of trees and shrubs, the 
utter absence of a set design in ar- 
rangement, give a tranquility and 
satisfaction to the mind which is in- 
tensified by the expansive view which, 
greets the eye from the crest of the 
hill. As the sun sinks behind the 
horizon and its warm rays no longer 
illuminate the marbles, there is no 



feeling of desolation, but rather of 
exaltation and infinite peace. 

The beauty of location of this par- 
ticular "God's Acre" brings forcibly 
to mind the references made in tradi- 
tion as to the spirit which animated 
the earlier settlers in the selection of 
a place where they might bury their 
dead. After considering the pictur- 
esqueness of Oak Hill the question 
uppermost in the mind is : Did those 
old Puritans choose this spot because 
of some material advantage or did 
just a little sentiment creep into the 
transaction ? Did they, for once, 
leave the beaten track, break the fet- 
ters of conventionality and give free 
rein to their artistic longings which 
may have been only dormant? Did 
they so far consider the mortal frame 
as to deliberately select a spot which 
would gladden the eye of the living 
and make the wrench of parting more 

If one were to judge solely from 
the flinty inscriptions on some of the 
stones, sentiment played absolutely 
no part in the creation of Oak Hill. 
Utility and convenience figured very 
largely in the daily routine in 1700. 
Economy, too, played a very impor- 
tant part and these three character- 
istics figure even on the tombstones 
as if those interred were loth to be 
separated from these attributes even 
in death. 

A psychologist has said that a sense 
of humor is an absolute essential to 
a well balanced, normal mind. With- 
out it vision becomes distorted and 
things appear either larger or smaller 
than they really are. The quaint lit- 
tle stones in Oak Hill simply reveal 
what historians have always empha- 

sized — the utter absence of humor in 
the Puritans. This Jack of humor 
pervaded their religion and was re- 
flected in their everyday life and the 
odd inscriptions show how terribly 
serious was the problem of existence 
to these early settlers. There was 
no attempt or desire to lessen the ter- 
rors of death. It was as natural to 
die as to be born. There was no use 
trying to dodge the inevitable and it 
indicated a lack of character to cater 
to the flesh or the mind in order to 
lessen the pangs of sorrow. The 
pent-up grief found expression in 
such comforting warnings as the fol- 
lowing, which seem to have been 
particularly popular : 

This Solemn voice Mortal attend 

To meet your God prepare 
And at His bar prepare to stand 

For soon you must be there. 

Behold and see as you pass by 
As you are now, or once was I. 

As I are now, so you must be 

Prepare for Death and follow me. 

Death is a debt to others due 

Which I have paid, and so must you. 

The idea has generally gone forth 
that as a rule, the people of a cen- 
tury or two ago were characterized 
by a spirit of resignation. Uncon- 
sciously, perhaps, they subscribed to 
the "what is to be, will be" tenets. 
Though they would have been the 
last to admit it. they were nothing 
more or less than fatalists. Despite 
their deep religious convictions, they 
frequently felt called 10 attribute I 
the Lord things which might have 
been accounted for had they analyzed 
their own narrow-minded notions. 

Now and then a tell-tale stone re- 



veals a cynicism which would do 
credit to a twentieth century individ- 
ual. Note the pessimistic strain in 
this, in memory of a man who had 
lived to the ripe age of eighty-two 
years : 

Our age to seventy is set, 

How short the term, how frail the state 
And if to eighty we arrive 

We rather sigh and groan than live. 

During the latter part of the sev- 
enteenth and the first part of the 
eighteenth century, double stones 
seem to have been very popular, and 
in Oak Hill, one of the silent evi- 
dences of the triumph of love over 
the hide-bound customs and charac- 
teristics of the people of that day, is 
the words on one of these double 
stones, which says : "They dies 
within eighteen hours of each other." 
The life story of this husband- and 
wife, aged eighty-nine and seventy- 
five, is told in the following, which 
contains more real sentiment than any 
of the other ancient inscriptions : 

Along the gentle stream of life we past, 

Together to the grave we come at last, 
While in our life each other's grief sup- 
And in our death we hope for everlast- 
ing peace. 

Whether our prudent and self- 
contained ancestors believed it a use- 
less waste of money and energy to 
erect a stone over the body of one 
child, is a question, but records are 
not lacking at Oak Hill to show often 
two or three children died before the 
one stone was erected to mark the 
burial place of the several little ones. 
One inscription giving various dates 
and announcing the fact that three 
children were interred, reads thus : 

To the dark and silent tomb 
Soon we hasted from the womb, 
Scarce the dawn of life began 
E're we measured out our span. 

The examples of ''cemetery art" 
which Oak Hill affords, provide more 
infallible proof that the good people 
who inhabited this mundane sphere 
in ante-Revolution times, had no 
sense of humor. Before the Puritans 
cut themselves off from contact with 
the mother country, the art of Eng- 
land and the continent was reflected 
to a greater or less extent in the col- 
onies. When deprived of this source, 
the primitive people found them- 
selves absolutely unequal to the task 
of creating or imitating anything ar- 
tistic. The strenuous days of the 
Revolution, the days of self-sacrifice 
and terror were reflected in every 
line. There were no curves ; angles 

Some of the specimens of art in 
Oak Hill give an idea of the meagre- 
ness of originality and the grotesque 
conception of the beautiful. Noth- 
ing could be more genuinely ludicrous 
than that product of an artist of 
1776, which is dignified by. the name 
of cherub. It is extremely difficult 
to conceive of the state of mind which 
gave birth to such ideas of cherubim 
and seraphim. They truly are not 
in the "likeness of anything in the 
heavens above, the earth beneath or 
the waters under the earth." A cir- 
cle with lines of varying length to 
designate the features are put over 
the graves irrespective of "age, color 
or previous condition of servitude." 
The remains of the innocent babe 
and the hardened old sinner are alike 
adorned, the expression only varying" 
as the artist happened to change his 



tactics in locating his instrument. 
The majority of the memorials are of 
brown sand-stone and occasionally 
there are attempts at lateral decora- 
tion, the four leaf clover, palm leaf, 
and scroll being favorites. On two 
stones are outlines of large hearts, a 
surrender to sentiment which must 
have occasioned some alarm among 
the dutiful. There is one attempt at 

bas relief which beggars description. 
There is a combination of rotundity 
and elongation which is conflicting; 
the closest scrutiny of the head fai j s 
to reveal the sex and the inscription 
gives no clue. If the figure was in- 
tended to represent the person in- 
terred it is to be hoped spirits do not 
know of the efforts made to do lienor 
to their memories. 



Man, the Master- 
Workman in the World 

"Alan, the workman in the world, 
is a pygmy creator," says Bliss Car- 
man, poet and aesthete. "It matters 
not at all whether he draws, or digs, 
or makes music, or builds ships, in the 
work of his hands is the delight of 
his heart, and in that joy of his heart 
lurks his kinship with his own crea- 
tor, and from whom, through the obe- 
dient will and plastic hand of the ar- 
tist all art and beauty are derived." 

We are the builders, the makers of 
the future, the strugglers for attain- 
ment. In the heart of every true man 
there is a desire to develop the best 
that is in him and to accomplish some- 
thing which will have made his exis- 
tence worth the while. Even though 
the material gain may lie modest 
there remains the sweet contentment 

of duty conscientiously performed. 
All labor has its compensations ; there 
is reward in struggle ; there is a per- 
sonal gratification in attempting which 
many times gives greater enjoyment 
than the morbidity of prosperity. 

"Since life is great, nay of inesti- 
mable value, no opportunity by which 
it may be improved can lie small. In 
the midst of the humble and inevitable 
realities of daily life each one must 
seek out for himself the way to better 
worlds. Our power, our worth will 
be proportionate to the industry and 
perseverance with which we make 
right use o\ the ever recurring minor 
occasions whether for becoming or 
doing good. What is success but a 
command to attempt still higher 
things? What is failure but an ex- 
hortation to the all-honing heart of 
man to make another venture?" 

1 66 


The Nobility of Life 
and its Upbuilding 

There is more in the present than 
today ; there is yesterday upon which 
today was builded, and tomorrow for 
which today we are building. There 
is an inclination among unapprecia- 
tive minds to forget the past and to 
think only of the coming. This ab- 
normal attitude takes from life that 
which gives us the greatest incentive 
for labor, and robs us of reward. It 
is only by a continuity that we achieve, 
and every hour since the beginning is 
a record that should be faithfully pre- 
served and reverenced. "The past is 
but the happy prologue to the swell- 
ing act of an imperial theme." From 
the beginning to the expiration the 
loan of life is a precious span of time 
and on the day of its maturity it can 
only be balanced, " well-spent" accord- 
ing to its productiveness. "Give to 
men earnestness, consciousness of 
their own affairs, self-respect and 
knowledge, and then insist upon it 
that they shall use them ; give to men 
this spirit and there shall be no priest 
and no bishop that shall govern them 
except as the air governs the flowers, 
except as the sun governs the seasons, 
for the sun wears no sceptre, but with 
sweet kisses covers the ground with 
fragrance and with beauty." As one 
writer has said : We are born to grow 
— this is the word which religion, 
philosophy, literature and art cease- 
lessly titter; and we can grow only by 
keeping ourselves in vital communi- 
cation with the world within and with- 
out us. Use or lose is nature's law. 
Learn to think, and you shall never 
lack pleasant occupation. Bring your 

mind into unison with the hundreds 
of thoughts which are found in the 
books of power, and you need be 
neither lonely nor depressed. "The 
transfusion of thought is more quick- 
ening" than the transfusion of blood." 
Therefore that which is endeavoring 
to assist you in up-building is price- 
less in its value. 

Where Men Find Out 
the Handiwork of God 

In the Connecticut Magazine I wish 
to persuade you to "Step out into 
that great circle which Divine Provi- 
dence marks out, where men find out 
the footsteps and the handiwork of 
God, and take which they find to make 
men larger and richer, and truer and 
better." I wish to lead you to broad- 
er life that you, like that "glorious 
company of men who are saying to the 
rock and to the sky and to the realms 
of nature, 'What secret hath God told 
you? Tell it to us,' " may too assist 
in making men free and emancipating 
the human mind. "Every artist who 
works upon his canvas or upon the 
stone, or rears up stately fabrics, ex- 
pressing something nobler to men 
giving some form to their ideals and 
aspirations — every such man is work- 
ing for the largeness and so for the 
liberty of men. And every mother 
who sits by the cradle, singing to her 
babe the song which the angels sing- 
all the way up to the very throne, she 
too is God's priestess, and is working 
for the largeness of men, and so for 
their liberty. Whoever teaches men 
to be truthful, to be virtuous, to be en- 
terprising ; in short, whoever teaches 
manhood, emancipates men ; for lib- 



erty means not license, but largeness 
and balance of manhood that men go 
ri2;ht, not because they are told to, 
but because they love that which is 

Absorb Strength from the 
Heroic Struggles of the Past 

Then value the loan of existence. It 
is but a little while and we come this 
way but once ; why barter continually 
over the monetary cost of that which 
is in itself priceless because of its in- 
culcations of the principles of love of 
home and duty. Cultivate the love 
of living, the love of nature : became 
"absorbed in its color, its variety, its 
drenching beauty ;" nourish sympathy 
for your fellowmen and their deeds. 
And the telling of these is history, 
just as what you are now doing is to 
be but narrative in the morning. 

And history is still more — it is ro- 
mance ; it is philosophy ; it is achieve- 
ment ; it is the teacher that is point- 
ing the road to nobility. There are 
no tales of chivalry and daring con- 
ceivable in the minds of novelists with 
a greater fascination than the actual 
life story of the coming of your own 
first ancestors to America, their strug- 
gles and their hardships, their joys 
and their successes, their romances 
and their courageous deeds. That 

which you are doing today is but an- 
other chapter in the thrilling story. 
The man who lives for today alone is 
but an atom and contracts his entire 
life into twenty-four hours. He 
knows nothing of the inspiration of 
hope, for that comes with tomorrow ; 
his feet are on shifting sands, on tick- 
ing seconds, on hurtling moments ; for 
he has none of the advantages of the 
solid foundation of the yesterdays, 
"made strong by the heroic struggles 
and sufferings of the past." The ap- 
preciation of the vital truth that even- 
hour is marking destiny makes better 
manhood; the enkindling of the in- 
terest of the brief span measured by 
the words "birth" and "death" creates 
a kindlier fellowship and a greater 
sympathy with the fellow struggler. 
Away with the falsity that history 
is a cold corpse of the long ago. His- 
tory is this very hour of your lite, and 
you are either making it weak or 
strong according to its historical foun- 
dation. Awaken the historical spirit 
and the knowledge that you are a 
maker, a creator, a record of whose 
deeds is to be held in lasting rever- 
ence, and "work to you will be a con- 
stant pleasure: your passage through 
the world an enchanting revelation : 
and your comradeship witli men and 
women an untarnished happiness." 



Editor of the Connecticut Ma< 1 t*i 





D ANBURY'S past is a record 
of notable achievements and 
its future is being builded 
upon the solid foundation. The solid- 
ity of the business enterprises of a city 
depends much upon the soundness 
of its banking institutions and in this 
Danbury has a notable strength. From 
the days of the earliest financiers the 
banking has been conducted with in- 
tegrity and foresight. The first 
institution was organized in 1824, 
when the legislature of the State 
granted permission to the Fairfield 
County Bank at Norwalk to establish 
a branch at Danbury. On August 
24, 1824, Zalmon Wildman, father of 
the late Frederick S. Wildman, was 
elected president, and David Foote 
was appointed to contract with Dr. 
Comstock for a room in his house in 
which to locate. September 20; 1824, 
Curtis Clark was elected cashier and 
the bank began business. From this 
beginning evolved the Danbury Bank, 
which in July, 1844, consumed the for- 
mer institution. In 1865 it became a 
national bank and is now enjoying a 
well-earned prosperity. Its original 
chartered capital was $t 00,000 and an 

increase was made to $200,000 in 
1854, and still another increase to 
$300,000 in 1857. It has had three 
banking houses, the first now stand- 
ing on the corner of Bank and Main 
Streets and occupied until January 10, 
1856; second was built in 1865, pos- 
session was taken July 10, 1856, and 
occupied until August 27, 1888, when 
the last structure was erected and is 
now a financial institution with the 
most modern facilities. 

During the existence of this bank 
the following have been its executive 
officials, viz : 

Zalmon Wildman, president from 
August 24, 1824, to May 26, 1826; 
Samuel Tweedy, president from June 
22, 1826, to November 22, 1833 ; Da- 
vid Foote, president from December 
22, 1833, to June 20, J 835; Samuel 
Tweedy, president from June 20, 
1835, to June -18, 1864; Lucius P. 
Hoyt, president from June 18, 1864, 
to January 16, 1892; Samuel H. Run- 
die, from January 16, 1892, to the 
present time. Curtis Clark, cashier 
from September 20, 1824, to May, 
1837. George W. Ives, assistant 
cashier from June 20, 1835, to July, 



William Jabine— Desk in Ives Homestead used as a sate in 1849 Savings Bank of Dauhurv with first 
building standing at the right— Homestead of George W. Ives where institution was org.; 



The Danbury Fair where over 60,000 people gather yearly — Greatest occasion 
of its kind in New England 


i\ a n 

m • 

The Danl 
that has 

>ury News— A progressive newspaper 
been an important factor in the np- 
of the city 

1838. Aaron Seeley, cashier from 
July 2, 1838, to June i, 1854; Eph- 
riam Gregory, cashier from. June 1, 
1854, to October 1, 1855; Jabez Ams- 
bury, cashier from October 1, 1855, to 
the present time. George H. Wil- 
liams, in the service of the bank since 
1865, was appointed assistant cashier 
January 26, 1893. 

Over half a century ago Horace 
Bull suggested to George W. Ives, 
that the rapid growth of the town ne- 
cessitated the instituting of a Savings 
Society,' and acting upon the business 
judgment the Savings Bank of Dan- 
bury was chartered in 1849 an d com- 
menced business on June 29 of that 
year. Thus the old Ives' homestead 
became the cradle of the first savings 
bank, a desk in the dining room being- 
used as a safe, and in the absence of 
her husband, Mrs. Ives received de- 
posits and attended to the business. 
Later Mr. Ives erected at his own ex- 
pense a little building in the corner of 
his doorvard, and from this small be- 




Union Savings Bank of Danbvry 
Samuel Stebbins Ai.mon Judd 




Mayor of Danbury 

judge; IvYman d. brewster 

ginning the deposits have increased 
until, on May 1, 1903, they reached the 
sum of $3,240,951.76, and the corpo- 
ration has a surplus of $249,837.32. 
Frederick S. Wildman held the office 
of president from June 29, 1849, unt ^ 
his death, October 16, 1893, when he 
was succeeded by John W. Bacon, the 
present incumbent. George W. Ives 
was secretary and treasurer untii Sep- 
tember 29, i860, and was succeeded 

by James Jabine, who occupied the 
office until July 30, 1873, when the 
present incumbent, Henry C. Ryder, 
was elected. The vice-presidents to- 
day are Lyman D. Brewster and S. 
M. Rundle. The Board of Directors 
includes H. C. Ryder, A. N. Wild- 
man, D. E. Rogers, F. E. Hartwell, 
H. M. Robertson, H. H. Woodman 
and Robert McLean. 

The Union Savings Bank was in- Kerr, Ex-Mayor 

President of The Danbury 

Board of Trade 

H. H. Fanton 
City Clerk 

C. D. Ryder 
City Treasurer 



corporated in June, 1866, and its orig- 
inal incorporators included many 
men who have been indentified with 
the progressiveness of the city. James 
S. Taylor was the first president; 
Martin H. Griffing, vice-president ; 
John Shethar, secretary ; W. F. Olm- 
sted, treasurer. The first directors 
were: Charles Hull, Martin H. 
Griffing, Samuel C. Holley, Almon 
Judd, Lucius H. Boughton, Elijah 
Sturdevant, William H. Clark, Amos 
N. Stebbins, James Baldwin, William 
S. Peck, James S. Taylor, George C. 
White, Norman Hodge, Orrin Bene- 
dict, Alfred A. Heath, Francis H. 
Austin, William F. Taylor, Levi 

The institution has been conducted 
upon the most approved financial 
plans, and on May 1, 1903, showed 
deposits of $1,577,000, and a surplus 
fund of $107,000. The president of 
the bank is S. C. Holley, and the vice- 
president, J. H. Fanton, with the fol- 
lowing Board of Trustees : W. J. 
Rider, J. H. Fanton, G. E. Chichester, 
W. H. Austin, C. D. Ryder, L. L. 

Prominent Manufacturer 

Hubbell, T. C. Millard, A. G. Tweedy. 
E. S. Fairchild and George B. Fair- 

Other financial institutions that 
have played an important part in the 
building of Danbury have been the 
old Wooster Bank which was merged 
into the Danbury Bank, and the Na- 
tional Pahquioque Bank, which was 
organized as a state bank on May 1. 



Dr. Walter H. kiernan 

Town Physician 


AttOVlKY-ul l..W\ 



John W. Bacon 

President Savings Bank of 



A. Davis 


Dr. W. S. Watson 
Physician and Surgeon 

The Danbury Fair which annually 
opens on the first Monday in October 
has the reputation of being one of the 
largest and most successful in New 

After 1 82 1 fairs were occasionally 
held in Danbury until 1869 when the 
present Danbury Agricultural Society 
was organized without any capital or 
money resources, but after holding 
two very successful fairs the society 
was formed into a joint stock com- 
pany in 1 87 1 and raised funds for the 
purpose of its grounds entering upon 
a career of unexampled success. It has 
been growing in attendance and the 

numbers of its attractions until now it 
stands in the front rank of agricul- 
tural fairs. It is purely a product of 
local enterprise. Its attendance has 
increased from 7,798 in 1871, to 63,- 
202, in 1902, which is larger than the 
aggregate of any other six fairs in 
Connecticut. The grounds are situ- 
ated just beyond the city limits and 
numerous buildings have been erected 
to accommodate the various depart- 

During the week of the fair, Dan- 
bury suddenly expands into a city 
twice its usual size. Then in the 
gentle vesper of the year when the 

Arnold Turner 

First Vice-Prest. Danbury 

Board of Trade 

Prof. W. J. Stillman, M. A. 
Principal Stillman Busi- 
ness College 

J. Moss Ives 

Former Corporation 



/ D 

N. Burton Rogers 
Danburv Board of Trade 

Philip Simon 

William H. Cable 

leaves are turning to the deep autum- 
nal tints and the mellow October air 
makes one feel that life is really worth 
living, Danbury is seen at her best 
and her latch-string is out. The fair 
is the harvest festival of Western Con- 
necticut, an event that takes prece- 
dence of all else for the time being. 
During the week the city gives itself 
entirely over to it, the schools and fac- 
tories allow extra holidays, and even 
the county courts take judicial notice 
of it and adjourn until the following- 

The active managers of the Agricul- 
tural Society are among Danbury's 
most prominent citizens. Its presi- 
dent, Mr. S. H. Rundle, was for many 
years president of the Danbury Na- 
tional Bank. Its secretary, Mr. G. 
M. Rundle, is an ex-mayor of the 
city. Its treasurer, Mr. John W. Ba- 
con, is president of the Savings Bank 
of Danbury, and has held the office of 
treasurer of the society, since its re- 
organization in 1871, a period of 
thirty-two years. Mr. H. H. Vree- 
land, president of the Metropolitan 
Railway System of New York Citv, 

whose summer residence is a few 
miles distant from Danbury, is one of 
its Board of Directors. 

The educational inierests of Dan- 
bury have been commendably devel- 
oped and the school facilities are now 
equal to any in the State. 

Its legal and medical history is a 
long and honorably record, while its 
municipal leaders have been men of 
brilliant enterprise. 

The citv is connected by an electric 
railway with Bethel on the south ami 
with the fair grounds and Lake Ken- 
oshia on the west, and there are main 
projected lines. 

I-!. C. OlNTY 

K\ Captain Of Police 


Edwin E. Ring 

»— ■— «HE industrial development of Con- 
44 I necticut presents one of the most 
I remarkable and interesting chap- 
""' ters in the history of American 
manufacturers," says S. N. D. 
North, Chief Statistician of Manufac- 
turers of Washington. There are 9,128 
establishments in this State with a capital of 
$314,696,736. There are 9,981 salaried offi- 
cials and clerks, drawing salaries amounting 
to $12,286,050. The wage earners number 
176,694, receiving annually for their labor 
$82,767,725 Of this number 130,610 are 
men, 42,605 women, 3,479 children. With 
materials costing $185,641,219 they produce 
goods valued at $352,824,106. 

In Connecticut more industries are secured 
by patents than in any other State in the 
Union, and for many years has lead the coun- 
try in number of patents issued in proportion 
to population. In 1890 it was one patent to 
every 796 persons; in 1900, one to every 
1,203 persons. The first woolen factory in 
New England was organized at Hartford, in 
1788. In Connecticut, worsteds for men's 
wear were first made in 1869, at Rockville. 
The process of electro silver plating was in- 
vented in Hartford about the year 1846. Nor- 
wich claims the first paper mill in Connecticut, 
in 1768. In 1776 there was a paper mill at 
East Hartford. In 1860 the Pacific Mills at 
Windsor Locks and the Chelsea Mills at Nor- 
wich were among the largest establishments 
of the kind in the world.. Fourdrinier ma- 
chines were first made in the United States at 
Windham, in 1830. Hats were first made in 
Danbury by Zadoc Benedict, in 1780. The 
first axe shop in the country was started in 
Hartford by Samuel W. and D. C. Collins, in 
1826, who operated a little trip hammer shop, 
making eight axes per day. They afterward 

moved to Collinsville. As early as 1716, nail 
mills were established. Salisbury furnished 
iron for cannon for the Continental Army, and 
the chains that barred the Hudson river to the 
enemy. Tinware was first manufactured in 
Connecticut, in Berlin, about 1770. New 
Haven produced the inventor of the process of 
vulcanizing of India rubber, Charles Good- 
year, who secured his first patent in 1844. 
Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton gin, 
was one of the earliest makers of fire arms, at 
Whitneyville. In 1814, Colonel North made 
pistols in Middletown. Elias Howe, Jr., the 
inventor of the sewing machine, early gave his 
name to a factory at Bridgeport. The huge 
brass interest of Waterbury was begun back 
in 1749, by John Allyn. Connecticut engaged 
in silk culture about 1730. 

In 1829, Samuel Colt of Hartford, while 
on a voyage to Calcutta, devised a six-barreled 
revolver to be used with percussion caps. In 
1835 he perfected a six-barreled rotating 
breech, and Lieutenant-Colonel Harney used 
this arm in 1837 in fighting the Indians*. Then 
came the Mexican War and the California gold 
craze. Colonel Colt built factories at Hartford 
costing half a million dollars. In 1858. he was 
turning out 60,000 revolvers a vear. Thev 
were used by the English in the Crimea and by 
Garibaldi in Italy. The Spencer rifle and the 
Sharp rifle were made also in Connecticut prior 
to 1861. The Winchester rifle is made at New- 
Haven in large quantities. The Gatling gun 
is made at the Colt works at Hartford, and 
ordnance of improved type is made at Bridge- 
port and Derby. 

In the following pages is given a general 
idea of the versatility of Connecticut manufac- 
turers of the present day and also the leading 
commercial business houses that are last at- 
taining pre-eminence in their trades. 

The Aetna National Bank of Hartford. 
Capital $525,000.00 

Surplus and Profits, $550,000.00 
Deposits, $3,000,000.00 

A. Spencer, Jr., Pres. 

A. R. Hileyer, Vice- Pres. 

W. D. Morgan, Cashier. 


Morgan G. Bulkeley, Appleton R. Hillyer, J a f e Deposit Boxes ?£ r ^lT $ tV£ 

James B. Cone, Morgan B Bramard, ban £ offers to depositors every facility which their bal- 

Alfred Spencer, Jr., A. G. LoomiS, W. it. ances, business and responsibility warrant. Special 

q Corson. accommodation for ladies and new money paid to them 

Security Company, 

62 Pearl Street, 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

Acts as Executor, Administrator, Guardian, Conservator and Trustee, and 
Transacts a General Banking- Business. 

Capital, $200,000. 


Surplus, $100,000. 

The Officers of the Company will be pleased to consult at any time with those who 
contemplate availing themselves of the services of a Trust Company. 

Atwood Collins, President. 

Chas. Edward Prior, Sec. and Treas. 

Henry E. Taintor, Vice-President. 
Chas. Edward Prior, Jr., Asst. Treas. 

Connecticut Trust and Safe Deposit Co., 

Cor. IVIain and. Pearl Streets, Hartford. 

Capital. $300,000, 

Surplus, $300,000. 

Ron IH no" Conducts a gen- 
DdlllUllg eral banking 
RllQltlPQQ business. Ac- 
DUollltoo counts opened 
and Deposits received subject 
to check at sight. Accounts 

Safe Deposit Vault. 

The most capacious in the 


at from $10 to $100 per 
annum according to size. 


Is authorized by its 
charter to act as 

Department ££°M 

and corporations, Executor or 
Administrator of Estates, Guar- 
dian of Minors, Etc. 

Meigs H. Whaples, President. 
John P. Wheeler, Treasurer. 

Henry S. Robinson, Secretary. 
Hosmer P. Redfield, Ass't. Treasurer, 

Gallup Genealogy and the 
BuCentennial Souvenir Book 

First Congregational 

Bast Hartford. 

For Sale by 


Hartford Printing Co. 


Book and Job Printers, 


The Genealogical 

In its new dress and enlarged form is not 
surpassed by any genealogical periodical.. 

SEND 25c. 

Congregational Building 
Boston, Mass 

Please mention the Connecticut when patronizing our advertisers. 


204-206-208-2I0-2I2-2I4- STATE ST., 
-' ■. HARTFORD, CO N N. 

The Finest 

Flavoring' Extracts 


Summer Desserts 


"^r ~jr ~~r~ TCf^ CALL particular attention of housekeepers, and all persons interested in 

\/\/ J— v good cooking, to the superb quality of our Flavoring Extracts. What 

\. \ other ingredient of cake, custards, ice cream, sauces, crullers, etc., does so 

much to make these things "tasty" as the actual flavoring used? As the 

finishing touch to a well made dessert is in the few drops of flavor which is added, the use of 

low grade extracts is false economy at best. Extract of Vanilla is the general favorite and 

our process for its manufacture, developed from countless experiments during the past fifty 

years, yields an Extract of greater strength, greater permanence and delicacy than any other. 

Weuse the finestMexican Vanilla Beans and maintain one standard of qua*lity...The BEST. 

It is sold by grocers everywhere in bottles holding full measure. 

Ji word, for Williams' Sparkling Gelatine. It is clear, brilliant and strong, 
each package making two quarts of jelly. Many inexpensive desserts can be prepared with 
this article, and several fine receipts aregiven on a circular enclosed with the Gelatine. 
It will pay to insist on having goods of our manufacture. 

The Williams & 1 Carleton Company y 

20 4. to 21 4 State Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


High Grade 
Organs Only 

Self Playing 
Organs for 
Residences a 

Electric and 




Jlustin Univen 

sal JUr Chest 







Write for Descriptive Catalogue. 

Austin Organ Co., 

Hartford, Connecticut. 

Hartford (Si New York Transportation 

Company Steamer to New York. 

Leave Pier 33 
East River, 
New Y ork City 

Oneway $1.50 

Round trip, good for 

season $2.50 

Stateroom, one 

way $1.00 

Main deck fare $1.15 

Gen. Freight and 
Passenger Agent. 


5 P. M. Sundays Excepted 

Leave Foot 

State St., 



Saturday Night 

One fare, with 
room 3 nights, 
$4. 2 fares, with 
same room 3 
nights, $6.50. 
3 fares, with 
same room 3 
nights, $8.25. 

These excursions 
give passengers 
two days in New 
York. Returning, 
arrive in Hart- 
ford Tuesday 
morning. Send 
for. illustrated 

Stopping at all Landing's. 

faHMtigw: ^rrnmmndatimts Ftrat-QTIass S&?£S /? : .% ed ,nS £££«? Z 

all points mentioned on Connecticut River. We also have through traffic arrangements with lines out 
of New York or points South and West, and shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills of 
Lading obtained from officers of the Company. For Excursion Rates see daily papers. 
N. B. Note change of Pier ii\ New York City. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Louder Than Words. 

There is no more delightful sensation than that produced 
by the soft, creamy lather of Williams' Shaving Soap. 

Shaving becomes so easy and agreeable that a man 
cannot help showing his satisfaction. His smile speaks 
louder than words. 

/// the form of Shaving Sticks, Shaving Tablets, etc., Williams' Staving Somps 
arc sold throughout the world, 

THE J. B. WILLIAMS COMPANY, Glastonbury, Conn. 

Please mention the Connecticvt Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


Manufacturer of 




Writing, Book, Cover, 
Manilla, Specialties, 

Mills at 



Employ About 1 80 People. 


JHuminum Finish Book Paper, 
White, Colored and Duplex Envelope Papers, 
Linen, Blank Book, Music, 
White and Colored Specialties. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


Johns = Pratt 

Houlded nica 

"Noark" Fuses. 












\KjittfQtd (5nn\ 

Use Impure, Unclean 
MilK Bottle Caps ? Get 
Our Clean 


Sanitary Spruce Fibre. 







Windsor" Rubber Collar 


Vmi A clr Whv *> Because of Their Quality, Style and Finish. WRITE 
I UU ASft. Wliyr FOR CATALOGUE. It will show yo 


your favorite 


U T 

Please mention the Connecticut MAGAZINE when patronising our advertisers. 


Solid Rubber Vehicle Tire 


The Product of a Reliable Tire Concern 
who make only the Best of every line. 



higher priced than tires of indifferent manufacture and compound, from 
which nothing but indifferent service is expected, but they are universally 
acknowledged to be by far the most economical tires in the long run — 
the length of service fully conpensating for the slight additional first cost. 

Manufactured by THE HARTFORD RUBBER WORKS CO., Hartford, Conn. 
Also Makers of HARTFORD and DUNLOP Pneumatic Tires. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Palmer's Patented 

Arawana, Utopia, Solitaire and Reposo, 


HammocK Supports^^HammocK Awnings^^ 
Hammock Trapeze Bars^^ 
HammocK Mosquito Bars^^ 

T fiE. 5oU^ ,RE 

CUT No. 4 D .V 

Palmer's "SOLITAIRE" Hammock. 


Crinoline Dress Linings, Mosquito and Canopy 
Nettings, Mosquito Bed Canopies, Window Screen 

Ctrk+h J?-tr* T?+r> Send for 1903 Catalog in colors, representing each 

K^LULIL, Lit., I^IL,. Hammock with Colored III ustrations & J& & X& J& 

I. £. PALMER, 

Middletown, Conn., U. vS. A. 


Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Made in highest grade silver plate. Aslo furnished in French Gray finish if desired. 

T7xe yVzlliarris qF?vos. JSIfg. Co., 




The Taplln Mfg. Co., 

Manufacturers of 





Illustrating the 32- 
page booklet "The 
Lord's Prayer in the 
Sign Language." 
Will interest young 
or old. Printed on 
finest quality coated 
paper. Postpaid to 
any addiess, 15 cts. 

Conn. Magazine Co., 
Hartford. Conn. 



ROOn 3o 1 

14 Beacon St., Boston, Hass. 

Please mention the CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE when patroniting our advertisers. 



It is my business to make illustrations for business men — 
to design anything and everything required by progressive 
merchants, manufacturers or jobbers. The pictures I 
make have individuality about them. They are distinctive 
and modern. There is just as much advertising in them 
as there is art, a combination that is absolutely neces- 
sary. I design letterheads and business cards that lend an 
air of dignity and high standing to the man who uses them. 
When once the plates are made the cost of printng is no 
more than printing from plain type. I make illustrations 
for newspaper advertisements, for books and for cata- 
logues inside and out. The pictures are carefully 
thought out, and tell at a glance the idea intended to 
be conveyed. 

(21)1710' * furnish either half-tone, wood or 

O * line engravings and am always glad 

to help my customers with suggestions as to which is 

the better method to employ in any particular line of 


Advertisement Writing. £ f n ^^JSLm iS 

the writing of business literature, ads, booklets, cir- 
culars, folders, anything that comes under the head of 
advertising. I put into the work long experience and 
give my customers what I believe to be the best service 
to be had. My work has in it that element of snap, 
force and emphasis so necessary to make advertising 
T< pull." 
PRICES. I charge a fair price for what 
I do. If you pay less than I ask, you 
get less. If you pay more, you pay too 
I solicit 3 r our work, and if it is given me I 
will put forth every endeavor to make 
our dealings pleasant, to give you such 
thorough satisfaction that your trade will 
be permanent. My office is in the Auditorium Building, 180 Asylum Street, easily reached and cen- 
trally located. Run up and see me or drop me a line and I will call upon you. 





8. StWER~P\Pt 


Hartford, Conn. 

Correspondence relating to GENEALOGICAL MATTERS is 
invited by the Research Publication Co., of Boston. 

Researches undertaken anywhere in New England or Great 
Britain. Reliable work ; reasonable fees. 

The Research Publication Company, 

14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

The Mother's Mission. 


O GREAT Emperor once asked 
one of his noble subjects what 
would secure his country the first 
place among the nations of the earth. 
The nobleman's grand reply was, 
"Good Mothers." Now, what con- 
stitutes a good mother ? The answer 
is conclusive : She who, regarding 
the future welfare of her child, seeks 
every available means that may offer to promote a sound physical develop- 
ment, to the end that her offspring may not be deficient in any single faculty 
with which nature has endowed it. In infancy there is no period which is 
more likely to affect the future disposition of the child than that of teething, 
producing as it does fretfulness, moroseness of mind, etc., which if not 
checked will manifest itself in after days. 

mr$. aiin$low'$ Soothing Syrup 

is unquestionably one of the greatest remedial agents in existence, both for 
the prevention and cure of the alarming symptoms which so often manifest 
themselves during the teething period, such as griping in the boWels, wind 
colic, etc. It is also the best and surest remedy in the world in all cases of 
diarrhoea in children, whether it ar:s :s from teething or any other cause. 
Twenty-five cents a bottle, and for sale in all parts of the world, being the 
best remedy for children known of. 

Mothers ! Mothers ! I Mothers ! ! ! 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup has been 
used for over SIXTY YEARS by MILLIONS 
of MOTHERS for their CHILDREN while 
COLIC, and is the best remedy for D1AR 
RH | THA. Sold by Druggists in every part of 
the world. Be sure and ask for "Mrs. Wins 
low's Soothing Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty five cents a bottle. 



Please mention the Connecticut Magazink when patronizing our advertisers. 



WITH one hundred and forty- three pro- 
ducers of goods, Bristol sends into 
the commercial world annually, pro- 
duct valued at nearly $5,000,000. 
Its rapid strides in progress have 
given it the thirteenth position among 
the towns of the State with a popula- 
tion under 20,000. There is at the present 
time in this prosperous borough an invested 
capital in manufactures of $3,764,528. These 
energetic establishments occupy buildings val- 
ued at $828,698 standing on land appraised at 

There are 2,476 workers of skill laboring 
at machinery and with tools and implements 
costing $911,246. 1,920 of these mechanics 
are men receiving wages of $1,030,305 yearly. 
There are 541 women whose earnings amount 
to $155,292. The product sent out to the 
world by these industrious people has gained 
an enviable reputation for its perfection and 
the raw material which they use yearly is 
valued at $2,224,314, and the total wages 
they receive reaches $1,188,943. 

There are 135 proprietors and firm mem- 
"bers, with 142 salaried officials and clerks re- 
ceiving for their services, $199,424. 

It has been the center of clock making for 
many years, and the varied line of goods now 
manufactured in the town is best comprehend- 
ed by the following pages on which are en- 
rolled the leading and most progressive indus- 
tries in this section of the State. The popula- 
tion of Bristol at the last census was 9,643, 
ranking nineteenth in size in the State. 

Plainville has 35 manufacturing establish- 
ments, with a capital of $399,775. There are 
337 wage earners employed, receiving 
$136,815 annually, and using materials cost- 
ing $232,533. The value of their product 
ranks fifty-ninth in the State, and is estimated 
at $460,471 annually. The population of 
Plainville is 2,189, ranking sixty-first. 

The manufacturing history of Bristol and 
its surrounding villages is notable. Eli Terry 
moved to Plymouth in 1793, invented the 

pillar scroll and the case clock in 1814, and 
made a fortune. He received pay for his first 
clock in salt pork which he carried home in 
his saddle bags. Chauncey Jerome, another of 
the founders of the industry, was an appren- 
tice of Mr. Terry and left him to make brass 
shelf clocks in Bristol. In 1837 he revolu- 
tionized the industry by using brass wheels. 
He would travel about from house to house 
with a clock under his arm introducing it to 
the early homes. In 1800, Gideon ^ Roberts 
made a business of going to New York with 
three or four clocks at a time trying to dispose 
of them. 

"I have seen him many times, when a 
small boy, pass my father's house on horse 
back with a clock in each of his saddle bags 
and a third lashed on behind the saddle with 
dials in plain sight," says an early historian. 

From these modest beginnings and with 
the co-operation of mechanics of inventive 
genius, and capital with business foresight, 
the town has attained an enviable position in 
Connecticut manufactures. 

The railroad facilities of Bristol are prob- 
ably not excelled in the State, and its street 
railway system is acknowledged as one of the 
best in Connecticut. Its lines extend to Plain- 
ville, branching off to Lake Compounce and 
connecting with through lines to Hartford and 
Meriden. The Bristol and Plainville Tramway 
Company was incorporated June 14, 1893, 
with a capital of $100,000, and its success is 
largely due to its excellent management. 
Charles S. Tread way, President of the Com- 
pany, is the financial stamina of the town and 
it is through his personal supervision and fore- 
sight that many of the progressive movements 
of the town have been brought to a prosper- 
ous culmination. Ex-Senator Noble E. Pierce, 
is the Vice-President ; Ex-Senator A. J. Muzzy, 
Secretary ; M. L. Tiffany, Treasurer ; George 
E. Cockings, General Manager. The electric 
lighting both in the homes, the business estab- 
lishments and on the streets is furnished by 
this corporation. 


SJte mct/c&s. 







°*ID RR^° 

Ojc^fonrvr f^cCHe^Tt, 

«« \Vorlf1 " BRAND Silver-plated tableware is sold by first-class 
v » **** *** dealers ever\'where. Guaranteed to carry 50 per cent. 

more silver than regular standard silver plate. All goods" hearing this 
trade mark are of superior finish and are of new and exclusive patterns. 
•■Our Catalog B. shows many beautiful effects in tableware — *' World " 
brand made. 

American Silver Company, 

Bristol, Connecticut. 

Please mention Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


Small Springs 

Of Every 
D escription 


•• .THE... 




Bristol, Connecticut. 

Established I85r. 



Vichy and Table Waters. 



Jl Health Beverage. Rivals 
the best on the market. 


126 North Main St., 

Bristol, Connecticut. 

...The... Kl 


Osborne & Stephenson Mfg. Company, 

Estimates Given on 

Turret Lathe Specialties, Press Work, Dies and Punches. 
Small Hardware and Electrical Parts. 

Factory and Main Office, Plainville, Connecticut. 

Barretfs Standard Glass 
^^^ CUTTER ^^= 


Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Walter A. Ingraham, Pres. Irving E. Ingraham, Vice Prts. William S. Ingraham, Sec. & Treas 

The E. Ingraham Company 

Bristol, Conn. 



CLOCIQS for the Jobbing and Export Trade Only. 

Incomp arable 
New Departure Bells. 

Tf-T fT* New Departure Manufacturing Company, the 
*•*"■-* principal buildings of which are here shown, is 
the largest and most completely equipped concern of 
its kind in the world. Here are manufactured the 
world renowned New Departure Bells, which have 
Deen ever recognized as the standard of excellence and the only 
high-grade bells obtainable. Door Bells, Car and Fire 
'Pells, Call, Tea, Office and Bicycle Bells, Brass 
floods, Cyclometers, Coaster Brakes and high-class 
Art Metal Work are here produced, all bearing the general 
:haracteristic for which the name of 

'New Departure 9 ' 

Has become 


Manufactured by 

The J^ew 

Departure Mfg. 


Bristol, Connecticut. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronising onr advertisers. 


M anuf acturer s 


A. J. Clayton 

o i in .ni Of all Kinds. Door Bells, Hardwar< 

Oteel and L<aSt OnearS Generally. Small Article* in Steel 01 

ULVV1 " A *^ VJWJL ^J-1^** ^ Ir on a Specialty. Orders Filled 

109 Union St., Bristol, Conn. Promptly. 


H . D . E D 6 1 R 1 U W Frophi etor . 

- l < 

7 y^> 

■"^: :.■: 





Bristol, Conn- 






Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Bristol Marble and 
G r an it e Works 


HIS cut represents the JOHN HUM- 
erected in Bristol, Connecticut, June, 
1901, by GEORGE C. ARMS, in com- 
petition with New Britain, Hartford, 
New Haven, and New York. Weight, 

40 tons. 

Anything in the line of Monuments and Grave- 
stones can be purchased of me lower than you 
can obtain the same class of work anywhere. 
134 Morth Main St., GEO. C. JiRMS, 


The Cot i aiter-daZ 

Fred. B. Michael, Proprietor. 

$1.50 PER DAY. 

Conveniently located two blocks from Depot, 
two doors from Electric Cars, and next door 
to Opera House. Electric Lights, Electric 
Bells, Steam Heat, and all modern conven- 
iences, Telephone Pay Station. 

1 7 CLThCl 1 9 LcLUUTCl St. 

JEtristol, Connecticut. 





Plays 6 

a Month. 

Michael Bros., Managers. 
Rent Twenty-Five Dollars Per Night — 
Lighted and Heated. Bill Posting, and 
Distributing. BRISTOL, CONN. 

A. J. M u z zr 


Invite all the readers of this 
Magazine, visiting Bristol, to 
call at their store and inspect 
the large assortment of ready- 
to-wear garments, which in- 
Ladies, Misses Tailor-Made 
Suits, Ladies', Misses' and Chil- 
dren's Silk and Wool Jackets, 
Walking and Dress Skirts. This 
firm carries in stock Millinery, 
Ladies', and Children's Shoes, 
Carpets and House Furnishings 
of all kinds. Dress Goods, 
Staple and Novelties and a full 
line of Notions; in fact prices 
are as low and assortment as 
large as in many city stores. 

We are agents for the 


Main St. and Riverside Ave., 
Bristol, Connecticut. 

Established by 
in 1845. 

Dunbar JBros., 

Manufacturers of 




Small Sjwiiigs of 
JEvevy JDe sc7*i_p ti on . 

Clock, Valve, Snap, Organ, Sash, Blind. Screen Flue, 
Governor and Door Springs, and Springs for Agri- 
cultural Implements and Builders' and Saddlers' 
Hardware. Anti Rattlers. 

Bicvcle Trouser Guards and Oil Hole Covers. 

W. \V. Dunbar. E. B. Dunbar. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


A. N. Clark & Son, 




Metal] Novelties 
and Light 

4JV ^*> STRICT^ 



J. H. Walbridge & Co., 337 Broadway, N. Y. 

Agents for Tweezers, Manicures, Key Rings, Etc. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


Trumbull Electric 

Mfg. Co., 

Office and Factory, 
Plainville, Conn. 

New York Office, 
136 Liberty Street. 

Manufacturers of 
Electrical Supplies. 


Blakesley Novelty Co, 

Manufacturers of the 

Original and Only Easy Arm Band. 



Manufacturer of 

Clock JHo^ementS; 
Water j GtCls 


Electric JVfeter 


22 Federccl Street, 
Bristol, C ortrcecticTLt . 

P.H.Condon & Co., 

Hack, Livery and 
Sales Stables 

Light Livery. 

Trucking, Bussing and 
General Jobbing. 


and VEHICLES of all kinds 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

Buy a BRISTOL; ! 

THere is no fisHing rod HKe 
tKe "Bristol" Steel Rod — none 

made of tKe same durable material 
or in tKe same way. 
TKe "Bristol" is vinique — a superb 
rod Raving all tKe best qualities of 
tKe KigK- priced rods but witKout 
any of tKeir defects or weaknesses. 

"BRISTOL" Steel FisKing' Rods 
have become a staple necessity. 

Fisher-men — and women, too — are de- 
lighted with their action, and are pleased 
to recommend them. Send for our Free 
Catalog, and learn what it tells — then 
buy a rod and see what it will do. 

Address : 


No. g3 Horton St., Bristol, Conn, 



Hart & Johnson, 


Bristol, Conn. 

All Kinds of Laundry 
Work Done in the 
Best Manner 

Lace Curtains A Specialty 



Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

The Sessions Clock Co., 

■ForestviHe, Connecticut- 

successors to 

E. N. Welch Mfg. Co., 

™< s tn f Black-Enameled and Marbleized Woods °^!SSS s ffi nd 


Superior Finish. 

The Sessions Foundry Co. 

Iron Castings, Small and Large 

TO order. 


Farmington Ave., BRISTOL, CONN 

Please mention the Connecticut Mag.vzink when patronising our advertisers. 

Connecticut Table Tennis Players Attention. 

The most attractive Table Tennis to be found anywhere is made in our own State 

This set $1.25, sent postage prepaid upon receipt of 
$2.00. Cork or leather handles. ^Wood or cork faced 
racquets. A more elaborate set, $3.00. A good set 
with cork handles and cork faces, $1. Season for 
lawn and veranda playing just at hand. These sets 
have distinctive features which cannot be produced 
in other makes. 



Washer Socket. 

Flange Socket. 

x 1 inch. 
Track-Plate Socket. 

Plain ville, Conn., 

84-86 Chambers St., 
New York. 



Steel Furniture Casters. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


German Silver 
Hard Rubber 


Adjustable Click 

The spool is freed and the drag applied by the handle 

No tools required to take apart 

Decidedly interesting and practical 

Write for full particulars. 
Sole Manufacturers. 


THE cut at the left 
shows the position of 
the parts inside of 
the handle -while wind- 
ing in the line. . 


THE one at the right 
shows the position 
when the spool is 
running free. 





Macadam, Ballast, Concrete, 
Driveways, Walks, Etc. 

Bins, rear of 173 State Street. Stone dumped into carts. 


721 Main Street, gSff,; 1 ?- Hartford, Conn 

Represented by DON O'CONNOR. 

Please mention the Connecticut MAGAZINE when patronising our advertisers. 



NEW BRITAIN, the great hardware cen- 
ter, holds the patent record of the 
world. It is the home of inventive 
genius and mechanical skill. Hard- 
ware forms 47.3 per cent, of the city's 
products, while foundry and machine shop 
products increase this to 52.8 per cent. A 
large proportion of the cutlery and edged 
tools, hosiery and knit goods, stamped ware 
and saddlery hardware is made here. New 
Britain ranks seventh in the manufacturing 
centers of the state. It has 226 industries 
with a capital of $14,115,610. There are 
nearly 9,000 wage earners receiving annually 
for their toil $3,841,117. With materials val- 
ued at $5,074,396, produce goods marketable 
at $12,260,782. There are 1,681 working 
women in New Britain who draw annually 
wages amounting to $442,228, and there are 
466 salaried clerks and officials receiving 
$545,057. The New Britain factories occupy 
buildings inventoried at $1,986,622, standing 
on land appraised at $739,464, and contain- 
ing machinery costing $3,130,174. The hard- 
ware products of the city for one year brought 
$5,796,636, while the foundry and machine 
shop products are estimated at $676,571. 
Nearly one million dollars has been consumed 
in the erection of new buildings in the city 
during the last year. It is now experiencing 
the most prosperous decadence in its history. 
Berlin, a little town closely connected, is 
the home of the bridge industry, and it is here 
that many of the largest structures of the kind 
have been constructed, many of them spanning 
rivers and valleys in South Africa, Northern 

Russia, Siberia, Asia, and all sections of the 

New Britain saw the dawn of the nine- 
teenth century with less than a thousand in- 
habitants, its manufacturers travelling to New 
York or Boston markets on horseback with 
their finished wares in saddle bags and bring- 
ing back the raw material for more goods. 
Their business prospered and their factories 
were enlarged, though by our present-day 
standards they would be primitive indeed. It 
was during the first fifty years of the nine- 
teenth century that the permanency of the 
city's future growth was assured. 

The only communication with the outside 
world was by means of the stage coach or pri- 
vate team. A stage coach to Hartford three 
times a week and sometimes daily, although 
it did not pay to make daily trips, driven by 
George Hart, took passengers at twenty-five 
cents. The Hartford and New Haven Railroad 
had not been built, but was in process of con- 
struction. The matter of bringing the railroad 
through New Britain was discussed by the 
fathers of the place. It was a mooted question 
whether the road should come through New 
Britain or along nearer to Berlin. The men of 
New Britain were as a general thing poor and 
unable to take stock in the enterprise. But a 
wealthy citizen of Berlin settled the question 
of location by a liberal subscription to the 
capital stock on condition of the road passing 
through Berlin. So, as a compromise, and be- 
cause the land damage was light, the road was 
located through the swamp or between the 
two places. 


:z*d$t**i*'i* <::*<:; -i:**** *:n**i KN*tfi -•::-• * 


Tbe Keyhole 
In tbe Knob. 

No hunting for the 
keyhole in the dark 
for it stands out 
from the face of the 
door in the most 
prominent position 
possible and is the 
first thing the hand 

A{o. 2045 Florence [Romanesque] 
for Front Door in Residences. 

This is only one of the 
valuable features which 
have gained for the 

Corbin Unit 
Lock Sets 

The endorsement of the 
best Architects and 
Builders in the country. 
Illustrated catalogue 
showing types for all 
purposes sent upon 


P. & F . CORBIN, 

Manufacturers of Everything in Builders' Hardware. 

General Offices and Factories 


New Britain, Conn. 

Murray St. CHICAGO, 104-106 Lake St. 

PHILADELPHIA, 925 Market St. 

||f *% PHILADELPHIA, 925 Market St. 

jUH^r j*t jt'w "; m ^ jjife ^'im- -^ *. ^ ^ j^jP * am *» jt-.l?*' , * ^ii dt » ^ •■**.» - *,- -. * *. 

Pleasejmention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

All That 
You Seek 

In selecting your hardware is 
found in RUSSELL & ERWIN 
goods. A wide, variety of stock 
patterns gives a choice of hard- 
ware in perfect harmony with 
the building, whatever its archi- 
tectural style. 

Purity of design, skillful work- 
manship, and exceptional fineness 
of finish mark all R US SELL & 
ERWIN products from the least 
to the most expensive. Proof of 
its quality is found in every Con- 
necticut town. 

Russell & Erwin 

Manufacturing Co. 

New Britain, Conne cticut 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

The Bennett Temperi ng Company 




The Taplin Mfg Co. 

155 Chambers St., NEW YORK CITY. 



..,.12 Styles.... 


Excelsior Bottle Stoppers 
Fit Any Size Bottle 

Hardware Spec ialties 

Tumbler Mixer. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronising our advertisers. 

The Skinner Chuck Qo. 
new britain, conn. 

Lathe, Drill and Planer ChucRs. Face-Flate Jaws. 

We manufacture nothing 
but CHUCKS and carry a 
full line for every purpose. 


New York Office 
94 Reade Street 

Hotel Russwin 


A First-Class Commercial Hotel 

! &i 



Green Mountains. 


Brandon, Vt. 






Waterbury, Conn. 

Furnished Exquisitely and with all 
Modern Improvements. 

Will Open About 
Sept. 15th, 1903. 


Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 



Manufacturers of 

Bags, Open End Envelopes 
and Specialties 


Specialties for the Photograph Trade. 

Catalogue Envelopes any Size and Style Desired. 

Candy Bags. Cigar B a gs, Seed Bags, 

Glove, Notion and Coin Envelopes. 


The Traut & Hine 
Manufacturing Co., 

New Britain, Conn., U. S. A. 


Metal Trimmings For 

Suspenders and 

Garters, andJtdams' 



• •• A E\G « • • 

s Waterbury f 

' Blank Book ^ 

M nfg. C o. 


Imp res 
si o n s 

Per Day 

M A C H I 







T R A 





Book Binding, 
Paper Ruling, 

Bronzing. Numbering. 

Eyeletting. K t c , 

Wholesale and 
Ret nil Stationers. 


59 to 6T Grand St, Waterbury, Conn. 

Rear of Barlow Bros. Company 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazink when patronizing our advertisers. 

Berlin Construction Company 





Steam Boiler Explosions. 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

B. FRANKLIN, Vice-President. 
ALLEN, 2d Vice-President. 

F. B. 


J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 

L. B. BRAINERD, Treasurer. 


Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

3°-° Guaranteed 


Manchester. . .Chas. M. Floyd 

Portsmouth John Griffin 


Morrison's Clothing House 

Keene L. M. Richards 

Concord. Brown & Batchelder 
Littleton. .Bellows & Baldwin 

Richardson & Emerson 

Dover Frank W. Hanson 

Lisbon. Geo. Brummer's Sons 
Claremont. . . .A. W. Hawkes 
Woodsville. . . .D. A. Barrows 

Berlin Stahl Bros. 

Barre Moore & Owens 

Richford ,H. H. Comings 


T. S. Underwood & Sons 
Franklin Falls. .W. H. Nelson 
Rochester. .E. Goulet & Co. 

Whitefield C. M. Grey 


E. J. Fenton & Co. 

Rochester Clothing Co. 
Bellows Falls, 

J. J. Fenton & Co. 

St. Albans C. H. Morton 

St. Johnsbury, 

Moore & Jewett 
Fair Haven, 

Pollard & Carmody 

Newport J. E. Foster 


Spear-Martin Fur Co. 


Waltham. .Central D. G. Co. 

North Adams. .Barnard & Co. 

Holyoke Senior Bros. 


Sold with Guarantee of 
better satisfaction than 
comes with hats offer- 
ed at nearly twice the 

Athol C. F. Amsden 

Fall River R. E. McGuire 

New Bedford, 

Sanders & Barrows Clo. Co. 

Amherst H. H. Clark 

Milford Ring & Welch 

Worcester. . .D. H. Eames Co. 

Salem H. D. Rice 

Salem. . .Shawmut Hat Store 
Blackstone. .Wm. E. Mulgren 
Hyde Park. . . .F. J. Kennedy 

Colby's Clothing House 

Palmer J. F. Clark 

Springfield, W. S. Clark & Co. 

Brigham, Eaton & Co. 

Greenfield P. Levy 

Haverhill . . . The Kempton Co. 

Pittsfield H. H. Durgin 

Beverly Field & Kennedy 

Winchendon Peck Bros. 

Leominster. . . .W. H. Upham 
South Farmington, 

The Wardrobe 
Northampton. .Marcus Cohen 
Bridgewater, S. G. Duckworth 

Hyannis Wm. Lovell, Jr. 

Gardner G. A. Swallow 

Fitchburg, Lyons, Davis & Co 

Macallister & Herron 


Webster A. J. Riendeau 

Campello.. Chester O. Wiley 

Westerly L . Tuch 

Woonsocket M. Jacobson 

Newport.. Crown Clothing Co. 

Newport Chas. Potter 

Auburn, S. F. Haskell & Son 

Skowhegan Ira A. Morton 

Lewiston T. J. Murphv 

Bangor. .Benoit Clothing Co. 

Fairfield E. Kelly & Co. 

Westbrook, Benoit Clo. Co 
Old Town, 

W. E. Hellenbrand & Co. 

Frank M. Low & Co. 
Augusta... Beck Clothing Co. 

Brunswick E. S. Bodwell 

Biddeford, A. H. Benoit & Co 
Pittsfield, Tibbetts Clo. Co. 

W. R. Parker Clothing Co. 


Bridgeport, Un X Ld Hat Co. 

Hartford C. A. Rennacker 

Meriden J. F. Cloonan 


The Barton Clothing Co. 
New London. .Baumes & Co. 

Stamford F. T. Beehler 


The Finnegan Phillips Co. 
Ansonia, Union Clothing Co. 

A. L. Brown & Co. 





Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing: our advertisers. 

Specialists on 
Special Machinery 

Send us your blue prints or specifications and let us figure on your work. We have the experi- 
ence and equipment to build any kind of machinery. ..Iron^lVorking, Textile, IVood^Working, 
large or small — from the heaviest machine tool to the delicate machine for experimental 
work. Our plant is complete and modern from the foundry up. We do the work right, charge 
the right price, and guarantee prompt service. 



Hat Machinery 


The Turner Machine Co. 

Danbury, Conn., U. 5. A. 

Newark, N. J., U. S. A. Denton and Stockport, England. 

Founded 1859. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertis 

w. c. 





Matched Pairs, 
Saddle Horses and 
Roadsters for the 
Speedway For Sale. 


Crosby St., 
Danbury, Conn. 

INONINE is an emulsion 
that can be borne by 
the weakest stomach. 
Parents whose delicate 
children cannot take Cod Liver Oil in anv 
form, find that LINONINE is much 
better as a flesh former and strength re- 
newer and that the health LINOXIXE 
brings does not melt away the first 
hot spell. People who are prone to colds 
are quickly brought to a hardy state of 
health, and even the cough of the con- 
sumptive is rendered less harassing and 
permanent cures have been effected where 
the disease had not been allowed to run 
too long before LINONINE was 

Your Druggist Has Linonine, 2^c.^oc.and%l . oo 

Is It Not A Moral Duty 


Connecticut Magazine. 

It - broadens your intellectuality— Enobles your sentiments— Cultivates culture- 
Deepens patriotism and loyalty— The cost is almost insignificant in comparison with 
its educational value— $2.00 Yearly. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 



Electric— Gasoline 

Jlre Unequalled for Efficiency, Durability, 
Perfection of Details, and Elegance of Finish. 

Columbia 24 H. P. Gasoline Touring Car, Mark XLI. 

Maximum of efficiency, reliability and usefulness; minimum 
of vibration and noise. Vertical four-cylinder engine has 
new and important features. Igniting plugs and valves 
may be removed and replaced in a few moments without 
use of a wrench or tools of any kind. All operating parts 
interchangeable. Seats six persons. Luxurious appoint- 
ments throughout. PRICE $5000.00. 

Columbia Light Electric Runabout, Mark XXXVIII. 

Underslung battery leaves entire body space free for lug- 
gage. Speed, 15 miles per hour. Will mount any grade 
that can be climbed by a horse-drawn vehicle. Electric and 
mechanical brakes. Handsomest, fastest and most con- 
venient electric runabout made. PRICE $900.00; with 
top $975. OO. 

Our new catalogue, which, will be mailed on request, illus- 
trates and describes the full line of Columbia, automo- 
biles, including vehicles for touring, pleasure driving, pri- 
vate carriage service and all kinds of business requirements. 
Orders for Broughams and Coupes for Fall 
Delivery Should be Placed Immediately 

Electric Vehicle Company 

Cor. Park & Laurel Sts., HARTFORD, CONN. 

New York Salesroom : 134,-136-138 W. 39th St. 
Opposite Metropolitan Opera House. 



Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

M < p w £ y 


U p o 

M o w 




Hi < 


O J 4 K 
o w 

n ^ 

* * « 2 - - ^ 

« * * 2 ft * 

<r. ^ W m << * 

^ &H H £ ft 


ft M 


W m ^ «} K 






































Ask Any 
New Haven 


Which is the leading ne^wspaper of 
his city in point of size, quality and 
circulation, and he "will tell you at once 





Here are the facts during 
the past six: months. 









^ ; -W 4^ ^^ ^^ »^k ^k < gk ^k Hfe » <^k » jk *4^ « ^ > <^* 

State of Connecticut, 
County of New Haven. 


On this ninth day of May, A. D., 1903, personally 
appeared before the undersigned, a notary public within 
and for said county and state, John Day Jackson, publish- 
er of The New Haven Register, who, being duly sworn, 
states on oath that the average number of copies of The 
Evening Register printed and circulated for the six months 
from November 1, 1902, to May 1, 1903, was 13,802 
copies each night. John Day Jackson. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of May, 1903 


Notary Public. 


Over 14,000 Per Night is the Present Figure. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 

The Bailey Manufacturing Co. 

P. O. Address 


New York Office 
No. 320 BROADWAY. 

Manufacturers of 

Bailee's Patent Letter Copying Machines 
Letter Copying Presses, Moistening 
Appliance, Perfected Copying Pads 
and Improved Copying BooKs 







With the double acting screw and the large heavy knurled wheel the 
BAILEY COPYING PRESS can be operated fully two hundred 
per cent. {200%) quicker and easier than any other press. 








The base, arch and uprights are made in one pi ce. 
There are no bolts or screws to work loose. 

All articles of our manufacture are warranted to be of superior quality 

"Write for a Catalogue 

Please mention the Connecticut MAGAZINE when patronising our advertisers. 


Contractors and Builders, 

Cabinet Work, Interior Finish and General Jobbing. 


Junction Charter Oak and Vredendale Avenues. 


Elastic Pulp Plaster. 

A. L,. Sessions' Residence, Bristol, Conn. 

Plastered with Elastic Pulp Plaster. 

Architects — Griggrs & Hunt, "Waterbury, Conn. 

Builders — Stoddard & Caulkins, Hartford, Corn. 

Mason Contractor — F. W. Linstead, Bristol, 


Found at Last. 

A W a 11 Plaster 
that will not 
Crack , C rumble 
or F a 1 1 o ff . 

J\[o Sand 
No Lime 
Fire Proof 
Water Proof 

The Hartford Pulp Plaster Corporation 

7 3 Walnut Street, Hartford, Connecticut 



Contractor for the Mason Work on 
the Residence Shown Above. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 



THE name of Meriden is familiar through- 
out the civilized world, having be- 
come synonymous with pre-eminence 
in the manufacture of silver goods. It 
makes 43.3 per cent, of the plated and 
britannia ware of the state, This industry 
accounts for 30.6 per cent, of this city's pro- 
duct; hardware, 12 per cent.; cutlery and 
edged tools, 3 per cent.; foundry and machine 
shop products, 2.2 per cent. The finest 
musical instruments, pianos and materials 
come from Meriden, and the beauty of its gas 
and lamp fixtures, lamps and reflectors, and 
other goods in this line is unexcelled. Its cut- 
lery has also given it an important industrial 

Meriden has invested capital in manufac- 
tures of $16,699,004 in its 260 concerns. 
They occupy land valued at $1,143,532 with 
lbuildings worth $2,053,290, and containing 
machinery costing $4,098,124. To conduct 
[these concerns successfully requires 262 pro- 
)rietors who are assisted by 435 clerks and 
salaried officials, drawing annual salaries of 

There are 7,531 wage earners of which 
,021 are men receiving $3,266,697 annually, 
id 1,435 are women receiving $420,566. 
^his labor handles materials costing 
55,861,612 and by its skill produces goods in- 
ventoried at $13,485,640. The total output 
|n the departments of the International Silver 
.ompany reaches about $5,000,000. This 
jreat American industrial organization has 
)een a leading factor in the up-building of the 
ity, and to-day it is paying its wage earners, 

numbering nearly 3,000, nearly $2,000,000. 

The nucleus of the present immense trade 
in silverware was in a small shop in which 
any of the smallest departments in any of the 
present factories would be cramped for room. 
Wood was the only fuel in the old days. The 
venders thereof were kept in excellent order by 
the experienced housewives, who could tell at 
a glance if the despised elm or hemlock were 
mixed in a load presumed to consist of hick- 
ory, oak, or maple. When coal came in with 
the railroad, the perplexed housewives were 
divided in their minds as to the utility of the 
new combustible. Most of them did not be- 
lieve it would burn, and would not try it. 
One woman proved to her own satisfaction its 
worthlessness : c< She put two lumps into the 
stove with the wood, and there they staid all 
day, just as black as ever." The first station 
master, among whose multifarious duties was 
attending to the fire, was much exercised by 
the mvsterious nature of the coal ; considered 
that a substance so hard and black required 
all the afflation possible, and was horrified to 
find his stove red-hot and just ready, he 
thought, to melt. To avert such a catastrophe, 
he threw the contents of a pail ot water on the 
glowing mass. The providence that watches 
over a certain class of individuals, prevented a 
probable tragedy. 

The progress has left strong evidences of 
its marvelous handiwork in Meriden, and to- 
day it stands an industrial leader, sixth in the 
state, with huge corporations and under the 
most capable business management and the 
most optimistic future. 

Love that endures 

"UJilK face as round as is bhe moor 
fl royal <guesL with flaxen hair, 
... throned \jpor\ his lofty chair. 
Drums orvthe table with his spoorv. 

"Silver plate that wears." 



1847 Rogers Bpos. ® 



If You Are Interested 

in the welfare of Connecticut and its industries, you will be 
pleased to know that over three-fourths of all the silver plate 
made in the United States is produced in this State, and a 
large proportion of the whole amount in the "Silver City " — 
Meriden. Started more than half a century ago, the organizers 
and first managers of this Company were the pioneers in the 
electro silver plate industry of this country, and while others 
have manufactured in a small way, never for a moment has 
the old original concern lost prestige or even only held its 
own. It has ever been on the increase, and is now the largest 
organization of its kind in the world. Send for Catalogue 


(International Silver Co., Successor,) 


Connec t icut . 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our advertisers. 


Angelus Piano Player of 1903 

The Angelus of to- 
day is so far super- 
ior in ever3' respect 
to the first Angelus 
(or even that of last 
year) that the one 
ought not to be com- 
pared with the other, 
except to note the 
marked improve- 

To-daA- it is not 
only the means for 
am- one to play upon 
the piano anything 
written in music, 
even though he does 
not know one note 
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4>. The meanings of retarding and 
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Ye Famous Printery 
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Contains one of the Finest Equipments in the State, where much 
of this number of the Connecticut Magazine was printed. 

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ens • aw 

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Architecture of Curtis Memorial Library, Typical of American Literature. 

THE classic home of books which 
stands opposite City Hall in the 
city of Meriden, commanding a mag- 
nificent view of the majestic West 
Peak, is an evidence of the growing lite- 
rary interest and culture of this progressive 
Connecticut city. 

The architecture x>f the structure is beau- 
tiful in its simplicity and the entire atmos- 
phere scholarly and learned. It is a restful 
relief from the gorgeousness of the Renais- 
sance and is typical of American literature. 
The hill section in Meriden is ideal in its 
natural scenery and the broad view of the 
valley below. The edifice of Vermont 
white marble stands on the eminence sur- 
rounded by a velvety green lawn and its 
stateliness strongly denotes its nobility of 
purpose in the diffusion of education. 

The main entrance to the building is the 
loggia, the opening being supported by two 
columns, and there is a lantern of bronze 
in the center of the main doorway leading 
into the vestibule. Three doors enter the 
main library and in the center of the build- 
ing is a delivery room, reading rooms, fin- 
ished in quartered oak are connected. The 
ceilings have Greek borders in colors and 
gold. At the rear of the delivery room is 
a stack room constructed entirely of fire- 
proof materials, with floors of glass, having 
a capacity of 22,000 volumes. 

The assembly room on the second floor 
occupies the space under the dome and is 
of Corinthian design. It is a successful 
adaptation and modification of the temple 
of Erechtheum in Athens of which the 
Century dictionary says: "An Ionic temple 
in Athens dating from the end of the 5th 
century B. C, remarkable for its complex 
plan and architectural variety as well as 
for its technical perfection." The building 
was given to the town of Meriden for the 

good of all its people by Mrs. Augusta 
Munson Curtis in memory of her husband, 
George Redfield Curtis, and of her daugh- 
ter, Agnes Deshon Curtis Squire. Over 
the entrance is the name "The Curtis 
Memorial Library." On the frieze which 
extends about the edifice are the names of 
the world's greatest genii in literature, 
philosophy, arts, and science, chiseled in 
the marble in old Roman letters lined with 

The building is not only a memorial of 
the culture of Meriden but it is also a mon- 
ument to the skill of its builders, the H. 
Wales Lines Company of Meriden. 

The skilled handiwork of these builders 
is exemplified in many structures through- 
out the country, and among those in the 
city of Meriden may be mentioned the 
Curtis Memorial Library, First Congrega- 
tional Church, St. Joseph's R. C. Church. 
residence of the late Charles Parker. Hotel 
Winthrop, High School building, Meriden 
National Bank, Curtis Home, factories of 
the Bradley & Hubbard Mfg. Co., Meriden 
Journal Publishing Co. 

In addition to its contracting business the 
company are wholesale dealers in building 
materials; they are New England distribu- 
tors for Ohio sewer pipe and the celebrated 
Dexter Portland cement which has been 
used in the construction of the new dry 
dock, Charleston Navy Yard and various 
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Through progressive policy and normal 
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of New England. 

The architect of the Meriden library is 
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Wonderful inducement to sell our Swan Baking Powder. 
Every purchaser of a pound can of Swan Baking Powder 
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D. W. C. SKILTON, President. J. H, fllTCHELL, Vice-President. 

EDW. MILLIGAN, Secretary. JOHN B. KNOX, Ass't Secretary. 

Agencies throughout the United States, Canada and the 

Old World. 

I Fifty Years Ago— and Now { 


YOU may have your own opinion as to whether or not the rule 
applies to individuals, but so far as a retail store is concerned 
there is no doubt that the best proof of merit is success. 

The rule may not work both ways. Doubtless there 
have been good stores — honest stores— stores that kept good goods and 
asked fair prices for them — that did not succeed. However that may 
be, it is sure that while not every good store is a success, every successful 
store must necessarily be a good one. 

Advertising won't make a store successful. Shrieking headlines 
and hysterical claims for pre-eminence in value-giving are important 
just so far as they tell the truth — and no farther. Nobody knows this 
any better than the merchants and the advertising men themselves, and 
nobody knows as well as they do that Barnum's famous aphorism, "The 
public likes to be humbugged," is one of the most absurd and most 
dangerous falsehoods ever told. It is one of the very few lies that 
have lived. 

The retail store that tries to live by humbugging its public is a 
store that will have its shutters up in a very short while. That sort 

Fifty Years . A g -o — a n d Now 

of thing may have worked in the show business. Few showmen expect 
to have the same audiences a second time. So it may be true that the 
public will stand humbugging once. 

But a retail store is a different sort of thing. It is a local institution. 
It has its regular, day-in, day-out, year-around customers. And when 


you see a store that, for more than half a century, has grown steadilj 
in volume of business and public confidence, that store is as surerj 
giving its public satisfactory service as it is sure that light will accom- 
pany the sunrise, or growth follow the planting of a healthy seed in 
favorable soil. 

Fifty Years Ago — and Now 

The seed of the Malley Store was planted in 1852; fifty-one years 
ago. It is shown in the illustration at the head of this article. There 
is no doubt that it is at present the largest retail establishment in volume 
of business in Connecticut — it is quite as sure that in 1852 it was the 
smallest store in the State. 

The science of store-keeping fifty years ago was almost to be 
comprehended in a single sentence: "Buy for as little as you can and 
sell for as much as you can get." It was the time when every purchase 
was a long-drawn tussle between seller and buyer in which the victory 
went to the shrewdest bargainer. 

One of the first things that was done in the little Malley Store of 
fifty-one years ago was to mark every article at the lowest price that 
could in good sense be put on it, and to give that price to everyone. 
That seems such a simple thing, — now the "one price" system is almost 
the invariable rule. But at that time it was an innovation. It was 
instantly appreciated by the public and the business jumped into im- 
portance almost from the start. 

That was the fundamental principle of the Malley business, and, 
while the "one price" system is followed by all stores, the other half of 
it — the marking of goods at the lowest possible price — is not so common. 
But it remains to-day the foundation stone on which this great business 

As competition has increased, trickery has crept into manufacturing. 

'here is scarcely a good piece of merchandise made that does not have 

its -inferior imitation. And so, the struggle for low prices has led 

lany stores to the use of the substitutes and imitations of standard values. 

This the Malley Store has NEVER done, and the policy of 
guaranteeing the value-for-price of everything it sells, is the second 
stone in its foundation. 

With the advance in tailoring art as shown in ready-to-wear cos- 
tumes for women, the Malley Store developed a third principle — that of 
rigid exclusiveness in style and pattern, whenever exclusive ness was 
obtainable, and distinctiveness and novelty always. 

Stylishness is a free gift at Malley's. •, No penalty in the way of 
an extra price is ever put on any garment or goods because of artistic 
merit or beauty. 

Fifty Years Ago — and Now 

With the growth in helpfulness of the department store, the Malley 
Store has always been in the lead in every one of the great improve- 
ments. The practice of delivering all purchases FREE has been ex- 
tended by the Malley Store to a greater extent, to greater distances 
and to greater perfection in detail and promptness than by any other 
establishment in the State. Its free delivery service extends to practically 
every nook and corner of Connecticut. 

The business of to-day is the result of a careful building on these 
fundamental principles, and its success is a logical sequence from its 
original policy. 

The merchandise, the low prices and the service of the Malley 
Store are open to all who use the mails. 



©3F flfeen wbo 
Have Stoob 
in tbe IRanfcs anb 
Done IDa^s' Work 
in tbe Worlb 

The Connecticut Magazine 


An Illustrated Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of 
History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. Edited by 
Francis Trevelyan Miller — Published in four books to the annual volume. 
Following is a list of contents is this edition, lavishly illustrated and ably written. 

Art Cover . Designed in red and black 

Frontispiece— Before the Winter Winds Disrobed 

the Trees mrs. j. c. kendall 178 

Early Struggles in American Education . henry smith, ee.d. 179 

Lamed Prof. American History at Yale 
Nine Illustrations from Photographs. 

The Ice Storm— Poem . . . * . . . . a. l. worthington 192 

Clearing the Trail for Civilzation h. a. warren 193 

The Breakwater— Poem mary hoadeey griswoed 200 

The Evolution of Aestheticism .... Ernest chadwick 201 

Bugle of the Stage Coach Echoed Thro* the Village . judge martin smith 205 

The Governors of Connecticut . . . erederick caevin Norton 209 

Seven Illustrations — Reproductions by HERBERT Randaee from Paintings. 
Litchfield County— Its Contributions to a Nation's 

Power and Fame h. ceay trumbuee, s.T.d. 225 

Firelight Remiscences from the Burning Log . . f. g. markham 231 

The Song of the Ship— Poem eouis ransom 235 

Country Life in Connecticut 241 

Mountain Scenery in the Litchfield Hills . . . . . . 242 

On an Old Farm at Colebrook . . 243 

A Cattle Pasture in the Canaan Valley 244 

An Old Familiar Scene at the Crossroads 245 

Four Illustrations by Mrs. J. C. Kendaee and others. 

Driftwood from Ye Olden Time susan e. w. joceeyn 246 

Illustration Colonial Home in New Haven. 

The Lights and Lamps of Early New England c. a. q. Norton 248 

Correspondent National Museum at Washington 
Six Illustrations from Photographs. 

The First Theocratic Government in the New World . george v. smith 257 

Illustration from Engraving of John Davenport. 

The Northern Cat Bird's Song— Poem . . henry rutgers remsen 264 

Memoir of Percival, The Poet duane mowry 266 

First Written Constitution Known to History . areon tayeor adams 273 

A Flower of Memory— Poem miriam hanna 278 

Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 

The Connecticut Magazine 


Publication dates for 1904 are herewith accurately announced: — 
Book III, Volume VIII Indian number will be issued March 15— Book 
IV, Volume VIII, Old Dutch number, issued June 15 — Book I, Volume IX, 
Puritan number, issued Sept. 15 — Book II, Volume IX, Contemporary Amer- 
icanism, issued December 15. Compiled and produced by The Connecticut 
Magazine Company in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 

The Old Inquisition ; A Drama paul brenton eliot 270 

Is Music an Art or a Science . Francis e. Howard 285 

Supervisor of Music in Bridgeport Public Schools. 

In the Courts of the Kings ellen bessie atwater 289 

University of Chicago. 

Transformation— Poem frank l. hamiwon 296 

Loyal to the Crown, Moses Dunbar, Tory judge epaphroditus peck 297 

Court of Common Pleas 

The Tempest— Poem delia bidwell ward 300 

The Dramaturgic Craftsmanship of Shakespere 301 

Genius — A Quatrain burton l. collins 304 

The True Poetic Instinct in Art editor 305 

Four Illustrations from Miniaturs Paintings by Albert Edward Jackson. 

The Subtile Language of the Brush editor 308 

Two Illustrations from Decorations by the Cowi.ES Sisters. 
Elmwood — Home of a Distinguished American fanny m. olmsted 313 

Illustrations from Photographs by Herbert Randall. 
Comparative Study of Jefferson and Lincoln judge lyman u. munson 323 

Former United States Judge of Montana 

The Nomenclature of Towns joel eno, m.a. 330 

Lakeville— In the American Switzerland malcolm day rudd 337 

Over Sixty Illustrations from Photographs by D. H. Oakes and others. 
Lakeville— Its Educational and Commercial Interests . kdward b. baton 372 

Thirteen Illustrations from Photographs. 
Architecture in Connecticut— Highland Court 3S3 

Illustrations from Photographs by Frank M. Johnson. 
Beautiful Homes of Connecticut— Residence 

of George L. Chase 395 

Illustrations from Photographs by Herbert Randall. 

Study in Ancestry edwin Stanley welles 401 

The Quill of the Puritan francis trevelyan miller 40S 


Address all communications and niauuscript to the Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford. Conn. 
Copyright 1903 — By The Connecticut Magaziue Company. 

Incorporated under the Laws of the State of Connecticut forthe purpose of collecting In per- 
manent form the various phases of History, Literature, Art, Science, Genius, Industry and all 
that pertains to the maintenance of the honorable record which this State has attained— for 
this commendable purpose the undersigned are associated as members of the reorganized 
Connecticut Magazine Company, inviting the co-operation of the home patriotic. 


FRANCIS T. MILLER, Secretary. 
EDWARD B. EATOM, Fiew> Manager. 

George P. McLean, ex-Governor of Connecticut; Prof. Henry W. Farnam, Yale Univer- 
sity; George S. Godard, State Librarian; William B. Clark, president ./Etna Insurance Co.; 
Jacob L. Greene, president Conn. Mutual Life Insurance Co.; Edwin S. Greeley, vice-presi- 
dent Yale National Bank; Chas. A. Jewell, treasurer Jewell Belting Co.; Hon. Chas. M. 
Jarvis, vice-president P. & F. Corbin Co.; Judge Lynde Harrison, formerly president New 
Haven Colony Historical Society; Rev. Samuel Hart, president Connecticut Historical 
Society; Albert C. Bates, Librarian, Connecticut Historical Society; James Nichols, president 
National Fire Insurance Co. ; Atwood Collins, president Security Co. ; John M. Holcomb, vice- 
president, Phoenix Mutual Life Ins. Co.; William H. Watrous, manager S. L. & G. H. Rogers 
Co.; Hon. Frederick A. Betts, former Insurance Commissioner; Dr. Gurdon W. Russell, Park 
Commissioner; Henry T. Blake, president Park Commissioners, New Haven; John G. Root, 
ex-Mayor of Hartford; Daniel R. Howe, sec'y and treas. Hartford Street Railway Co.; Frank 
C. Summer, sec'y and treas. Hartford Trust Co.; Francis H. Richards, Patent Attorney; Car- 
not O. Spencer, School Fund Commissioner; Hon. Henry Roberts, Lieut. -Governor of Conn.; 
Joseph G. Woodward, historian Conn. Soc. Sons of Am. Rev.; Judge Dwight Loomis, ex- 
Associate Judge Supreme Court of Errors; Rev. Francis Goodwin, Park Commissioner, Hart- 
ford Commissioner of Sculpture; Mary Elizabeth Wright Smith, vice-president at large, 
Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association; Mrs. Samuel Colt, president Connecticut Branch 
Woman's Auxiliary Board of Missions; James J. Goodwin, vice-president Conn. Historical 
Society; Lewis E. Stanton, president, Hartford Bar Library Association; Estate Henry C- 
Robinson, John T. Robinson and Henry S. Robinson; Joseph H. King, president American 
National Bank; Dwight C. Kilbourn, clerk of courts, Litchfield County; Eli Whitney, presi- 
dent New Haven Water Co.; P. Henry Woodward, former secretary Hartford Board of! 
Trade; Francis R. Cooley, banker; Appleton R. Hillyer, vice-president iEtna National Bank; 
Samuel E. Elmore, president Connecticut River Banking Co<; Thomas J. Boardman, presi- 
dent Wm. Boardman & Sons Co.; William Newnham Carlton, librarian Trinity College; Judge 
Edwin B. Gager, Judge of the Superior Court; Theodore Lyman, Attorney at Law; Kate E 
Griswold, publisher Profitable Advertising; Richard O. Cheney, vice-president State Board 
of Trade; Henry S. Goslee, Attorney at Law; Ernest B. Ellsworth, Attorney at Law; William 
H. Richmond, B. M. Des Jardins, H. Phelps Arms, Charles W. Frey, Mrs. Josephine E. S 
Porter, Herbert Randall, Mrs. C. R. Forrest, Hon. Stephen Walkley, Mrs. Henry F. Ditnock 
Edwin Stanley Welles, Charles E. Thompson, Franklin Clark, Mary B. Brainard, Mrs. Frank- 
lin Farrell, Francis Trevelyan Miller, Edward B. Eaton, Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr., Mrs 
Antoinette Eno Wood, Dr. Henry Putnam Stearns, Rev. Lewis W. Hicks, Edwin Cone Hunt 
A. H. Randell, Dr. Charles C. Beach, William F. J. Boardman, Howard C. Buck, Daniel D 
Bid well, The Smith-Linsley Co. 









learned Professor of American History at Yale University 

Charles Henry Smith was graduated at Yale College immediately 
following the serious days of the Civil War, in 1865. He remained at 
the institution as a tutor for two years and taught in several other 
educational institutions until 1874 when he received an appointment 
to the faculty of Bowdoin College, remaining until 1890, then becoming 
Professor of American History in Yale University. He is Vice-Presi- 
dent of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, and an honorary 
member of the Maine Historical Society. The notable article pre- 
sented herewith is written especially for The Connecticut Magazine 
and relates to an important phase in early American education. It 
will be followed by a second contribution from Professor Smith 
relating to the later periods in university education — Editor 

NEW Haven Colony was found- 
ed by men who understood 
the importance of public 
education. Their plan for the Colony 
provided for Primary and Grammar 
Schools, with a College at the head 
of the system. With regard to this, 
Levermore in his ''Republic of New 
Haven" writes, "No school system 
like that which Davenport and Eaton 
planned and upheld then existed else- 
where in New or Old England." 

Primary and Grammar Schools 
were established, but the College did 
not come until Davenport and his 
generation had passed away, and a 
new century was opening. This long- 
delay was due partly to the straitened 
circumstances of the settlers result- 
ing from unsuccessful business ven- 

tures, partly to a protest from Cam- 
bridge against the withdrawal of sup- 
port needed by Harvard. This sup- 
port was given both by sending Now 
Haven boys to Harvard, and by con- 
tributing grain for the support of 
students in that institution. Johns- 
ton in his history of Connecticut 
writes, "It should not be forgotten 
that, at least in spirit, the establish- 
ment of Harvard by the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts Bay had a 
contemporary rival in the struggling 
little settlement on Long Island 
Sound. But for the different circum- 
stances of the two peoples, and a def- 
erence to Harvard's appeal for sup 
port, their two Universities would 
have been born almost together, and 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniver- 

A Few Books were the Beginning of Yale University 

saries of Harvard and Yale would 
have been almost co-incident." 

When the Seventeenth century was 
drawing to its close, the project for 
starting a College was revived. But 
the lapse of time and increase of pop- 
ulation had brought enlarged views. 
The plan was no longer, as in the time 
of Davenport, for a local College 
which should round out the New Ha- 
ven school system, but for one which 
should supply the needs of Southern 
New England, and attract students 
from the Middle Colonies. Further- 
more, as New Haven was now 
merged in Connecticut, the enterprise 
was supported by leading men in dif- 
ferent parts of the enlarged Colony, 
and was beyond the control of the 
New Haven interest. Thus it came 
about the strong desire for the College 
in New Haven, which went back as 

we have seen to the first settlement 
of the place, was frustrated. The 
College was founded, but not in New 
Haven, and it was sixteen years before 
it could be brought to the place where 
it historically belonged. 

A charter for a "Collegiate School" 
was obtained from the Colonial As- 
sembly in October, ijoi, by ten Con- 
gregationalist ministers of Connecti- 
cut, who were constituted the first 
Trustees. The " School," as the Col- 
lege was at first called for pruden- 
tial reasons, was started in Say- 
brook, where fifteen annual Com- 
mencements were held. Then, in the 
Fall of 1716, it was moved to New 

Land was purchased at the corner 
of Chapel and College Streets where 
Osborn Hall now stands, and. the 

Courtesy Yale Alumni Weekly 

Bust by F. Edwin Elwell of the American Philanthropist 

Son of Thomas Yale, One of the Original Settlers of New Haven, Conn., 1638 

Amassed a fortune in the East India trade and became 

a Benefactor to Colonial Education 


erection of a College building was 
commenced. At an opportune mo- 
ment there came a gift from Elihu 
Yale, whose father had been • one of 
the original settlers of New Haven. 
This gift made it possible to finish, or 
nearly finish, the building in time for 
the Commencement of J 718. A great 
and joyous occasion was this Com- 
mencement, the first public one in the 
history of the College. It was at- 
tended by the dignitaries of Church 
and State, and was doubtless the oc- 
casion of much unrecorded joy on 
the part of New Haveners who saw 
their hopes at last realized. With 
becoming gratitude the Trustees 
named the new Hall after their bene- 
factor, Yale, and this became a few 
years later the official name of the 

In the Charter the head of the 
School was styled a "Rector." The 
first to bear that title was Rev. Abra- 
ham Pierson, who died in 1707, and 
the second was Rev. Samuel Andrew 
of Milford. Their terms of office 
covered the Saybrook period, which 
has been made the subject of a sepa- 
rate sketch in a former number of the 
"Connecticut Magazine'." 

In 1 7 19 a new Rector was chosen, 
Rev. Timothy Cutler, a Harvard 
graduate and minister of Stratford. 
He came to New Haven promptly on 
his election, and took hold of his new 
work in a way which gave promise of 
success. But his career at Yale was 
short. It soon began to be rumored 
that this head of a Puritan College 
was actually going over to the Epis- 
copal Church, and would seek ordin- 
ation at the hands of a Bishop. When 
it was found that such was his settled 

purpose, he was excused from further 
discharge of the duties of Rector. 
He went to England, was ordained 
by the Bishop of Norwich, and, re- 
turning to this country, was for many 
years Rector of Christ Church in 
Boston. Concerning this incident in 
the history of the College, President 
Woolsey wrote: "I suppose that 
greater alarm would scarcely be 
awakened now if the Theological 
Faculty of the College were to de- 
clare for the Church of Rome, avow 
their belief in transubstantiation, and 
pray to the Virgin Mary." 

Rector Cutler's successor was Rev. 
Elisha Williams of Newington. He 
remained at the head of the College 
for thirteen years, then resigned to 
follow a more active life. He went 
to the Assembly and was made 
Speaker, then in 1745 went with the 
expedition that captured Louisburg. 
and was afterward made a Colonel. 

In 1739 Rev. Thomas Clap began 
his eventful career at Yale. For six 
years he was "Rector" of the "Colle- 
giate School," then for twenty-one 
years he was "President of Yale Col- 
lege." This change of title for the 
College and its head was made by the 
Assembly in a new Charter which was 
granted in 1745. The change suit- 
ably marked the increased size and 
importance of the institution. In 
1750 a second building was needed 
to accommodate the students, and ac- 
cordingly a new dormitory was built. 
In recognition of the aid given by the 
Colonial Assembly, it was called Con- 
necticut Hall, but later its name was 
changed to South Middle. It has 
been the oldest building on the Col- 
lege Square. 







Last of the Old Brick Row at Yale in which many of the nation's greatest statesmen 
received their early learning 

A change of far-reaching conse- 
quence was made in 1753. Up to 
that time the College had worshipped 
in the Meeting House on the Green, 
the students occupying seats in the 
gallery. But now the college with- 
drew, and preaching services on Sun- 
day were conducted in the Yale Hall. 
This separation from the parish 
church was the beginning of an in- 
dependent religious life which has 
profoundly influenced the character 
of Yale. In 1757 a regular church 
was organized, and it has remained 
the College church ever since. Its 
relations are almost exclusively with 
what is now the Academical Depart- 
ment of the University. Its reorgan- 
ization into a true University church 
is doubtless one of the developments 

of the future. But no one is read) 
yet for the substitution of voluntary 
for compulsory attendance which 
would be involved in such a develop- 
ment. In 1761-3 a church building, 
long known as the Atheneum. was 
erected. Its successor was the OKI 
Chapel built in 1824. and this in turn, 
in 1876, gave place to the present 
Chapel, the gift of Mr. Battell oi 
Norfolk, Conn. 

In contending for the right to es- 
tablish a separate church. President 
Clap made the most of the fact that 
clergymen were the originators and 
organizers of the College. He did 
so again in [763 when he defended 
the College from an attack which con- 
templated putting it under political 
control. Bv an arsfumeni which fudge 


Story at a later day characterized as 
masterly, he satisfied the Assembly 
that the College was legally exempt 
from legislative visitation. . In this 
he doubtless rendered an important 
service to the College, but in one re- 
spect the effect of his victory was un- 
fortunate, for it closed an important 
source of revenue. Hitherto, the As- 
sembly had shown its interest and 
confidence in the College by grants of 
money. In the first Charter provision 
was made for the payment of sixty 
pounds sterling annually, and this 
was continued until 1755. Besides, 
from time to time, special grants 
were made. Thus, 250 pounds, or 
one-fourth of its whole cost, was con- 
tributed to the erection of the first 
Yale Hall. Subsequently, such items 
as these appear in President Clap's 
statement of receipt: "1741, The 
General Assembly, for new covering 
the College, £42." "1742, The Gen- 
eral Assembly, for a new Kitchen and 
Fence about the Rector's House, £40." 
In all, these special grants, in addi- 
tion to the regular one of 60 pounds, 
amounted in 1765 to 2,060 pounds. 
But after the President had demon- 
strated the complete independence of 
the College, the feeling arose that it 
was no longer entitled to public aid, 
and presently the benefactions of the 
Assembly ceased. 

President Clap was a strong man 
who saw clearly and urged incisively 
what he believed was for the good of 
the College. This made him appear 
dictatorial, and brought him much ill 
will. After devoting twenty-seven 
years of his life with untiring zeal to 
the College, he was constrained to re- 
sign in 1766, and died soon after. 

The succeeding eleven years, from 
the repeal of the Stamp Act to the 
Declaration of Independence, were 
years of uncertainty and peril in pub- 
lic affairs, and of much discourage- 
ment to the College. No suitable 
person could be found who was will- 
ing to take the Presidency, and so Dr. 
Daggett, the sole Professor of whom 
the College could boast, was asked 
to act as President. During this per- 
iod the democratic impulse of the time 
reached the College, and swept away 
official recognition of social rank. 
Heretofore, the students had been 
listed according to their family stand- 
ing, very much as their elders were 
given seats in the meeting house. 
It is related of one bright lad, son of 
a shoemaker, that he secured a cov- 
eted place high up on the list among 
the sons of Judges by gravely an- 
nouncing that his father was on the 
bench. Dr. Daggett put an end to 
that in 1767, and from that time stu- 
dents' names have been arranged al- 

In 1777, Dr. Daggett refused to 
act as President any longer, and Rev. 
Ezra Stiles, D. D., who "had ac- 
quired the reputation of being the 
most learned man in America," was 
chosen President. His extensive ac- 
quirements served him in good stead, 
for early in his term of office he lost 
his two Professors, the one of Divin- 
ity and the other of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy, and he filled both 
their places himself. 

He was also Professor of Ecclesias- 
tical History. In thus filling the 
places of President and three profes- 
sors at the same time during the 
greater part of his term, Dr. Stiles 

Courtesy Yale Alumni Weekly 


Necessitated the building of a college dormitory which has since become famous 
throughout the world as the old "South Middle" 

gave proof not only of his versatility, 
but also of his devotion to the College. 
On coming to Yale it was a part of 
his plan to increase the teaching force 
of the institution. But instead of an 
increase there was a falling off, and 
nothing but his determined and self- 
sacrificing spirit prevented the ser- 
ious crippling of the College. The 
main obstacle to its suitable equip- 
ment was the unfriendly attitude of 
the State Government. 

Mention has been made of the cut- 
ting off of State aid from the institu- 
tion which President Clap had shown 
was not subject to State supervision. 
To give the State such a measure of 
oversight as would justify the renewal 
of benefactions, and at the same time 
preserve the independence of the Col- 
lege, was the problem which Presi- 
dent Stiles and others sought to solve. 
In 1792 a happy solution was found 
This consisted in enlarging the Cor- 
poration by adding to it, ex-oflicio, 

the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
and six senior State Senators. These 
lay members could not take the con- 
trol of the College out of the hands 
of the clerical members who outnum- 
bered them, but they were in a posi- 
tion to know, on behalf of the State, 
every thing that transpired in the 
management of the institution. This 
satisfied the demand at the time for 
State oversight, and harmonious rela- 
tions between State and College were 
restored. Grants were made which 
eventually amounted to over $40,000. 
and it became possible to secure a 
new Professor, and to build a new 
dormitory. This was called Union 
Mali, to commemorate the renewed 
co-operation of Assembly and Trus- 
tees, but it is better known as South 
College. It was taken down, along 
with the Atheneum. in 1703 to make 
room for Yanderhilt Hall. 

President Stiles died in 1705. The 
College was then nearly one hundred 


" Most Learned Man in America" 

Ezra Stiles was honored by that reputation 
when he became president of Yale College in 
1777 and undertook to force the legislature to 

years old, and occupied a position of 
great importance. Of its more than 
two thousand graduates many had 
played an important part in shaping 
the destinies of State and Nation. 
Among these were learned divines and 
educators, such as Jonathan Edwards, 
theologian and President of Prince- 
ton ; Samuel Johnson, first President 
of Columbia ; Eleazur Wheelock, first 
President of Dartmouth ; Samuel Sea- 
bury, first Bishop of Connecticut ; 
Abraham Baldwin, first President of 
University of Georgia ; Edward Dorr 
Griffin, President of Williams ; Ezra 
Stiles, Timothy Dwight, and Jere- 
miah Day, Presidents of Yale. 

In the stirring times of the Revo- 
lution, Yale men took an active part. 
Seventeen were members of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and four of these, 
namely, Philip Livingston, Lewis 
Morris, Oliver Wolcott, and Lyman 

Hall, were signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. The war itself pre- 
sents us with a most honorable record. 
At Bunker Hill, Long Island, White 
Plains, Saratoga, Valley Forge, Mon- 
mouth, Stony Point, Yorktown, and 
other historic battle fields, Yale grad- 
uates were at the front in every grade 
of the service from General to pri- 
vate. In Trumbull's painting of the 
battle of Bunker Hill, Lieutenant 
Grosvener appears "conspicuously at 
the front." Captain Coit, Lieuten- 
ant Gray, Captain Chester, and Pri- 
vate Hearst, were all in the thick of 
the fight "at the rail and grass fence 
where the longest stand was made." 
At the siege of Boston, at least fifteen 
of Washington's officers were Yale 
graduates. Most of these also took 
part in the operations around New 
York, together with others, in all at 
least thirty-two officers. At Prince- 
ton the favorable turn of the battle at 
a critical moment was secured by Col. 
Hitchcock. After it was over, Wash- 
ington, in the presence of the army, 
took him by the hand in front of Nas- 
sau Hall, Princeton's historic build- 
ing, and thanked him for his gallant 
service during the day. 

In the battles around Saratoga, 
General Oliver Wolcott, General John 
Patterson, Noah Webster, and Col. 
John Brown, took part. The latter 
was chosen to lead a detachment of 
five hundred men to operate in Bur- 
goyne's rear. This he did effectively, 
contributing to the defeat of the Brit- 
ish. In the same year, General Woos- 
ter, a leading citizen of New Haven, 
Major General of the Connecticut 
militia, and Brigadier General in the 
Continental Army, fell while defend- 


ing Danbury. At the close of the The accession of President Dwight 

war, Major Wyllis "was in the lead- in 1795 opened a new period in the 
ing battalion that stormed one of the history of Yale. His predecessors 
Yorktown redoubts." Among those laid the foundation upon which he 
who fell in the war a place of honor commenced the superstructure of the 
is appropriately given to Nathan modern College and University. Thus 
Hale, the martyr spy, who died re- far the College had been dominated 
greting that he had but one life to by the ideas and hampered by the 
give for his country. In all, the usuages of former generations. Pres- 
names of one hundred and ninety-six ident Dwight set his face resolutely 
Yale graduates who took part in the toward the future, and under the 
war are known, and there are sup- touch of his genius it began to as- 
posed to have been about forty more sume those essential characteristics 
whose devotion to their country's which distinguish the Yale of to-day. 
cause has not been made matter of Great enlargement there has been 
individual record. since his time, but this has come 

In the councils of Nation and mainly as the development of what 
State, Yale graduates of the period was started by this far-sighted man. 
we are considering were prominent. When he became President, the 

Four, namely, William Livingstone, way was open for the founding of 
William Samuel Johnson, Jared 
Ingersol, Abraham Baldwin, 
were members of the Convention 
of 1787 that framed the Federal 
Constitution.. Eighty-two were 
Senators, Representatives, Cabi- 
net Officers, Federal Judges, and 
Foreign Ministers. Among 

these were Silas Deane, Theo- 
dore Sedgwick, Manasseh Cut- 
ler, James Hillhouse, Joel Bar- 
low, Oliver Wolcott, and Jere- 
miah Mason. Sixty-five were 
Governors and Judges of Su- 
preme Courts in the several 
states. Among these were 
Chancellor James Kent of New 
York, and the two Oliver Wol- 
cotts, Jonathan Ingersol, Roger 
Griswold, and Roger Minot 
Sherman, of Connecticut. It is 
evident that Yale did her part 
in training leaders for the breaking the Fetters of usage 

Church, the State, and the Presideut Timothy 1>wigllt iu im opened . amm ,, , 

Nation. in the history of Yale and developed its possibilities 


three new Professorships. In the 
earlier period, clergymen who had at- 
tained some, pulpit eminence might 
have been chosen for these places. 
But President Dwight saw the advan- 
tage of encouraging young men of 
promise to adopt a special line of in- 
struction for their life work, and pre- 
pare themselves for it. In this appre- 
ciation of specialization, he showed 
how essentially modern was the work- 
ing of his mind. He selected three 
young graduates, Jeremiah Day, Ben- 
jamin Silliman, and James L. Kings- 
ley. Silliman went abroad for study, 
and, returning well prepared for his 
work, entered upon his brilliant career 
as Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
Philosophy. Gifted as a lecturer, he 
popularized Science, and awakened 
widespread interest in his favorite 
studies. Luminous and inspiring as 
a teacher, he attracted eager students 
to his laboratory, and made Yale, as 
it has been called, "the scientific cen- 
ter of America" in the first half of the 
nineteenth century. 

Under President Dwight and the 
eminent men he gathered about him, 
the fame of the College was widely 
extended, and students resorted to it 
from distant parts of the land. It 
was no longer a local Connecticut or 
even New England institution, but 
was taking on a national character 
which it has ever since maintained. 
To provide for its present and future 
growth, more land was purchased, 
namely, the greater part of the Col- 
lege Square, and two new buildings, 
North Middle and Lyceum, were 

In addition to his enlarged views 
for the College, President Dwight 

conceived the plan of making Yale a 
University, with its four Departments 
of Philosophy and the Arts, Theol- 
ogy, Law, and Medicine. But his 
death in 1817 came before he was able 
to carry out his plans. Only the Med- 
ical School had actually been organ- 
ized. This began in 1813 with a fac- 
ulty consisting of Aeneas Munson, 
Nathan Smith, Eli Ives, Benjamin 
Silliman, and Jonathan Knight. All 
were eminent men, and the School 
"attained immediately an enviable 
reputation and marked success." Its 
first building was the one now known 
as Sheffield Hall. In this the stu- 
dents roomed and boarded, and at- 
tended prayers in the morning and 
lectures during the day. The cata- 
logue for 1822 announces that "the 
Medical students, during their resi- 
dence in the institution, are subject 
to the same moral and religious re- 
straints as those of the Academical 
College." The same catalogue an- 
nounces that room-rent in the Medi- 
cal College is five dollars, "which en- 
titles the student to remain in the 
room during the year." One would 
think that this modest charge would 
have made the Medical College with 
its boarding department and religious 
privileges exceedingly popular. But 
such was not the case, and before 
many years the building was given up 
entirely to its educational uses. 

The School has an enviable repu- 
tation for thoroughness, and this has 
been secured in the face of many dis- 
couragements. The endowment has 
always been small, being for many 
years not enough for incidental ex- 
penses. Yet the Medical Professors 
with great public spirit have steadily 


stiffened the examinations, and 
prolonged the course to three, 
then to four years at the cost of 
fewer students, and smaller fees. 
But they realized that "a School 
whose distinguishing mark is 
the extent to which it carries 
its scientific instruction and its 
facilities for making the results 
ot scientific investigation tell 
upon medical practice, will have 
a range of influence far trans- 
cending the number who fre- 
quent its class rooms." To ac- 
complish this is the aim and hope 
of the Yale Medical School. 

The buildings of the School 
are provided with the most ap- 
proved appliances for laboratory 

work in the several fields of ''atr^ ■ ^ .^ 
medical investigation. A recent gift 
of $100,000 has added to its plant a 
large clinical building opposite the 
New Haven Hospital. 

President Dwight's efforts for the 
development of Yale into a Univer- 
sity were continued by his successor, 
Jeremiah Day, who was President 
from 18 1 7 to 1846. During that per- 
iod the Divinity School and the Law 
School were organized. 

The Divinity School may be said 
to have had its beginning contempor- 
aneously with the College ; for the edu- 
cation of young men for the ministry 
was one of the objects for which the 
institution was started. In 1755 a 
Professorship of Divinity was estab- 
lished as a regular Chair in the Col- 
lege. The incumbents of this Chair, 
the most prominent of whom in early 
times were the three Presidents, Dag- 
gett, Stiles, and Dwight, for nearly 

Upbuilding of a Great Institution 

Was continued by President Jeremiah Day who be- 
came presidentof Yale inl817 and governed through 

seventy years preached in the College 
pulpit and taught graduates who were 
fitting for the ministry. It was thus 
that some of the foremost preachers 
and theologians of New England, no- 
tably Moses Stuart, Lyman Beecher, 
and Nathaniel W. Taylor, received 
their theological training from Presi- 

dent Dwight. Soon after the death 
of President Dwight, it became evi- 
dent that the old method oi combining 
College and Divinity School in one 
was no longer adequate, and a sepa- 
rate Theological Department was or- 

The new Department was placed in 
the hands of three men. Professors 
Taylor, Fitch, and Gibbs, with whom 
a fourth, Goodrich, was associated. 
These men shaped its course and gave 
it renown for over thirty years. The 
early portion oi this time was the he- 
roic period of the "Theological Sem- 


inary" as it was then called, when 
teachers and pupils were ' full of 
the ardor of conflict for the truth 
as they saw it ; when New Ha- 
ven Theology was a recog- 
nized School of New England 
thought ; when the popular name, 
"Taylorism" did homage to the great 
leader who questioned the orthodoxy 
of the day, and contended for modi- 
fications which gave a new direction 
to the religious thought of the land. 

The influences then prominent at 
Yale gave rise to an evangelistic 
movement of great importance. In 
1829, several members of the Theo- 
logical School, namely, Theron Bald- 
win, John F. Brooks, Mason Gros- 
venor, EHsha Jenney, William Kirby, 
Julian M. Sturtevant, and Asa Tur- 
ner, formed the "Illinois Band," and 
agreed to devote themselves to Chris- 
tian work in what was then the New 
West. That great region, now the 
home of an advanced Christian civili- 
zation, was then attracting adventur- 
ers of every kind, and it was feared 
that irr^ligion and illiteracy would 
gain the upper hand. Animated by 
religious and patriotic devotion, the 
Illinois Band went forth and accom- 
plished a work, the value of which to 
the Church and Nation can hardly 
be overestimated. 

The buildings of the Divinity 
School are four in number, and are 
prominently located at the corner of 
Elm and College Streets. Mr. Fred- 
erick Marquand of Southport, con- 
tributed largely to their erection. 

The Law School was started as a 
private enterprise by Seth P. Staples, 
an eminent lawyer, and still more emi- 
nent teacher. As his practice made 

large demands upon his time, he was 
obliged to meet his pupils before 
breakfast, and we are told that they 
in their eagerness to get his instruc- 
tion would sometimes gather at his 
house before he was up in the morn- 
ing and patiently wait for his appear- 
ance. In 1824 the College adopted 
the school by printing the names of 
its students in the catalogue, and in 
1843 the degree of Bachelor of L,aws 
was conferred upon them. Until 
1869 the School was in the hands of 
not more than two teachers at once, 
and the attendance toward the latter 
part of the time became quite small. 

In 1869 Judge Dutton, then the 
only teacher, died, and the next year 
the graduating class numbered only 
three. The School was now taken in 
hand by Judge Simeon E. Baldwin 
and other eminent lawyers who have 
worked with untiring zeal for its ad- 
vancement. They have sought to 
ground their pupils in the principles 
of the law by requiring the study of 
text-books with recitations ; to secure 
greater thoroughness by lengthening 
the course from two to three years ; 
to encourage graduate study by offer- 
ing graduate degrees in course ; and 
to meet the needs of business men by 
courses designed especially for them. 

In thus working toward a higher 
and broader standard, it has been for- 
tunate in carrying public support with 
it, so that it has seen little, if any 
cause for discouragement in the last 
thirty years. During that time, its 
students have come in increasing 
numbers from distant States, and 
after graduation have gone into all 
parts of the country, and to foreign 
lands. Among its alumni are distin- 



guished men who have borne witness 
to the value of their professional 
training, and by the importance of 
their work have extended the influ- 
ence of Yale. They are to be found 
on the benches of the United States 
Supreme and District Courts, among 
the Chief Justices and Judges of sev- 
eral States, as Presidents and Profes- 
sors of a number of State Universi- 
ties, as distinguished diplomatists, 
and in other ways prominent in pub- 
lic life in this country and in Japan. 
The School is well housed in a new 
and spacious building, Hendrie Hall, 
the pleasing front of which, facing the 
Green on Elm Street, is an ornament 
to the City. 

President's Day's term of office was 
twenty-nine years, the longest in the 
history of the College. Under him 
the institution assumed definite form 
as a University, but the Academical 
Department completely overshadowed 
the others, as it continued to do for 
many years. It gained steadily in 
size and scholarship. Four new build- 
ings were put up, Commons Hall, 
Trumbull Art Gallery, North College, 

and Chapel. The "Old Brick Row" 
of seven buildings was now complete. 
The last half of President Day's 
term was "a truly brilliant period." 
It was ushered in by an important re- 
ligious revival which gave great so- 
briety and steadiness to the College 
life. "As a body, the whole College 
community was characterized by an 
interest in study and a spirit of work 
which surpassed any thing known be- 
fore." The name of one class in par- 
ticular has come down to us as em- 
bodying much that was best in the 
undergraduate life of that period — 
the famous class of '37, the class of 
William M. Evarts, Morrison Waite, 
Edwards Pierrepont, and Samuel J. 
Tilden. "During all this period, the 
consciousness among the students of 
their numbers, and of their cosmopol- 
itan character, added to the esprit de 
corps which was already so marked a 
feature of the College community. 
Never before had the students been 
known to manifest such affection for 
their Alma Mater, or to take such 
pride in the ability and the reputation 
of their instructors." 

(To be followed by Second Article) 



Trees of silver and steel and gray, 

Sky of mother-of-pearl, — 
When a ribbon of light the sunshine brings 

The bows entwine in diamond strings, 
With a radiant crash each twig upsprings, 

Till the souls of men feel the mystery 
And the minds of men unfurl. 




Connecticut appropriated through its General Assembly last session $450,000 for the improvement 
of public roads during year 1903-1904. The amount expended in excess of this appropriation by the 
individual towns carries the total to figures which speak commendably of the importance Connecticut 
attaches to unrestricted public highways as the channels for progress. Road building has become a 
science, and the necessity of unobstructed travel increases with the material advancement and 
development of the Commonwealth. Mr. Warren in his researches has gathered much interesting 
material relating to the conception of the early road idea of the colonists. At his home in Collinsville 
he is now writing the second article for The Connecticut Magazine, picturing the life, traffic and 
travel on the old turnpikes.— Editor 

^9^ HAT the condition of a people's 
II roads is an important index 
to their civilization is an 
axiom generally admitted by histor- 
ians and economists. This is partic- 
ularly true of newly settled regions. 
There the factors by which social de- 
velopment is determined are compara- 
tively few and the relative importance 
of the highway is much greater. 
During the first stages of coloniza- 
tion, where facilities for communica- 
tion by waterways are meager, the 
maintenance of roads is essential to 
the very existence of the state. 

The early history of Connecticut 
illustrates this close connection in an 
exceptionally interesting manner. In 
addition to the local necessity for 
communication, the pressure of an 
alien population along the Hudson 
resulted in a desire for the union of 
the Connecticut River and the New 
Haven colonies, and roads were built 
between the two settlements at a very 
early date. At a later time the fact 

that the colony lay on the direct route 
between New York and Boston and 
between New York and Newport was 
a powerful incentive to the extension 
of these highways. For many years 
well traveled roads led across the 
state from northeast to southwest and 
for its entire length along the shore 
of Long Island Sound. Then began 
the final conflict by which England 
wrested from France the control of 
the Great Lakes and the St. Law- 
rence Valley ; the center of political 
and military gravitation, previously 
shifting indefinite, became fixed for a 
term of years in the country includ- 
ing the Mohawk and upper Hudson 
Valley together with Lakes Cham- 
plain and George ; the strategic nec- 
essities caused by the capture of Fort 
Frontenac, of Crown Point and Ti- 
conderoga, and the opening of the 
inland water route to Canada re- 
quired the formation of closer ties 
between New England and Northern 
New York. In 1758, the year in 



which these events took place, the 
Old North Road was conceived and 
it remained in use for moire than for- 
ty years until superseded by the 
Hartford and Albany turnpike. 

This highway through the Great 
Green Woods, as the northern half of 
Litchfield County was then called, 
was an amalgamation of shorter ways 
which from time to time had been 
built to accommodate the slowly 
growing population to the west of 
Hartford. Its history together with 
that of its predecessors throws a 
flood of light upon the life and cus- 
toms of the time. The town and 
state records relating to it are full of 
valuable allusions to contemporary 
social conditions, of delightfully 
naive confessions of colonial thrift 
and shrewdness, of unconscious ex- 
positions of political and business 
maneuvering that impart a modern 
human touch to the financiering of 
the era and shadow forth the gigan- 
tic railroad manipulations of the 

The pioneers who penetrated the 
Green Woods found no trails. The 
•country was uninhabited even by the 
Indians. So slow was the coloniza- 
tion that when in 1733 Ezekial Ash- 
ley of "Ousatonnuck," petitioned the 
colonial assembly to finish a road 
which he had begun from the present 
limits of the town of Salisbury in the 
direction of Hartford, the sparseness 
of the population did not appear to 
warrant the expense and the request 
was denied. During the succeeding 
twenty years the settlement of Nor- 
folk, Canaan and New Hartford 
took place. The difficulties encoun- 
tered by the sturdy colonists in 
reaching their destination are well 

described by Boyd in his Annals of 
Old Winchester. 'They left their 
families and stock at points along the 
way, where openings in the forest 
could be found for grazing, and went 
forward with their axes and cleared 
a trail from one opening to another, 
and then moved their caravan. Tra- 
dition says that they went forward 
with their trail to a natural meadow 
at the northerly border of a small 
pond, a mile east of Norfolk center, 
then returned and brought their fam- 
ilies and flocks to this oasis. Thence 
they cleared their way to the foot of 
Haystack Mountain, and along 
Blackberry River to Canaan, which 
must to them have been a happy land 
after the toils and privations of their 

The first traveled roads of this re- 
gion were bridle-paths which led 
northwestward to the more thickly 
settled portion of the Housatonic 
valley in Massachusetts and east- 
wardly to connect with the roads in 
Simsbury and Farmington which 
towns at that time covered a much 
greater area than now. An amusing 
picture is presented by the author 
just quoted of tavern life on these 
highways. "Landlord Mott erected 
his hostelry on the bridle-path that 
preceded the Old South Road. The 
building was neither imposing or spa- 
cious. Its walls were of unhewn 
logs, its roof of hemlock bark, with 
an opening in the ridge for the escape 
of smoke from the capacious stone 
chimney which ascended to the level 
of the garret floor. How a tavern 
could be sustained in this uninhabit- 
ed region is hard to conceive. Land- 
lord Mott, however, took courage 
and made the best of his business. 



To an inquiry as to how he succeed- 
ed in retailing his first keg of rum, 
he replied that he was doing remark- 
ably well ; that hunters, when they 
came along, would fill their bottles, 
and that nearly every day he bought 
a glass of tanzy bitters from his wife, 
and that she would then buy one of 
him with the same fourpence half- 

In 1752 the citizens of the century- 
old towns of Simsbury and Farming- 
ton joined the settlers of New Hart- 
ford at the eastern edge of the Green 
Woods in a petition to the county 
court for an order opening a road 
from Hartford to that place. The 
petition was granted and commis- 
sioners were chosen to lay out a route 
and a jury summoned to condemn the 
right of way. It led from "Col. 
John Whiting's farm a Cross the 
mountain near to Mr. Joseph Wood- 
ford's and So Westwardly until It 
meet with a Highway which is Layed 
thro the notch of the mountain near 
Chery's Pond So Called." 

Then began a merry war of politi- 
cal intrigue and plotting. The pro- 
posed route lay through the northern 
part of the town of Farmington now 
included in the territory of Avon ; 
and while great expense was imposed 
upon the town by its building, but lit- 
tle benefit was derived in comparison 
with that reaped by the towns to the 
west; furthermore Farmington al- 
ready possessed a good road leading 
west from the meeting-house at Cider 
Brook, two miles south of the com- 
missioners' layout. 

As soon as possible a town meet- 
ing was held and agents were chosen 
to present a memorial upon the mat- 
ter to the next legislature. Quaint 

and archaic, but strong and terse is 
the language of the aggrieved com- 
plainants. "Your memorialists beg 
Leave to observe," they write, "That 
the order of Court and the Report of 
the Com'tee concerning sd Highway 
confined the Jury too much within 
certain Bounds and did not allow 
them reasonable Liberty to examine 
and lay out the Road where they, 
when they come to the Place, sho'd 
think best. 2ndly, That the County 
Court did not follow the Direction of 
the Law in appointing the Com'tee 
aforesd, in yet they were chosen from 
Hartford and Wethersfield and Glas- 
sonberry and The Law directs that 
such Com'tee shall be taken from the 
Towns that have most need of the 
Highway which in this Case were 
manifestly Symsberry and New Hart- 
ford. 3rdly. That two of the mem- 
orialists who moved first to have a 
Road laid out were two of the Jury 
be supposed but to be too much en- 
that laid out the sd way and cannot 
gaged to be indifferent as Jurimen 
ought to be. 4thly. The Place where 
sd Highway is laid out [near the pres- 
ent course of the road over Talcott 
Mountain between Hartford and 
Avon] is exceeding bad very moun- 
tainous Stony & uneven at Several 
Places the Mountain is very Steep 
and Rocky, Scarce any Earth to be 
got & it hardly possible to make a 
feasable Road over it, besides Several 
other long and Difficult Hills, many 
wet Places & miry Marshes, yt will 
cost vast Labour to build ye Causeys 
over, besides a Difficult Place in the 
River where a Bridge must be build 
near twelve rod in Length & the 
Banks of ye River so Sandy yt is next 
to impossible to make a Bridge stand 



in sd Place. Your memorialists ver- 
ily believe that it will cost Five Thou- 
sand Pounds to make the Road mere- 
ly passable, after all yt the Inhabitants 
of New Hartford and Symsberry for 
whose Sake it is pretended to be laid 
out, will not be helped at all thereby 
but must seek Some more feasable 
way especially for Carting." The 
memorialists further bespeak their 
"Honors gracious Interposition" to 
set aside the doings of the court and 
direct the survey of a new road to in- 
clude that passing over the river 
across the bridge already built at "Sy- 
der Brook." 

In well formed letters, contrasting 
sharply with the crabbed penmanship 
of the agents for Farmington, is an 
annotation upon this ancient docu- 
ment which records the fate of the 
anti-logrolling attempt and gives the 
signature of a character afterward im- 
mortalized by Whittier. The words 
are as follows "In the Lower House 
The Question was put Whither any 
thing Should be granted on this Me- 
morial — Resolved in the Negative. 
Test Ab'm Davenport Clerk." 

By some strange oversight the or- 
der to the several towns directing the 
building of this road was not made to 
extend to Farmington. It was the 
popular belief that the agents of the 
town knew more about this omission 
in the court records than they were 
willing to tell. At any rate the object 
which the old township had failed to 
obtain by legislation was now accomp- 
lished either by direct machination of 
high officials or "Thro Mistake In ye 
Draftsman," as was afterward polite- 
ly suggested by their opponents. For 
ten years the road remained unbrok- 
en and the tide of travel going east 

through the Green Woods divided at 
the eastern end of what is now the 
hamlet of Canton Street, reaching 
Hartford either via Farmington or by 
a road through the southern part of 
Simsbury which crossed the "Great 
River" at Weatogue. 

This defiance of the higher author- 
ity lasted for ten years. It might 
have had a longer continuance but for 
the military events in the northwest. 
In the act of 1758 appointing a com- 
mission of survey through the Green 
Woods great emphasis is laid upon 
the strategic necessities of the road "to 
the Great Accommodation and Benefit 
of His Majesties Subjects and espe- 
cially in time of Warr occationally 
travelling or Marching thither [to Al- 
bany] from the Eastern or Central 
Parts of this Colony." 

The committee was thorough if not 
circumspect. They submitted a plan 
for a new road "whose greatest Dis- 
tance either north or south of a Strait 
Line between the State House in 
Hartford and Col. Whitney's House 
in Canaan is not more than two 
miles." The layout was a disappoint- 
ment to numbers of farmers whose 
property it left at one side and the 
crooks and turns necessary to keep it 
within the two-mile limit of a "Strait 
Line" were so numerous as to make 
its projectors the laughing-stock of 
whole countryside. Nevertheless the 
plan somewhat modified was accepted 
in spite of the continued remonstrance 
of Norfolk, and the towns through 
which the route ran were ordered to 
clear and build the road. The default 
of Farmington was brought to light 
at this time and she was compelled to 
construct her portion. 

Of this road Boyd says : "This thor- 



oughfare, known to a former genera- 
tion as 'The Old North Road/ and 
now almost a myth, had in its day im- 
portance and renown. According to 
tradition it was the wonder of the age 
that a direct and practicable route 
could be found and opened through 
the jungle and over the succession of 
steep rocky hills and mountains of the 
Green Woods for travel, and the 
movement of troops and munitions be- 
tween Hartford and Albany. Conti- 
nental troops passed over it for ser- 
vice. Detachments of Burgoyne's 
army, as prisoners of war, marched 
over it to quarters assigned them. It 
should not be inferred from the 
amount of travl upon it that the road 
was an Appian way. On the con- 
trary, direct as it was, it went up and 
down the highest hills, on the uneven 
beds of rocks and stones, and passed 
marshy valleys on corduroy of the 
coarsest texture." 

Roys, another local historian, thus 
describes the building of these roads: 
"The manner then pursued and ap- 
proved of for making roads was to 
dig a pass or trench through knolls 
and on the declivities of hills suffi- 
ciently wide for carts to pass forward, 
and in general not to pass each other 
but with great difficulty. The wet 
and marshy places which crossed their 
route were filled with earth which 
formed a level for the time above the 
water and mud. When coming to a 
rock of considerable size they very 
prudently sheered off, and took a cir- 
cular turn, avoiding it as an uncon- 
querable obstruction. The course of 
highways was generally over high 
ground in order to escape the swamps 
and dense forests which in many 

places lay directly in their way. Lat- 
er, when the surface was cleared and 
dry, many alterations were made in 
their direction, which better accom- 
modated the inhabitants in every part 
of the town." 

The travel on the road was largely 
by horseback. Wagons and carriages 
began to be used in 1760 but only the 
roughest carts could stand the jolting 
of the new road, and saddle and pil- 
lion were easier for travel. "These," 
says Kilbourn in his History of Litch- 
field, "were regarded by the upper and 
middle classes as articles of especial 
convenience and gentility — much 
more so than carriages and coaches 
are now. Horses were trained to car- 
ry double; and it was not an uncom- 
mon thing to see father, mother, and 
at least one child mounted on the same 
horse. Ox-carts and ox-sleds were 
common, and journeys of hundreds of 
miles were not infrequently made in 
these tedious conveyances." 

An interesting side light upon the 
state of settlement in the Green 
Woods at the time is given in a me- 
morial addressed to the legislature by 
the inhabitants of Farmington, Sims- 
bury and New Hartford on the com- 
pletion of the road in 1764. The 
memorialists remind their representa- 
tives that "It is now become One of ye 
Greatest Roads in ye Government & 
wyll still be of great Service if proper 
Care is taken to keep this Road in 
good repair and finish it thro-out. 
We therefore humbly request your 
Honours to take this matter into your 
Consideration & to Order & appoint 
a Committee to take proper Care of 
the abovesd Road that it be kept in 
good Repair thro ye Towns not Inhab- 



ited that is ye Towns of Barkham- 
stead, Winchester & Colebrook & that 
this be done at the expense of ye Pro- 
prietors of sd Townships." 

This petition was negatived, but an- 
other to the same end met with better 
fate two years later. The road had 
by that time become too important to 
neglect. As the petitioners observe, 
"It has been found to be of very great 
Benefit to the Publick and in particu- 
lar for Transporting of Iron Pigs 
from Salisbury toward Hartford 
which is don in Greate Quntitys. It 
is also the Nearest Road towards Al- 
baney and the best that has been yet 
found. "Now," they continue, "youre 
Memorialists humbly shewth That by 
Reason of Greate and Tall Trees fall- 
ing in and acrost sd Highway and 
Sum Bridges being Impaired and 
Sundry other amendments wanting. 
Travelers with Horses and Teemes, 
&c are Exposed to very Greate Diffi- 
cultye." In accordance with their re- 
quest the proprietors of the unincor- 
porated towns were ordered to "keep 
the Road in Repare" and a committee 
of inspection was appointed to see 
that this duty was performed. 

Soon after this the recalcitrant 
towns were settled. Business in the 
Green Woods grew. The ship-build- 
ers of Windsor and Hartford sought 
the tallest and straightest trees for 
masts ; forges were erected by swift 
running streams ; saw-mills began 
their work of devastation ; grist-mills 
were started. During the Revolution 
the iron industries centering about the 
mines in the northwest part of the 
colony were kept busy in the manufac- 
ture of cannon. The following ap- 
peal to the stay-at-home patriots met 
with a ready response. 


All gentlemen, farmers and others, 
well wishers of the grand cause of 
liberty, that will repair to Salisbury 
and cut wood for the furnace will not 
only render a substantial service to 
their country ; but shall receive the 
great price of two shillings and six 
pence lawfull money, for each cord 
they cut and cord, and may, if they 
chuse, receive a part of their pay in 
salt, sugar and molasses to be paid by 
the managers at sd forge." 

An interesting side light upon the 
scarcity of "hard" money at the time 
is furnished by the following notice in 
the Courant: 

Mar. 6, 1780. 
Wanted to employ immediately 
men to cut Wood., to manufacture 
Iron and Steel at this place for which 
they shall receive their pay as fast 
as they cut and settle their accounts, 
either in Bar Iron, Plough Iron, or 
Edge Tool Steel : I will give one hun- 
dred of iron for cutting and splitting 
15 cords of wood, they finding them- 
selves with provisions, ax, and blank- 
et; provisions may be had of me as 
cheap as they were before the war. 

On several occasions during these 
troublous times the heavily taxed peo- 
ple were put to an additional burden 
by the floods in the Farmington. At 
one time New Hartford petitioned for 
permission to establish a lottery 
wherewith to obtain the funds for re- 
building her bridge. At the close of 
the war Farmington bitterly com- 
plains that the "Impoverishment 
brought upon this Town by the Warr" 
has rendered her unable to replace the 



three bridges swept away within her 

The value of the road for military 
purposes was once more made appar- 
ent during the Revolution. In April 
1775 various bands of rugged farmers 
with musket and powder-horn march- 
ed to Hartford en route to Lexington. 
In reverse direction passed Capt. Mott 
of Preston and the sixteen men sent 
from Hartford to the re-enforcement 
of Ethan Allen and the second capture 
of Crown Point and Ticonderoga. 
This fiery son of Litchfield County 
himself traveled along its course to 
the colonial capitol and left behind 
him a legend preserved by that inde- 
fatigable annalist, Boyd. "There is a 
tradition that Col. Ethan Allen, while 
on military service in the Revolution- 
ary War, presumed to desecrate the 
Sabbath day by traveling over one of 
these roads, instead of spending the 
day in sacred meditations, when a lit- 
tle bushyheaded grand juror of the 
town of Winchester emerged from his 
log cabin by the roadside, seized the 
bridle rein of the Colonel's charger, 
and attempted to arrest him as a Sab- 
bath breaker. The Colonel, sternly 
eyeing the legal dignitary, drew his 
sword, and flourishing it aloft, irrev- 
erently exclaimed, "You d d 

woodchuck! Get back into your bur- 
row or I'll cut your head off!" Grand 
Juror Balcomb, finding what a Tartar 
he had caught, prudently abandoned 
his captive and retired into his cabin. 

The means of communication with 
the outer world remained very scant 
till the next century. The post routes 
which ran through the more thickly 
settled communities were not estab- 
lished here. There was no public 
conveyance. Once a week the post- 

boy, generally a full grown man, 
brought the newspaper and did er- 
rands for a consideration. In the 
Courant of Dec. 26 is found the fol- 
lowing notice, showing the business 
difficulties under which these proto- 
types of the modern express compa- 
nies labored. 

To Whom It May Concern. 

The subscriber having supplied his 
customers with the Connecticut Cour- 
ant almost five years, desires those 
who are indebted to him for the same 
to make immediate payment, as he is 
called on to make a speedy settlement 
with the Printers. Those that intend 
to continue this custom in the future, 
must depend on making quarterly 
payments, as no papers can be had till 
they are paid for. Eben Burr, Jr., 

These visits of the post-boy are thus 
described by Monroe E. Merrill in his 
oration delivered at the Barkhamsted 
Centennial in 1879 : "The old time tav- 
ern was in its glory in those days. No 
wretched inn or hotel, but the good 
old-fashioned tavern. There gather- 
ed of an evening all of the good men 
of the place, and smoked their evening 
pipe, and sipped in friendly sociability 
that cruelly murdered, buried, and al- 
most forgotten beverage, the mug of 
flip. There, once a week came the 
post-boy with his meager budget, his 
only paper the Connecticut Courant, 
then about a tenth of its present size, 
the wild notes of his horn heralding 
his approach long before he appeared 
in sight." 

Gradually, as the country emerged 
from the privations of the Revolution 
and the perils of the constitutional 
controversy, there arose a demand for 



a closer intimacy with the capitol city 
and the outside world. Other por- 
tions of the young state already pos- 
sessed good roads. In 1799 the Tal- 
cott Mountain and Greenwoods turn- 
pike companies were chartered and 
new roads were quickly put through. 

Where they followed the line of the 
Old North Road the latter's identity 
was merged into that of the greater 
highway; where the older route was 
left at one side it was finally abandon- 
ed and discontinued. 





Between the harbor and the open sea, 

The guiding light falls on an unkempt length 

Of rough hewn wedges; 

A granite mass, whose beauty is its strength; 

Whose strength provides its only right to be. 

Its lines are ugly; yet that ugliness 

An angry, desperate ocean holds at bay 

Like towering ledges ; 

While mighty merchantmen, the ocean's pray, 

Lie safe where only lapping tides caress. 

There are some lives, unbeautiful to men, 

And yet they stand as bulwarks 'round about 

Thier weaker brothers ; 

And shield them from o'erwhelming seas of doubt ; 

God gives them beauty far beyond our ken. 




It is not probable that the sturdy Americans in the days of the beginning gave studious attention 
to the philosophy of perception. Julia Lansing Hull in the article entitled " Were the Puritans 
Fatalists ? " in the last issue, gave evidences of the inartistic spirit of the forefathers as exemplified in 
the grotesque memorials in a cemetery in Southington. Mr. Chadwick, a prominent member of the 
New London County bar and a student of aesthetic culture, presents another phase of this subject, 
showing its development in a later period. ^Estheticism was discussed in ancient times by Plato, St. 
Augustine and Plotinus ; and the principles as applied to poetry by Horace and Aristotle, in relation 
to style by Longinus and to eloquence by Quintilian. In many of the early homes of America 
these works were almost as sacred as the Bible, and while there was little time for the application of 
their doctrines, an understanding of the science must be accredited them. In the eighteenth century 
Alexander Gottlieb-Baumgarten, professor of philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, taught that there 
is in the mind a faculty for the appreciation of the beautiful— a power whose existence is not dependent 
on that of the intellect, though the latter may be necessary to properly develop it, and the new world 
was ever alert relating to the soul of things, which undoubtedly evoluted to material form, and was 
later reflected in their handiwork.— Editor 

+fj" N 181 5 the society of the First 
|| Congregational Church of 
Lyme, obtained permission of 
the Connecticut legislature to raise 
four thousand dollars, by a lottery, to 
commence the construction of a new 

Three buildings for public worship 
had been erected by this old ecclesias- 
tical society, placed aloof on the bare 
southern extremity of a long granite 
ridge — called therefor the Meeting 
House Hills — and garrisoned each 
Sunday by the statutory twelve armed 
men, they stood on their guard against 
sudden attack of the treacherous In- 

At the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, when the red man had become a 
public charge instead of a common 
scourge, and after the last of these 
meeting-houses had been burnt to the 

ground, there was erected at the junc- 
tion of three elm-shadowed roads, re- 
moved from the sterile site of its pre- 
decessors, one of the most refined 
specimens of church architecture to be 
found in all New England. 

Such a result was but logical. If 
there was ever a time in our history 
when art was untrammeled, it was 
that interval between the primitive 
struggle with nature and the present 
day ambition to perform two hours 
work in one. That term Zeitgeist, for 
which we have no single word, the 
tendency of an entire people toward 
one thing first of all, now war, now 
letters, art, statecraft, the wielding of 
centralized wealth or whatever may 
be, points out the reason why we must 
look to some period other than our 
own, for the best examples of Amer- 
ican architecture. A nation, like an 



individual, cannot excel in anything 
that receives but secondary considera- 

Besides the times being propitious, 
the builders of the church were pecu- 
liarly well fitted for their work. Re- 
fined, well educated and rich, they 
possessed what is not always accredit- 
ed to the New Englander, strong aes- 
thetic feeling. Withal there remain- 
ed enough of the Puritan reverence to 
render the house of the Lord the edi- 
fice of all others best fitted to draw 
out the choicest resources of its build- 

The town itself was rich in wood, 
stone and other requisite materials, 
and besides, was readily accessible to 
remote points over great water high- 
ways — an advantage utilized to the ut- 
most. Thus there was a happy coin- 
cidence of place, people and times. 

To describe the church as rectangu- 
lar, fronted with a portico supporting 
a steeple, a structure made of great 
white-oak timbers hewed out with 
machine-like precision, planked and 
clapboarded, fastened together with 
nails worked by hand from wrought 
iron or oak almost as hard, is but to 
indicate the characteristics of the typ- 
ical meeting-house to be found in the 
New England states ; nor within does 
the columned gallery clinging to the 
three walls, the domed ceiling or the 
carved mahogany present distinguish- 
ing marks. The peculiarity of this 
house is its perfect symmetry and its 
exquisite proportions. 

Ruskin has given a definite mean- 
ing to symmetry and proportion as ap- 
plied to architecture. Conceive a 
building seen through a square-mesh- 
ed net, hung near the gazer's eye; 
those portions intersected by the hori- 

zontal lines, according to the rule of 
the famous critic, become subject to 
the laws of proportion, while the sec- 
tions between the vertical lines fall to 
the test of symmetry. 

To show how sensitive to these laws 
were the builders of the Lyme church, 
if the steeple was constructed with one 
order more than it actually has, or one 
section had been omitted, an interrup- 
tion in its graceful taper would have 
resulted and its beauty have been com- 
pletely destroyed. Yet such an error 
is so common in other structures that 
it is safe to say not one house in ten 
thousand — referring only to those of 
architectural pretension — is entirely 
free from it. 

Whether this gratifying result — of 
good proportions — was the effect of 
consummate care in selecting every- 
thing that had to do with this modern 
Solomon's temple, may be a question. 
The fact remains that only the very 
choicest material, the skillfullest 
craftsmen and the most select designs 
were used. 

After the great London fire, Sir 
Christopher Wren submitted to his 
sovereign a plan of a remodeled town, 
with wide thoroughfares adorned with 
sightly edifices. Probably with little 
hope of realizing his ambition, as the 
niggardliness which limited his year- 
ly stipend as architect of the cathedral 
of the world's greatest city, to 200 
pounds, and at last summarily dis- 
missed him from the supervision of 
St. Paul's, just before he had com- 
pleted his great labors, was ever a clog 
to his wishes. He was only permitted 
to erect a few churches, wedged here 
and there in the crowded city blocks. 

Confined to one elevation, Wren 
solved the difficulty, roughly speak- 



ing, by taking the Parthenon for his 
model, shearing away its side columns 
and crowning the pediment with a 
steeple. The plans of one of these 
structures, modified and refined were 
used for the Lyme church. 

The question may have suggested 
itself, what beauty can a house, three 
sides of which are comparatively bare 
of ornament, possess? Such an ar- 
rangement, the concentration of inter- 
es at a few points, is the essence of 
art. The invaluable aid of contrast is 
thus obtained. Even distribution of 
ornament, no matter how beautiful, 
becomes cloying, and like a composi- 
tion each word of which is italicized, 
defeats its own object. 

But little is known of the master- 
builder of this old Connecticut house 
of worship (one Belcher, of New Ha- 
ven) save that he erected in Lyme at 
about this time, another building — a 
superb example of domestic architec- 
ture. "Si monumentum requiris, cir- 
cumspice" may well be said of him. 

How like a ship just come to an- 
chor with her masts yet draped with 
diminishing sails, the master work of 
this old sea-coast town, with her white 
spire, towers skyward ! 

Tradition has it that the actual 
workmen on the church were ship 
carpenters. If anyone should be dis- 
posed to doubt this, let him glance at 
the main timbering. A series of huge 
posts, like the ribs of a vessel, braced, 
girded and fortified in every conceiv- 
able manner form the walls and sup- 
port the mighty roof — a veritable ship's 
hull inverted. The roof with its low 
classic pitch and clear span of fifty 
feet, rests upon great trusses, the bot- 
tom members of which are without 
doubt the most remarkable structural 

feature of the entire edifice. These, 
technically tie beams, are ponderous 
white oak timbers, over fifty feet in 
length, squared to ten inches, single 
sticks all, with a curve of a yard or 
more to clear the swell of dome be- 

Nor are these beams in mere thick- 
ness exceptional. In many places 
notably in and under the steeple, the 
squared surfaces run as high as a foot 
or more. Small wonder that much of 
this material had to be hauled from 
Millington forests, fifteen miles away, 
one timber at a time. 

This lavish use of material was not 
on the whole uneconomical, for while 
mere substance was no doubt wasted, 
time was saved in allowing the trees to 
remain their natural size, while the 
mere appearance of strength gained 
by this method is eminently gratifying 
to the eye. 

One peculiarity of construction is 
worth noting, the relative importance 
given to vertical over horizonal sup- 
ports ; an upright timber carries 
weight, while a level beam has itself 
to be borne. This is a very cunning 
method of building. It does away 
with the sagging intervals so often 
seen in old-fashioned wooden houses. 
In all the structure there is but one 
really sinking line — and that not no- 

The joiner work is, like the material 
used, unstinted. It is literally true 
that no two timbers of any conse- 
quence meet or cross each other, that 
are not braced at all their angles. No 
strain from any direction is not an- 

In one respect the model of a ship 
is not followed in the room ; there is 
no ridge pole; nothing that corre- 



sponds to a keel. The ship carpen- 
ters probably found consolation in 
nicely dove-tailing and pinning to- 
gether the ends of the long rafters. 

The same principle of solidity car- 
ried througout the more visible por- 
tions of the church, even to the last 
detail, gives the artistic quality of 
honesty. The Lamp of Truth fairly 
blazes from brown foundation to gold- 
en weather vane. Each ornament ac- 
tually has three dimensions, and un- 
like those flippant sheet iron capitals, 
turned out to-day by the gross, the 
volutes in this structure are presenta- 
ble from any point of view. 

Four classic pillars adorn the por- 
tico and share the weight of the lofty 
spire. These great pine trees as they 
stood on their native Vermont hills, 
were floated down the Connecticut, 
the Long River of the Indians, four 
hundred miles, to salt water. Well 
seasoned, no doubt, before they reach- 
ed their voyage's end. There 
dragged to the village green, stripped 
of their bark, bored through the cen- 
ter with a pump augur to prevent 
checking, and turned out on the slow 
hand lathe, they became again elevat- 
ed as white columns, with graceful 
flutings and perfect entasis. 

Within, as well as without, the 
same honesty in ornament, finish in 
detail and prodigality of material are 
to be seen. In these days when the 
prime object of builders seems to be 
how much one material may be made 
to resemble another, it is gratifying to 
see a piece of work, whether a table 
top or a pew back, pretending to be so 

constructed, actually made of a single 
board, instead of a composite ar- 
rangement of alternate strips of wood 
and glue. The width of some of the 
planks used in this structure almost 
make one believe that the minimum 
measure was at least a foot. 

No work of art, no matter how per- 
fect, is proof against "improvement." 
Some years after the church was com- 
pleted, a tidal wave of "reform" en- 
gulfed Lyme and nearly swept the 
church from its foundation. Proba- 
bly this wave was contemporaneous 
with the crusade against liquor, when 
one zealous inhabitant of the old town 
chopped down his healthy apple or- 
chard in order to set an example of 
"temperance." At any rate, this 
yearning for higher things caused the 
society to raise the floor of the meet- 
ing-house some two feet. Something, 
possibly the feeling against the vanity 
of beauty, led them at the same time, 
to replace the handsome mahogany 
pulpit and its lofty stair, with a pine 
box, stained, with strange inconsist- 
ency, to resemble that which it sup- 

Fortunately, in 1887, the floor was 
lowered to nearly its original resting 
place, and the apse and pulpit were 
added, an effort being made to em- 
phasize the original character of the 
church by certain conventional deco- 
rations ; an attempt naturally unsuc- 
cessful, not so much the fault of the 
committee having the matter in 
charge, as the extreme difficulty of 
simulating in one age the feeling that 
existed in another. 




11 Contrary to the usual notion, the first slaves in Connecticut were not chiefly negroes, but 
Indians taken in battle, and afterwards distributed among the settlers," says Frederick Calvin 
Norton in Page 321, Volume V, of The Connecticut Magazine. Benjamin Trumbull, historian, 
states that the first black slave owned in Connecticut was Louis Berbice, killed at the Dutch fort in 
Hartford by Gysbert Opdyke in 1639. Ownership of negroes was common among the leading states- 
men of our early history. Judge Martin H. Smith has prepared an extensive manuscript on early 
Connecticut slavery, and the introductory relating to village scenes in Suffield during those days is 
here presented, and will be followed in an original and entertaining treatment. The author is treas- 
urer of the Suffield Savings Bank and Judge of the Probate Court in the town of which he writes. — 

^^HE Suffield of a century ago 
^1^ was little like the Suffield of 
to-day. It was an almost un- 
broken forest and the thoroughfares 
now so beautiful were waste and bare. 
Wagon roads crossed at every con- 
ceivable point of the compass, and 
were made rough by gravel pits which 
furnished countless loads of gravel. 
In front, and a little south, of the Con- 
gregational church was the wooden 
Town hall and schoolhouse, one 
building for economy. All around 
was the litter of the play-ground. 
The master had all he could do to dis- 
cipline properly the unruly urchins. 
The rod knew no sex in those days. 
To the north was the place for bon- 
fires and wicket. The Congregation- 
al church was a barn-like frame build- 
ing, somewhat ornamented, standing 
on the ground of the present house of 
worship. Behind it as now, was the 

cemetery; but wonderfully smaller 
than to-day. The Baptist church was 
on the site of the second house south 
of the First National Bank. It was 
plain enough outside, but inside the 
only furniture was a high pulpit and 
some very hard benches. The only 
permissible form of heating was by 
foot stoves. There was no Episcopal 
church, or Bank, or Connecticut Lit- 
erary Institution. The cows and 
horses had the range of the streets, 
so the door yards were strongly 
fenced and the gates kept closed. 

There was a tavern where lawyer 
"Tip" and his ilk gathered their boon 
companions to swap stories and ca- 
rouse. That was before he came to 
the poor-house, but in the direct line 
of descent. For that matter there were 
a dozen taverns scattered over the 
town, all doing a thriving business ; 
entertaining man and beast ; selling 



gin and rum by the drink, pint, quart, 
gallon, or barrel, as the needs of their 
customers might be. And all this 
without license, for the time had not 
come when the sale of intoxicating 
liquors was limited by license. It 
was the time when the clergy kept 
"spirits" on their sideboards, and used 
them too. A time when the judge on 
occasion, adjourned his court to in- 
dulge in his wonted stimulant. 

The mail came in once a week amid 
the clamor of the boys and the pranc- 
ing of horses. It was brought in an 
old, lumbering stage-coach, clumsy 
even in comparison with a Swiss Dil- 
igence, six seats inside and four on 
top. The route from Hartford was 
across Windsor Plains by way of Po- 
quonock. On a clear day the echoing 
bugle could be heard miles away so 
the people might not be unprepared 
for the advent. 

There were a goodly number of In- 
dians scattered over the township, 
who seldom mixed with the whites 
except to barter baskets and mocca- 
sins for ammunition. They were 
quiet and peaceable enough, but secre- 
tive and suspicious, begetting a simi- 
lar spirit in others. They were ad- 
mirably adapted to scare refractory 
children into subjection. Negro 
slavery existed as elsewhere in the 
state, and it is this I intend to tell 
about more completely. There were 
not, however, more than four score 
slaves in the whole town and in servi- 
tude they were little worse off than 
the hired man, or even the children. 

But the town had the same beauti- 
ful setting as to-day. On the North, 
Mts. Tom and Holyoke, the gate 
keepers of the valley ; on the East the 
Stafford range of hills; West, the 

Trap mountains, a protection from the 
too severe western winds, and through 
them here and there glimpses of the 
Hartland range. South were the 
Windsor plains stretching as far as 
the eye can reach, with all their wealth 
of variegated green, of pine and oak 
and chestnut, of birch and alder and 
rhododendron. Through it Stony 
Brook made its way, turning and 
twisting in every direction, forming 
now and then little pools and minia- 
ture rapids, until at last it entered the 
Connecticut near the Great Island. 
The river, harmonizing mountain and 
hill and plain blended all into a scene 
of rare beauty. In the middle of this 
and overlooking it, on a sloping ridge, 
was High street, some two miles long 
and laid out more than twenty rods 

The stage did not bring many pas- 
sengers to this quiet hamlet in those 
days. The sons of old Suffield staid 
here, married here, raised their chil 
dren here, and here were buried. No 
Horace Greeley had risen to advise 
them to "Go West and grow up with 
the country." There was country 
enough here and to spare. But one 
afternoon a traveller, while the mail 
was being changed, wandered around 
the old street, and at last into the 
burying ground, the only place of in- 
terest in town. For even then the 
inscriptions on the gravestones were 
old and quaint. After a while he 
came across a negro, busy mending a 
fence, and asked: 

"Will you be kind enough to tell 
me who the sexton is ?" 

"Old Ti. San." 

"And who is the bell-ringer at the 
church over yonder?" 

"Old Ti. Sah." 



"Indeed : Can you give me the 
name of the chief Tything-man ?" 

"Old Ti. Sah." 

"And who is Old Ti?" 

"I am Old Ti. Sah." 

It was an odd specimen of the gen- 
us negro, gray and grizzly and of 
uncertain age. His garments had 
many patches, innocent of skillful 
workmanship. A queer, self-assert- 
ing colored man was Old Ti. He was 
of a race peculiar to itself. For the 
freedmen of Connecticut were much 
unlike their southern brothers. He 
was brusque, solemn on most occa- 
sions, and quaintly dignified. He 
wished to give the impression that 
there was no foolishness about him, 
and that life was a very serious thing. 
Sometimes he belied the impression 
and went back to old nature, but in the 
reaction expiation had to be made and 
somebody had to suffer. He looked 
upon himself from two points of view. 
He was indispensable. He was irre- 

Titus Kent was born a slave in the 
house of the Rev. Ebenezur Gay, 
D. D. He was brought up in the 
strictest of orthodox schools. John 
Calvin could not have given points to 
the New England divines in theology. 
In the matter of managing their chil- 
dren or servants they believed them- 
selves to stand "in loco Dei." If 
they impressed the common people 
that they were Ambassadors of the 
Most High, to their own households 
they were unapproachable divinities, 
dispensing Justice with little mercy, 
and were therefore in the image of 
ithe God their own imaginations had 
'constructed. No doubt men endow 
their divinities with qualities drawn 
from their own environments, and of 

this these old Puritans were a good 
illustration. An unfertile soil, rugged 
hills, and an inclement sky, with the 
parching heat of summer and tortur- 
ing cold of winter, with their earlier 
experience and preconceived theologi- 
cal notions, all combined to stamp in- 
delibly upon their minds a God, hard, 
inflexible, unsympathetic. And yet 
they reached out with all their souls 
for a more perfect knowledge. 

If Titus was entirely respectful, he 
was not in the least a sycophant. He 
knew what was due his superiors ; all 
white people were his superiors, ex- 
cept the boys. They were in one 
sense his natural enemies, in another 
he was their best friend. If they fear- 
ed him they respected him as well. 
His severity was on the outside and 
for the public. His kindness was on 
the inside and only displayed in pri- 
vate. He was of a race of colored 
men now unhappily almost extinct, se- 
rious, sensible, level-headed, and in- 
dustrious. Where power was in his 
hands, as might have been expected, 
he was a little inclined to tyranny. 
But he held the even tenor of his way, 
supported by that divine faith which 
had been wrought into his very na- 
ture by his master, assisted most like- 
ly by divine grace. He was totally 
unlike the easy-going, fun-loving, 
lazy, rollicking, emotional, thought- 
less, careless, thriftless, irresponsible 
colored man of to-day. 

"I well remember the first time I 
saw him," says one who was a boy in 
the old days. "The impression I first 
had of him I shall never forget as long 
as I live although it was sixty-seven 
years ago. I remember as though it 
was but yesterday of my mother 
teaching me my first Sunday school 


lesson, which was in John, first chap- 
ter and verse first, and instructing as 
to how I must behave in church, and 
what we went to meeting for. She 
told me all about heaven, and that we 
must all go to meeting to learn to be 
good and go there. She told us what 
a bad place hell was, where all boys 
went that did not behave, and that the 
Devil would put them in a lake of fire 
and brimstone and keep them there 
forever. This was the orthodox 
preparation for the first 'going to 
meeting in those days. 

"We in due time got to church, and 
my mother led me into the meeting 
house. I was frightened and hardly 
dared breathe. I finally felt easier 
and began to look at the wonderful 
surroundings. The first thing that 
attracted my attention was the high 
pulpit which was reached by a wind- 
ing stairway of eleven steps. I 
thought this was the straight and nar- 
row way that led to heaven. Over the 
pulpit was a large sounding board 
with a dome. I thought if it fell it 
would smash the old white haired 
man that sat under it. I saw on the 
under side of this sounding board a 
small opening about ten inches square 
and I was sure it led to heaven. It 
seemed that only little boys like myself 
could get through that hole. I began 
to fear for my mother that she would 
never get into heaven. 

"Finally in looking around I discov- 
ered a door, partly open, under the 

pulpit, and I saw that it looked dark 
in there. I at once thought it was the 
hell I had heard of. It did look so 
dark it made me tremble, and I re 
solved I would try to be a good boy 
and keep out of there. From this re 
pulsive place I glanced up into the 
gallery, and in a seat a little higher 
than the rest sat a personage that 
made me stare. This was my first 
sight of Old Ti. I quickly made up 
my mind that this was the devil I had 
been told about. He was very black, 
and his hair looked as if it had been 
singed. He had two great white 
eyes, with two small black spots in 
the center of them so that he could 
see all the bad boys. I saw his staff 
in one corner of the pew, which I 
took to be a tedder stick that he had 
to turn over the bad boys when they 
were done on one side. I wanted to 
get a view of his feet as I had imag- 
ined that they looked like those of an 
ox, cloven. He had a good set of 
white teeth which he displayed to 
good advantage, and I thought he 
could eat a small boy at one meal. I 
was almost scared to death, and trem- 
bled so that my mother drew me clos- 
er to her and caressed me till I sobbed 
myself to sleep. 

It is regarding Old Ti, one of the 
typical Connecticut slaves, that I 
shall write further, and interweaving 
his biography with important histori- 
cal data, I believe it will be an inter- 
esting story. 

Liberty, which we so much covet, is not a solitary plant — always by its side is; 
justice; but justice is nothing but right in human affairs." 





Mr. Norton's brief biographies have attracted wide attention, and fol- 
lowingtheir completion in The Connecticut Magazine will be published 
in book form. This is to be done at the special request of many of the 
libraries and public institutions throughout the State who desire this his- 
torical compilation in permanent form. In the preparation of the work 
for this Magazine Mr. Norton has studied all the available sources of in- 
formation and in his researches has practically exhausted the historical 
field. So complete is his presentation that it will be used as a volume of 
reference in many of the public schools. Mr. Norton is a close student, 
and accuracy is his strongest characteristic. He delves into the pasi with 
close application and penetration. His home is in Bristol and his birth- 
place was Guilford. The illustrations in these biographies are by Randall, 
taken directly from the original paintings at the State Capitol, by permis- 
sion of Governor McLean and George S. Godard, state librarian — Editor 

1 879- 1 88 1 Two Years 

DREWS, the former chief 
justice of the Connecticut 
supreme court, was a descendant of 
William Andrews, one of the first set- 
tlers of Hartford, and for a long pe- 
riod its town clerk. His father was 
Rev. Erastus Andrews, pastor of a 
church in North Sunderland, Mass., 
he having removed to that State with 
his family early in life. 

Judge Andrews was born in Sun- 
derland, November 4, 1834, and en- 
tered Amherst College in 1854, where 
he graduated with high honors four 
years later. He then studied law in 
the town of Sherman, Connecticut, and 
in i860 was admitted to the Fairfield 
County bar, beginning practice in the 
small town of Kent. His progress was 

rapid and he soon became known as 
one of the ablest young men of the sec- 
tion. When John M. Hubbard of 
Litchfield was chosen a member of 
Congress in T863, he secured Mr. An- 
drews to take charge of his large law 
practice while the former was attend- 
ing the sessions in Washington. Mr. 
Hubbard was at that time the leader 
of the Litchfield County bar. and his 
selection of so young a man 10 look 
after his business was a groat compli- 
ment to the legal ability of Mr. An- 

Becoming a partner of Mr. Hub- 
bard he conducted the practice of the 
firm with much success during the 
succeeding four years, and handled 
some of the most important cases that 
came before the bar of the count v. 



Mr. Andrews soon grew to be one of 
the leading lawyers of that section and 
naturally became prominent in politics. 
He was elected a member of the State 
senate in 1868 and re-elected in 1869. 

Mr. Andrews came into prominence 
during the second session when he oc- 
cupied the position of chairman of the 
Judiciary Committee. In the early sev- 
enties several of the old-time lawyers 
of the Litchfield bar who enjoyed 
large practices were removed from the 
field of action from one cause or an- 
other. Mr. Hubbard died. Origin S. 
Seymour and Edward W. Seymour, 
two other able lawyers, removed to 
Bridgeport ; so that Mr. Andrews at 
the age of forty found himself in pos- 
session of the largest and best practice 
in that portion of the State. During 
the next few years his time was whol- 
ly absorbed in attending to the duties 
of his profession, and he did not enter 
into politics. In 1878, however, he 
accepted the nomination for Represen- 
tative from Litchfield. At the follow- 
ing election Mr. Andrews was elected, 
and enjoyed the distinction of being 
the first Republican to hold that office 
since the Civil War. In this session 
Mr. Andrews was chairman of the 
Judiciary Committee and leader of the 
House, where he made a strong im- 
pression as an able, earnest, painstak- 
ing legislator. It has been said by a 
writer that the wisdom as a leader 
displayed by Mr. Andrews at this ses- 
sion was what led to his nomination 
for Governor later on. 

In 1878 Mr. Andrews was nominat- 
ed for Governor of the State, and as 
the State Government had been in the 
hands of the Democrats for almost a 
decade his chances were thought to be 
very slight. In the election he received 
a plurality, but was elected by the leg- 
islature. In commenting on Gov- 

ernor Andrews' administration the 
"Medico-Legal Magazine" says : "Dur- 
ing Governor Andrews' two years 
term of office, several important meas- 
ures were before the legislature. The 
boundary line between Connecticut and 
New York, which had remained un- 
certain for a century and a half, in 
fact, since the foundation of their Gov- 
ernments, was at last settled by a joint 
commission, whose report was accept- 
ed by the legislatures of both States, 
tion of Governor Andrews' term was 
the passage of the Connecticut Prac- 
tice Act — a measure framed by some 
of the most eminent lawyers in the 
State to serve the purpose of the codes 
framed in other States for simplifying 
and reforming the common law plead- 
ings and practice in civil actions. Hav- 
ing the benefit of thirty years' experi- 
ence elsewhere, this act was a model 
of simplicity and practical usefulness, 
reforming what was cumbersome and 
intricate in the old practice, while it 
retained the advantage of the sound 
principles and innumerable precedents 
underlying it. 

Its success has fully justified the 
expectations of those who procured its 
But by far the most important legisla- 
passage, and it formed a most impor- 
tant epoch in the history of Connecti- 
cut legislation." Returning to his 
practice Governor Andrews was ap- 
pointed a judge of the Superior Court 
in 1882 by Governor Bigelow. His 
ability on the bench was demonstrated 
to such a degree that in 1889, on the 
retirement of Chief Justice Park, Gov- 
ernor Bulkeley appointed Governor 
Andrews to that position. Succeed- 
ing Chief Justice Park on the chief 
judicial offices of the State, Governor 
Andrews occupied the position during 
a period when some of the most im- 
portant cases in the history of the State 

From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 

/{joJUj S.QjUsduuA? - 



were before the court. The celebrated 
quo warranto suit growing out of the 
deadlock of 1891, the legal contest 
growing out of the legislation regard- 
ing the East Hartford bridge affair, 
and the suit of the State against the 
Aetna Insurance Company, were some 
of the most important matters before 
the court. He was untiring in his 
work, had a wide range of vision 
which, broadened with experience, 
possessed much sagacity, was uncom- 
monly well versed in the law and had 
the gift of Yankee common sense de- 
veloped in a noticeable degree. It is 
said that many of the more important 
decisions of the Supreme Court, while 
Judge Andrews was on the bench, 
were written by him, and although oc- 
casionally some of his learned col- 
leagues differed from his opinion, 
they all recognized in him ability of a 
high order, great power of analysis, 
and conceded his thorough knowledge 
of law and the principles of its appli- 
cation. Governor Andrews tendered 
his resignation as chief justice to 
Governor McLean on June 10, 1901, 
to go into effect October 1. It was re- 
luctantly accepted by the Governor. 
The General Assembly at the next ses- 
sion appointed Governor Andrews a 
State referee from December 1, 1901. 
Governor Andrews then retired to his 
home in Litchfield where he lived in 
partial retirement. In November, 
1 90 1, Governor Andrews was unani- 
mously chosen the delegate from 
Litchfield to the late Constitutional 
Convention at Hartford, held in 1902. 
He was made presiding officer of the 
convention by practically unanimous 
agreement, the same as Governor Oli- 
ver Wolcott of Litchfield was eighty 
years before. He attended the session 

very faithfully and spoke occasionally 
on the floor of the convention. 

Governor Andrews' wide accom- 
plishments were recognized by the 
leading universities, as he was made 
LL. D. by Yale, Amherst and Wes- 
leyan Universities. 

He died very suddenly at his home 
on South street in Litchfield on Sep- 
tember 12, 1902. The funeral services 
were held on Monday, September 15, 
in the Episcopal Church at Litchfield, 
many state officers being present. 

Of Governor Andrews' career the 
best estimate was written by Charles 
Hopkins Clark in the C our ant as fol- 

"Judge Andrews has often and fitly 
been cited as a fine illutsration for the 
younger men of what chances there are 
for those who have the sense and abil- 
ity to improve their opportunities. He 
started as a poor and unknown boy 
and he reached our highest and most 
honored offices by doing as well as he 
could what came upon him to be done, 
and by avoiding nothing that did come. 
When others declined the empty nomi- 
nation for governor, he accepted, ready 
alike for defeat or victory ; and, when 
he was elected, he filled the office so 
well that other things naturally fol- 
lowed. He proved equal to whatever 
came and so honors kept coming. 

"His name has become a part of the 
history of the state and he has had no 
small part in guiding its development 
and shaping its laws. Just running 
over the places he has held suggests 
what a large figure he has cut in our 
affairs, but one cannot know the whole 
who has not followed closely the de- 
tails of his useful work during his long 

From, reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 

2I 4 


1 88 1— 1883 Two Years 

The career of Governor Bigelow 
was another brilliant example of a 
self-made man. By great perse- 
verance and unflagging industry he 
became one of the first citizens 
of this state and a leading bus- 
iness man. He was born in North 
Haven on May 16, 1834. His father 
was a prominent man in the town, and 
his mother a lineal descendant of 
James Pierpont, second minister of 
the New Haven Church and one of the 
founders of Yale College. 

The family removed to Great Bar- 
rington, Massachusetts, when the boy 
Bigelow was ten years of age. He 
attended the public schools in that 
town, and was afterwards a student 
in an academy at South Egremont. At 
the age of seventeen the young man 
left school, and was apprenticed to 
William Faulkner, of Guilford, presi- 
dent of the Guilford Manufacturing 
Company in that town. It was his de- 
sire to learn the machinist trade, but 
he made little progress in Guilford for 
eight months after taking up his resi- 
dence there the Company failed. 
Going to New Haven he found em- 
ployment and continued learning the 
trade at the old New Haven Manufac- 
turing Company. 

When his years of apprenticeship 
were over Mr. Bigelow commenced 
work with Ives and Smith, where he 
remained until 1861. Then he pur- 
chased the machine shop, later on ad- 
ding the foundry, and by his able 
management so enlarged the business 
that in 1870 they transferred the 
whole plant to Grapevine Point. He 

began the manufactme of steam boil- 
ers and made such a pronounced suc- 
cess of the enterprise that at the time 
of his death a few years ago his busi- 
ness was in the foremost rank of Con- 
necticut's great manufacturing estab- 
lishments. It is still one of the repre- 
sentative plants of the state. 

Early in his career in New Haven 
Mr. Bigelow became interested in 
public affairs, and was soon asked to 
hold positions of trust. In 1875 he 
was elected a republican representa- 
tive from New Haven to the General 
Assembly. His popularity in New 
Haven was pronounced, and when- 
ever he was a nominee for office he 
was always successful Mr. Bigelow 
was elected mayor of New Haven in 
1878 by an overwhelming majority, 
and his administration was acceptable 
to all. In 1880 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Connecticut on the republi- 
can ticket, and he served in this office 
for two years. After retiring from 
this position Governor Bigelow never 
held public office again, and devoted 
his time to his business. He died at 
the New Haven House on October 12, 
1 89 1, after a short illness. Governor 
Bigelow showed "by his benevolence, 
highminded Christian purposes, and 
unblemished personal character," what 
an influence such a career can have 
on his fellowmen. He has left an un- 
perishable record in New Haven 
which time cannot efface, and few 
men have lived and died in that city 
who were more respected by the com- 
munity. His son, Frank L. Bigelow, 
was an aide-de-camp on his father's 
staff and is a graduate of the Sheffield 
Scientific School. 

From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 

%uyy^^ ^tct Cj-ca^u^ 



thomas Mcdonald waller 

1883— 1885 Two Years 

In the life of Thomas M. Waller 
there is much romance. It is a mat- 
ter of note that the majority of the 
governors of Connecticut have 
been the architects of their own 
fortunes, and it is especially true of 
Governor Waller. He was born in 
New York City about the year 1840, 
and was the son of Thomas Arm- 
strong. His parents died when he 
was nine years old. Left an orphan 
at this tender age with absolutely no 
means of support, in a great city, he 
began at once to lead the life of a 
newsboy. From that time on he sold 
newspapers about the crowded streets 
in the lower portion of the city, and 
every day was filled with hard work. 
He started his successful career at 
this age by extraordinary devotion to 
duty and submission to the circum- 
stances in which he was placed. His 
best customers were found about the 
old Tammany Hall of those days, and 
it is said that more than one night he 
"pillowed his head on the steps of the 
old Tribune building." 

After a while he took to the sea and 
made several long voyages as cabin 
boy and cook-mate. This life agreed 
with him and he probably would have 
pased his days on the ocean had not 
a circumstance occurred which 
changed his whole career. In 1849 
he made arrangements to ship to Cali- 
fornia on the "Mount Vernon," sail- 
ing from New London. About the 
time the ship was to sail the late Rob- 
ert K. Waller of that city found the 
boy on the wharf, took a fancy to him 
at once, and adopted him. Recogniz- 

ing the ability the young man pos- 
sessed, Mr. Waller had him take his 
own name, and the boy was given 
every advantage by his benefactor. 
He attended the schools in New Lon- 
don, and was graduated from the 
Bartlett High School with honors. 
He then studied law and was admitted 
to the New London County bar in 
1 86 1. Soon after, however, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Regi- 
ment, Connecticut Volunteers, and 
was appointed fourth sergeant in 
Company E. 

After going to the front with his 
regiment Mr. Waller was compelled 
to resign because of an eye difficulty. 
Although very young he developed 
unusual oratorical powers, and 
throughout the war helped the Fed- 
eral cause by delivering many patri- 
otic addresses during those dark days. 
His magnetic words gave renewed 
courage to many faltering men. Re- 
turning to New London he entered 
the practice of his profession and soon 
gained an envious reputation as an 
able advocate. At the same time Mr. 
Waller entered politics as a democrat, 
and was an acknowledged leader al- 
most from the start. 

He was elected a representative 
from New London to the General 
Assembly in 1867, 1868, 1872 and 
1876. During the last session he was 
speaker of the house. Mr. Waller 
was elected secretary of state on the 
democratic ticket with James E. Eng- 
lish in 1870, and in 1873 was honored 
by being chosen mayor of his adopted 
city. He was chosen state attorney 
for New London County in 1875 a 
position which he held until 1883. In 
1882 Mr. Waller was nominated for 



» governor and after a memorable cam- 
paign in which he visited all portions 
of the state, making speeches in his 
own behalf, he was elected by a ma- 
jority of 2,390 over W. H. Bulkeley. 
He served as chief executive from 
1883 to 1885. His charming person- 
ality, courtly manners, and pronounced 
ability made his name famous 
throughout the country. Soon after 
retiring from the governor's chair in 
1885, President Cleveland appointed 
Governor Waller as United States 
Consul-General at London, England. 
He held this position until 1889, when 
he returned to the United States, and 
resumed the practice of his profession. 
His famous speech at St. Louis in 
1888, when he placed in nomination 
Grover Cleveland for president proved 
remarkable as oratory. 

Governor Waller has held no politi- 
cal office of late years but has attained 
great eminence at both the Connecti- 
cut and New York bar. A writer in 
commenting on his career says : "Gov- 
ernor Waller has consistently been a 
democrat in politics. He has been 
frankly independent on many occa- 
sions in conventions of his party, and 
in other places of partisan debate. As 
an orator he is impressive to a degree 
which on occasions of party strife in 

§ important gatherings, has given him 
a magnetic hold of men, and no man 
of his party in the state has so often 
carried convictions by the power of 
eloquence or any other influence." 


1885— 1887 T wo Years 

Henry Baldwin Harrison, one of the 

first members of the lepublican party 

in Connecticut, and a distinguished 

lawyer of the state, was born in New 
Haven on September 11, 1821. He 
was the son of Annie and Polly Har- 
rison, members of old Connecticut 
families. As a youth he was a stu- 
dent, and he became an assistant 
teacher in the famous old time 
school at New Haven, of which John 
E. Lovell was principal. He was 
fitted for college by Rev. George A. 
Thatcher, afterwards president of 
Iowa College, and a distinguished 
scholar. Entering Yale in 1842 the 
young collegian attained scholarship, 
at the same time continuing his duties 
as an assistant in Mr. Lovell's school. 
He was graduated in 1846 as vale- 
dictorian of his class and with the 
highest honors the college could 

In the fall of 1846 he commenced 
the study of law with Lucius A. Peck, 
Esq., and after being admitted to 
the bar began practice in partnership 
with Mr. Peck. Mr. Harrison became 
interested in politics, and recognized 
as an anti-slavery leader in Connecti- 
cut. In 1854 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the state senate as a Whig. 
While a member of t 1 at body he was 
the author of the Personal Liberty 
Bill, and as an active Whig in 1S55 
was successful in bringing about the 
nullification of the fugitive slave law. 
During the years 1855-0 he was one 
of those men who were prominent in 
organizing the republican party in this 
state. He was the nominee oi the 
party for lieutenant governor in 1S57. 
but was defeated. 

In 1865 Mr. Harrison again repre- 
sented New Haven in the General As- 
sembly and his name was frequently 
mentioned for United States senator 

From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 


fy j-fasy^Cdty^ 



and governor. During this session 
he became chairman of the House 
committee on railroads and in federal 
relations. He constantly and elo- 
quently advocated the bill giving 
negroes the electoral franchise. In 
1873 he again represented New Haven 
in the lower house of the General As- 
sembly, and was a member of the Ju- 
diciary Committee. Tn 1874 he was 
the republican candidate for governor 
but was defeated by Charles Robert 
Ingersoll. He was again returned to 
the General Assembly as a represen- 
tative from New Haven in 1883, and 
was made speaker. Mr. Harrison 
was nominated for governor in 1884, 
and after a closely contested canvass 
was elected. Governor Harrison 
served the state in an able manner for 
two years, retiring in 1887. 

Devoting himself absolutely to his 
large legal practice, Governor Harri- 
son lived quietly at his home in New 
Haven where he was esteemed as one 
of the most honored residents of the 
city. A Yale biographer has said of 
Governor Harrison : "Probably his 
unwillingness to be drawn away from 
the profession of his choice has more 
than anything else hindered his re- 
ceiving political honor.'' 

Governor Harrison died at his home 
in New Haven on October 29, 1901, 
and his funeral was attended by the 
state's leading citizens. 

Charles Hopkins Clark in "The 

»Courant" paid glowing tribute to the 
brilliant governor and friend: "Con- 
necticut born, Connecticut bred, the 
first scholar of his year in Connecti- 
cut's oldest college, he passed his 
whole life in his nativ* state and will 

sleep in a Connecticut grave. From 
his youth he took a gcod American's 
interest in politics, scorning the self- 
ishness that devotes a clear brain and 
eloquent voice to the unremitting pur- 
suit of private gain. 

"As we write his name the later 
years vanish like a mist and we see 
again the Harrison of Capitol Hill — 
the noble head, the keen, intellectual 
face, the unfailing dignity, the unfail- 
ing courtesy. We hear again the voice 
that never lacked the fitting word, al- 
ways had political conscience behind 
it, and often rose to true eloquence. 
It seems a strange thing that Henry 
B. Harrison should b? dead. We bid 
farewell, in this parting, to a loyal 
and scholarly gentleman who gave his 
state faithful service in public and 
private station all his life long, and 
who now enriches h'\r with another 
inspiring memory." 


1887— 1889 Two Years 

Phineas C. Lounsbury was born in 
the town of Ridgefield, January 10. 
1841, and is descended from sturdy 
New England stock. The father oi 
Governor Lounsbury was a fanner in 
Ridgefield, with an unapproachable 
reputation. As a boy the future gov- 
ernor helped his father on the farm. 
laboring early ami late. lie found 
time to attend school and obtain a 
good education. Leaving the little 
farm Mr. Lounsbury went to \ew 
York City and secured employment as 
a clerk in a shoe stove. Tn a short 
time the young man was made confi- 
dential clerk to the proprietor oi the 
store. He afterwards became a trav- 



elling salesman for the concern, and 
intimately acquainted with every 
department of the business. As a 
"drummer'' he was successful, and at 
the early age of twenty-one years de- 
cided to engage in the manufacture of 
boots and shoes. He began this indus- 
try in New Haven under the firm name 
of Lounsbury Brothers, his brother 
being a partner in the business. The 
business prospered from the first and 
in a short time they had a very lucra- 
tive trade. They afterwards removed 
the factory to South Norwalk, where 
it has been operated foi a long time as 
Lounsbury, Mathewson & Company. 
His younger brother lias been for a 
long time senior member of the firm. 
Governor Lounsbui y demonstrated 
his patriotism when the Civil War 
commenced by enlisting as a private 
in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers. His army experience was 
necessarily brief, for soon after reach- 
ing the front he was taken sick with 
typhoid fever ; and after being in the 
service four months he was honorably 
discharged. Devoting himself to his 
business Mr. Lounsbury took part in 
the political discussion of the day, and 
became a prominent man in the repub- 
lican party. In 1874 he was elected 
a representative to the General Assem- 
bly from the town of Ridgefield, and 
became one of the leading members 
of that body. In 1880 he was a presi- 
dential elector, and did a great amount 
of hard campaign work in support of 
Garfield and Arthur. Friends of Mr. 
Lounsbury put his name forward for 
gubernatorial honors as early as 1882, 
and his candidacy met with favor in 
his home county. In the republican 
state convention of 1884 there was a 

strong faction in favor of nominating 
him for governor, but he was defeated. 
Instead of taking the situation as many 
men might he set to work to elect the 
ticket. It has been said that his manly 
course at this time was a great factor 
in making his name st: ong at the next 
convention. In the convention of 

1886 he was nominated for governor 
and was elected by a good majority. 

Governor Lounsbury served from 

1887 to 1889, an d left a favorable rec- 
ord behind him. Since that time he 
has held no political office, but has de- 
voted his time to the management of 
the Preferred Accident Insurance 
Company of New York, of which he 
is president, and also the Merchants 
Exchange National Bank. He is dis- 
tinctly a business man, a friend of the 
clay laborer, a soldier, a speaker who 
can grace any occasion, and withal a 
thoroughly conscientious Christian 

A writer has called Governor 
Lounsbury the second Buckingham, 
for, says he : "He has the virtues of 
our well-beloved war governor, and 
like him coming from the ranks of 
the manufacturer and the church and 
home, to make more conspicuous in 
public station the integrity and per- 
sonal purity, that are the surest foun- 
dation of republican institution." 

1889 — 1893 Four Years 
Governor Bulkeley is a member of 
one of Connecticut's most distin- 
guished families, and his ancestors 
have taken an important part in the 
affairs of this Commonwealth. Peter 
Bulkeley was born in England in 1583 
and succeeded his father in the minis- 

From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 



try at Woodhull ; but was afterwards 
removed for non-conformity. In 1635, 
in company with a number of friends, 
he founded the settlement at Concord, 
and was its first minister. He died in 
1659 after a life of great usefulness. 

His son, the Rev. and Hon. Ger- 
shom Bulkeley, a leading character in 
our colonial history, married the 
daughter of President Chauncey of 
Harvard College. Their third child 
and eldest son, John Bulkeley, born at 
Colchester, April 19, J 705, was grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1726. He 
practiced law and medicine in his na- 
tive town, and during the forty-eight 
years of his life held a great number 
of public offices. For thirty-one ses- 
sions he was a member of the General 
Assembly, a member of the council, 
judge of the superior court, and col- 
onel of the Twelfth Regiment of the 
Millitia. His grandson, Eliphalet, 
was father of John Charles Bulkeley 
of Colchester, and grandfather of 
Eliphalet A. Bulkeley who was one of 
the leading citizens cf Connecticut. 
Studying law he became interested in 
finance and politics, was one of the 
founders of the republican party in 
Connecticut, and its first speaker in 
the House of Representatives. He 
organized both the Connecticut Mu- 
tual and Aetna Life Insurance Com- 
panies, being president of the latter at 
the time of his death in 1872. 

His son, Morgan Gavdner Bulkeley, 
was born in the town of East Had- 
dam on December 26, 1837. He re- 
moved with his father to Hartford in 
1846, and obtained his education in 
the district schools and the Hartford 
High School. His beginnings in life 

were of a humble nature, as the first 
position he held was that of an errand 
boy in a mercantile house in Brooklyn, 
New York. This was in 1852, and his 
progress was rapid, for in a short 
time he was a confidential clerk, and 
in a few years a partner in the con- 
cern. When the Civil War opened 
Mr. Bulkeley enlisted in the Thir- 
teenth New York Regiment and was 
at the front under General McClellan 
during the Peninsular campaign. He 
afterwards served under General 
Mansfield. The elder Bulkeley died 
in 1872 and Morgan G. Bulkeley then 
removed to Hartford, which he has 
made his home ever since. 

He immediately entered into the 
financial and social life of the city, 
and became one of the most prominent 
men in Hartford. To the founding 
of the United States Bank he gave 
much time and labor, and was its first 
president. Upon the retirement of 
Thomas Enders from the presidency 
of the Aetna Life Insurance Com- 
pany, Mr. Bulkeley was elected as his 
successor, thus becoming its third 
president. As a financier he has al- 
ways had an enviable reputation and 
is a director in the Willimantic Linen 
Company, the Aetna National Bank, 
and several other successful corpora- 
tions. The wonderful success of the 
Aetna Life Insurance Company may 
be attributed in no small degree to Mr. j 
Bulkeley's rare business ability, both 
as a manager and financier. 

Soon after his removal to Hartford 
he began to take a keen interest in lo- 
cal politics. During the early seven- 
ties Mr. Bulkeley was a councilman 
and alderman from the fourth ward 

From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 





and in 1880 was elected mayor of 
Hartford. He became so popular in 
this office that he was re-elected three 
times thus serving four terms, from 
1880 to 1888. 

While mayor he exercised his best 
ability to transact the business of the 
city in an economical manner, and 
was the fearless exponent of measures 
which he thought to be for the best 
interests of the city irrespective of 
partisan feeling. Among the poorer 
classes he has always been very lib- 
eral with his fortune, and it is said 
that while mayor of Hartford Mr. 
Bulkeley gave away every year more 
than he received as his salary. His 
administration as mayor was so suc- 
cessful that his friends thought him a 
desirable candidate for governor. In 
1886 Mr. Bulkeley's name was pre- 
sented to the republican state conven- 
tion but the enthusiasm over Mr. 
Lounsbury was so great that solely 
in the interest of good feeling the 
former withdrew from the guberna- 
torial contest. He supported Mr. 
Lounsbury in the campaign that fol- 
lowed, and in 1888, was nominated by 
acclamation for governor of the state 
amid great enthusiasm. Mr. Bulkeley 
was elected and took his seat January 
10, 1889. His administration was 
characterized by a vigorous determina- 
tion on the part of the Chief Execu- 

tive to serve the state as well as pos- 
sible. General Merwin was nomin- 
ated in 1890 and at the election which 
followed, the first under the present 
secret ballot law, the result showed 
such a close vote that there was con- 
siderable doubt as to who was the vic- 
tor. The returns were not accepted 
by the officials as conclusive, or by the 
House of Representatives. A long, 
dreary contest followed and as the 
General Assembly failed to settle the 
question of gubernatorial succession, 
Governor Bulkeley, acting under the 
constitution, remained in office, and 
exercised the duties of governor for 
the next two years. He retired from 
the office when his successor was duly 
elected and inducted into office in 1893. 
Since that time Governor Bulkeley 
has not held political office, but has 
been a candidate for the United States 
Senate. Governor Bulkeley is still a 
resident of Hartford where he is hon- 
ored as being one of the fore men of 
the city. 

He is a member of Massachusetts 
Commandery Loyal Legion ; Robert 
O. Tyler Post, G. A. R., Sons of the 
American Revolution ; Connecticut 
Society of the War of 181 2; Colonial 
War Society ; Connecticut Historical 
Society and the Union League Club 
of New York City. 





(Author of "Studies in Social Oriental Life", "Friendship, the Master Passion," 
and many other Volumes ) 

Dr. Trumbull sat in the pleasant room in his Philadelphia home, confined by infirmities, and with 
the sunshine streaming down upon him, continued the labors of a remarkable life, recalling with 
wonderful vigor the experiences of a septuagenarian. Litchfield has always held a precious place in 
his memory, and he speaks of his boyhood days there with reverent enthusiasm. " I prepared a little 
booklet some years ago upon this Connecticut mother of distinguished men," said Dr. Trumbull, a 
short time ago, 4l and I am now considering revising it and completing my work on the subject." It is 
this literary labor that is presented herewith, the manuscript having been secured from the author 
marked, '* revised for The Connecticut Magazine," and the first part begun below. It will continue 
through several issues, and in the meantime the distinguished author has passed away, dying a few 
days ago. His "Recollections of Stonington" in the last number created wide interest. — EDITOR 

fN the states of the American 
Union, West and South, the 
county is practically the unit 
of population and of influence. In 
those states the towns, or the town- 
ships, as they are called, are of minor 
importance, and are usually designat- 
ed by the county to which they belong. 
But in the Eastern, or the New Eng- 
land, states, the towns, which are not 
commonly called "townships/' have a 
prominence and independence not ac- 
corded to them in other parts of the 
country. In these states a county is 
a collection of towns, making, as it 
were, a smaller state within the state, 
with a prominence and importance not 
accorded to the county elsewhere in 
this country. This fact should be 
borne in mind while considering the 
importance of one Connecticut county. 

Connecticut, next to the smallest of 
the New England states, and one of 
the smaller states in the Union, has 
eight of these distinctive and promi- 
nent counties, each one with its 
marked characteristics, and with histo- 
ries that are worthy of study in con- 
nection with the early and later his- 
tory of our country. This can be ac- 
counted for only by the character of 
the people who were its early settlers, 
taken in connection with its climate 
and territorial peculiarities. 

Litchfield County is the northwest- 
ern county of Connecticut, where Con- 
necticut borders on Massachusetts and 
New York. It averages about thirty- 
three miles in length and about twen- 
ty-seven miles in width. It has, at 
the present time, some twenty and 
more separate towns. It will be seen 



that the limits of Litchfield County 
are not much, if any, more extensive 
than those of the "ranch" of many a 
single cattle-king in Arizona, Texas, 
or New Mexico; but there is reason 
for believing that there is no other 
county in the United States that can 
show such a record for power and in- 
fluence as Litchfield County. Yet this 
county has within its limits not a sin- 
gle city, nor any one leading industry, 
to account for its surpassing influence. 
Whatever else is to be reckoned in this 
problem, the power of the "Connecti- 
cut Yankee," as such, must be consid- 
erd a main factor. 

Litchfield County was one of the 
latest settled of the Connecticut coun- 
ties. When the first settlers came 
thither from Hartford and Windsor 
and Lebanon, in about 1720, a century 
after the landing of the Mayflower at 
Plymouth, Indians were still there, — 
as were bears, and wildcats, and wild 
turkeys. The pioneer settlers of 
Litchfield County were men ready to 
meet difficulties and to overcome 
them. And those who followed them 
were men of the same stamp. All the 
trustworthy histories of Litchfield 
County bear witness to this fact. 

This prominence of Litchfield 
County was shown very early, and it 
has continued unto a recent date. 
Colonel Ethan Allen was a native of 
Litchfield County. His work at the 
opening of the American Revolution 
is an important portion of American 
history. And before Ethan Allen 
went to Ticonderoga he was engaged 
in starting an iron furnace and foun- 
dry in this county. While we should 
not look for an important enterprise 
of that kind so far from tidewater, 
that foundry furnished much of the 

shot and shell used in the Revolution, 
and much of the heavy iron work, in- 
cluding the larger anchors, in the ear- 
lier United States Navy. 

The ore beds, early discovered in 
the upper part of Litchfield County, 
were found to produce better, tough- 
er, and more tenacious iron than was 
to be found elsewhere in this coun- 
try. For a long time our cannon and 
shot and- shell, and especially our 
ships' chain-cables, had to be made 
from this iron. It was not until the 
present generation that anything was 
found to compete with this in any part 
of the country. Before then, the ar- 
mories of Harper's Ferry and Spring- 
field had to come here for their sup- 

Colonel Seth Warner was another 
native of this county who distinguish- 
ed himself at Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, and later at Bennington. A 
considerable number of Revolutionary 
officers were from this county, but 
they were less prominent than Ethan 
Allen and Seth Warner. The first 
cavalry regiment raised in the Revo- 
lutionary Army was formed here by 
Colonel Elisha Sheldon of Salisbury, 
and it did good service in various 
fields. Ira Allen was a brother of 
Ethan Allen, and an associate of the 
more distinguished brother. The two 
had no small part in beginning that 
war successfully. The distinguished 
pastor of the Congregational Church 
of Norfolk, an influential church to 
this day, left his parish to go as a 
chaplain in the Continental Army. 
From the beginning, he was always 
ready to lead or to follow at the call of 

The famous equestrian statue of 
King George III, of gilded lead, that 



stood in Bowling Green, New York., 
when it was overturned by the pa- 
triotic crowd at first disappeared. 
Later it was found in Litchfield Coun- 
ty, in the home of the Hon. Oliver 
Wolcott, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, who came to Litch- 
field from Windsor. The statue was 
melted down, and made into forty 
thousand bullets, by the zealous 
daughters of Litchfield County. One 
set of daughters was making blankets 
and clothing for the Colonial troops, 
while still other daughters were mak- 
ing bullets to kill their enemies. 
Major, and later General, John Sedg- 
wick, of this county, was in the Revo- 
lution, and General Herman Swift 
was in this war, and also in the 
French War. Thus Litchfield Coun- 
ty did its full part in the American 
Revolution, and lost its full share of 
men. Aaron Burr had his home in 
Litchfield County in the earlier years 
of the Revolution, and his record was 
a good one then. 

It would be difficult to say how 
much emancipation, with its conse- 
quences, might have been delayed, but 
for the work of two natives of the 
county — Harriet Beecher Stowe, with 
her "Uncle Tom's Cabin," that took 
hold of the popular mind, and led it ; 
and John Brown of Osawatomie, who 
precipitated the conflict of arms. 
When two of the Southerners, just af- 
ter the war, came out from a theater 
in New York where they had seen 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" acted, one of 
them said to the other, "Will, that's 
what licked us." And that seemed 
reasonable. The man who hanged 
John Brown said, after the war, "John 
Brown was a great man." John 
Brown certainly had a part in a great 

work, and he was a Litchfield County 

Other prominent clergymen in this 
country, born in Litchfield County, 
had no small measure of responsibility 
for preparing the nation for its suc- 
cessful life struggle. Prominent 
among these were Horace BushnelL 
one of the greatest religious thinkers 
of the nineteenth century, and Henry 
Ward Beecher, one of its foremost 
preachers, both of whom are immor- 
talized in statues of bronze in the 
cities where they preached longest. 
Also Charles G. Finney, who was for 
a generation the representative anti- 
slavery preacher in the New York 
Tabernacle, which was built to give 
him a pulpit. 

John Pierpont, who was born in 
the same town as Horace Bushnell 
and Henry Ward Beecher, did his 
share in arousing the country, by his 
voice and pen, to the sin of slavery 
and the blessings of liberty. His ad- 
dress of General Warren to his liber- 
ty-loving men, 
"Stand! the ground's your own, my 

braves ! 
Will ye give it up to slaves?" 
had its full part in arousing New 
England boys and youth to faithful- 
ness in their struggle of the ages. 

Elizur Wright of Litchfield was a 
journalist and a philanthropist who 
had no insignificant part in preparing 
the way for emancipation. He was 
editor of the Quarterly Anti-Slavery 
Magazine, the Massachusetts Aboli- 
tionist, and The Chronotype. His 
words were received with conflicting 
curses and cheers from different parts 
of the country for years. The words 
of Litchfield County men have gone 
out to the end of the world. 



Hundreds of Litchfield County men 
were prominent in the Civil War that 
Harriet Beecher Stowe and John 
Brown and Elizur Wright and 
Charles G. Finney had so much to do 
in bringing about. Prominent among 
these was Major-General John Sedg- 
wick, known in the army as "Uncle 
John." He was a valued corps com- 
mander. President Lincoln offered 
him the command of the Army of the 
Potomac, but he declined it. Another 
distinguished United States Army of- 
ficer from Litchfield County was Gen- 
eral Henry W. Wessels, who distin- 
guished himself in Mexico and in Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, and, after 
the war, as an Indian fighter in the 

A prominent and effective corps in 
the Civil War from Litchfield Coun- 
ty was the Second Heavy Artillery of 
Connecticut, and various infantry reg- 
iments contributed field and company 
and staff officers, who did excellent 
service for their country and reflected 
honor on their native county. One 
such patriot was Colonel Dutton, com- 
manding the Ninety-eighth New 
York Infantry, who went out from the 
old Dutton homestead to serve his 
country and meet his death in Mc- 
Clellan's Chickahominy campaign. 

It was General Erastus Blakeslee, 
of that same Litchfield County, who. 
after serving with honor in command 
of a cavalry regiment, studied for the 
ministry, and, after being in several 
pastorates, founded the system of 
Blakeslee lessons for general Bible 

Captain Valentine B. Chamberlain, 
of Colebrook, was a gallant officer in 
the Seventh Connecticut Regiment. 
He was captured on Morris Island. 

and was my loved associate in Colum- 
bia jail. His thrilling escape and re- 
capture are told of in "The Knightly 
Soldier." His brother, Abiram 
Chamberlain, is governor of Con- 
necticut in 1903. Ezra L. Moore, of 
Salisbury, also in the Seventh Regi- 
ment, was adjutant of General Joseph 
R. Hawley, in the regiment, in the 
brigade, and in the division. 

Even a Litchfield County private 
soldier is likely to make his mark. 
Thus Dorrance Atwater, while a pris- 
oner in Andersonville, being employed 
on duty in the records, made a dupli- 
cate list of those thousands of prison- 
ers, and brought it away for the bene- 
fit of bereaved families. The list is 
now in the possession of Clara Bar- 
ton, at the head of the Red Cross 

An illustration of the pre-eminence 
of Litchfield County in the training of 
the young for their best work in the 
service of their fellows and of their 
God is well shown in its pioneer work 
in the several learned professions. 
For instance, the first Law School in 
America was in Litchfield County. 
And this was a school of national 
prominence before one ha4 been at- 
tempted by Harvard, or Yale, or Col- 
umbia, or Pennsylvania, or Virginia. 
This pioneer Law School was started 
by Judges Reeve and Gould. Up to 
that time no college or university in 
America had attempted instruction in 
law as one of its courses, nor was the 
law treated as a liberal science. 

Tapping Reeve, a young lawyer in 
Litchfield, projected this Law School, 
and so successfully did he conduct his 
new experiment that its reputation 
"soon became as extensive as the 
country, and young men from Maine 



to Georgia sought to finish their law 
studies here." When Mr. Reeve was 
appointed to the bench of the Supreme 
Court, he associated with him in the 
Law School a young lawyer, James 
Gould ; and when he too was raised to 
the bench, the Law School was known 
as that of Judges Reeve and Gould. 
It was said of Judge Reeve "that he 
first gave the law a place among lib- 
eral studies in this country; that he 
found it a skeleton, and clothed it with 
life, color, and complexion;" and 
again, that this school gave a new 
impulse to legal learning; and it was, 
in consequence, felt in the jurispru- 
dence as well as in the legislation of 
all the states. 

More than a thousand lawyers were 
trained at the Litchfield County Law 
School, many of whom became emi- 
nent jurists and legislators. From 
that Law School there went out 
among others a vice-president of the 
United States. This was John C. 
Calhoun, yet he would hardly be 
called a Connecticut Yankee. There 
were also of graduates of that school 
two justices of the Supreme Court oil 
the United States, sixteen United 
States senators, fifty representatives 
in Congress, forty judges of the high- 
er state courts, besides several Cabi- 
net members and various foreign min- 
isters. And this is but a single item 
in the wide influence of Litchfield 

In the later years of the eighteenth 
century, academies and grammar 
schools were more commonly founded 
for the higher education of the youth. 
Universities were not so commonly 
found at the corners of the streets. 
Litchfield County did good work with 
educational agencies. One of the 

first of these was Morris Academy,, 
founded by James Morris, a Revolu- 
tionary officer. In 1815, in a sketch 
of Litchfield County, it was said of 
Morris Academy, "The once celebrat- 
ed Morris Academy was founded in 
1799." • The influence for good of 
that pioneer academy was long con- 
tinued and widespread. 

A new step was early taken in the 
line of female education, and a new 
tone given to such education, by the 
establishment of the Female Seminary 
under Miss Sarah Pierce, in Litchfield. 
This was prominent before the coun- 
try for many years. After a while it 
was under the charge of John P. 
Brace, whom I knew well and greatly 
admired half a century ago. Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe said she never 
knew so inspiring and efficient a 
teacher as he. He taught some of the 
most prominent women in this coun- 
try, and a number of well-known mis- 
sionaries. His work influenced the 
character and shaped the methods of 
female education far and near for 

In the town of Washington, in 
Litchfield County, was for many years 
the famous family and select school, 
taught by a Mr. Gunn. It was popu- 
larly known as "The Gunnery." and 
also as "The Bird School." This 
school was well known through the 
United States by being so often writ- 
ten about by prominent writers. 
Henry Ward Beecher often spoke of 
it enthusiastically in his letters in The 
Independent, and Dr. Josiah G. Hol- 
land made it a feature in his "Arthur 
Bonnycastle"' as "The Bird School." 

A Litchfield County lawyer, Cyrus 
Swan, was the friend and counsel of 
Matthew Vassar. and was the means 



of getting the Vassar Female College 
started. At the urgent request of Mr. 
Vassar, Mr. Swan was treasurer and 
manager during his lifetime. A Nor- 
folk woman, Miss Hannah Lyman,, 
trained under Miss Lyon at Mt. Hol- 
yoke Seminary, was the efficient and 
devoted first principal of Vassar Col- 
lege, and put her permanent impress 
on it for good. 

A cousin and neighbor of Cyrus 
Swan was the founder of the famous 
"Hill School for Boys" at Pottstown, 
Pennsylvania, and members of the 
family are still in charge of the Hill 
School. Another member of that ed- 
ucational family, who married into 
another Litchfield County family, was 
at the head of a famous school for 
boys in Fairfield County. Thus 
Litchfield County has had prominence 
in higher education for generations in 
widely different fields. 

Professor Amos Smith, of Morris, 
formerly in Litchfield, had for years a 
notable school in New Haven for boys 
and young men. Pupils on whom he 
put his impress made their influence 
felt throughout this country and be- 
yond. Among these were: General 
Garcia, of Cuba ; Hiram Bingham, 
Jr., born in the Sandwich Islands, and 
a pioneer missionary in Micronesia ; 
Dan Huntington, president of the Na- 
tionary Academy of Design ; Profess- 
or N. W. Hodge, of Oberlin College; 

A. S. Darrow, principal of Vicksburg 
Female Seminary, and other notables. 

A young ladies' boarding-school, 
widely and favorably known through- 
out the country, is called the "Cather- 
ine Aiken School" of Stamford, Con- 
necticut. The head of that school is 
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Devan, a 
granddaughter of Henry Ward Beech- 
er, and of a well-known Litchfield 
County family. One of her valued 
helpers is her sister, Miss Scoville, 
who has been peculiarly successful in 
pioneer work among the Indians. 

This county, which was so early 
prominent for its pioneer law school, 
for its pattern academies, and for its 
first young ladies' seminary, has kept 
up its reputation in the line of emi- 
nent institutions of learning to the 
present day. Not only are schools, 
founded or conducted by its natives, 
maintained in other places near or far. 
but references to the many pages 
of our leading monthly or weekly 
magazines will often show us from 
twelve to fifteen well-known prepara- 
tory schools and endowed academies 
for young men and young women in 
that one small rural county. One of 
its more modern and well-endowed 
schools is the Robbins School of Nor- 
folk, in memory of one of the choicest 
Litchfield County families famous for 
several generations. 

If wholesome labor wearies at first, afterward it lends pleasure ; the frosty air now 
chills the peasant's cheek, afterward it will make his blood the warmer." 

—Newell Dwight Hillis. 




Mr. Markham is the author of the article entitled " Early Coinage of Money in America" in Vol. 
VII of The Connecticut Magazine, in which he has been introduced to his readers. For some time he 
has been writing his memories as a country schoolmaster in the first half of the last century. Tbe 
life and customs of the times are told by him in a reminiscent style, which carries one back to the 
homes of the forefathers, and we sit in the firelight from the burning log and listen to the stories of 
the past. These reminiscences will be continued by Mr. Markham for several issues.— Editor 

Ail Y memory goes back to the 
A II J ^ a y s °^ sixty-five years 
ago and distinctly I re- 
call those old boyhood scenes. 
I am now approaching the 
three-quarters' century mark and 
fifty-five years ago I was a coun- 
try schoolmaster in Connecticut. With 
much interest I have noted the trend 
of progress, and the pictures in my 
memory of the long-ago-yesterday 
^nd the strenuous to-day present a 
remarkable contrast. I have often 
been asked if our hard-working 
forefathers in the early part of 
the century when railroading and 
electricity and a thousand modern in- 
ventions were unknown, really enjoy- 
ed life. In the secluded existence of 
the infant republic what were their 
recreations? In the times when 
everything beyond the Hudson was 
the wild west and the agricultural 
east was disturbed only by the rattling 
wheels of the stage-coach was there 
any real enjoyment? Was it not a 
matter-of-fact, hard, uninteresting ex- 
istence? And I answer from my 

sweet recollections of the early 'thir- 
ties, — these were the days of well- 
earned comfort and happiness; days 
when honesty and frugality extended 
beneficent blessings. Our pleasures 
were simple and less exacting than to- 
day; our labor was physically labor- 
ious and rest well-earned. 

Long hours of twelve to fourteen 
in the summer made a day's work for 
the men ; and for the women, almost 
as exacting in bodily exertion, the 
hours were even longer. It was an 
epoch of compensations and nearly all 
of the people of my memory enjoyed 
accumulations from year to year as a 
result of their arduous work. They 
saw stalwart sons and robust daugh- 
ters grow to maturity, busy and dili- 
gent; fitted to cope with the world 
and mature into useful citizens. And 
that is the truest happiness. True, we 
did not have the theater, or the lec- 
ture. Cards were considered instru- 
ments of the Devil to plague humanity 
and so we had quilting bees, and husk- 
ing bees and the singing school. 

Log houses were never much in 


vogue in Connecticut. The very poor 
sometimes built board and slab shan- 
ties, and occasionally one would see a 
turf hut ; but these were not houses in 
the true acceptation. Usually they 
were small at first ; enlarged as chil- 
dren multiplied and eventually became 
so full that a portion of the family had 
to "swarm." 

A common style of house was the 
Gambrel roof — sometimes called the 
hip roof. Modifications of the Gam- 
brel roof are much used by architects 
of tc-day in building suburban homes, 
partly for the effect and partly to econ- 
omize room in the attic. These 
houses were low, one story affairs, 
with windows in each of the gable 
ends, but rarely with windows in the 
lower roof. Pardon me if I go be- 
yond my own recollections and tell of 
things that I heard from my father's 
knee. But common in my early days 
was the house much favored by build- 
ers seventy-five or a hundred years 
gone by. It was called the lean-to, 
and was two stories in front, with 
short steep roof and the rear roof a 
long one extending down, till a tall 
person could touch the eaves from the 
ground. Frequently the roof took a 
curve, somewhere toward the middle 
and became more flattened at the low- 
er portion. It was a great conven- 
ience, as the good housewife could 
place her sliced apples, whortleberries 
and other % fruits to dry. The boys 
could also, for the same purpose, use 
the roof for chestnuts, hickory nuts 
and butternuts. 

A "quassi" imitation of the colonial, 
without the pillars, porch or piazza, in 
some of the better houses, would be 
seen, like the well known Governor 
Saltonstall mansion. 

I recall another style of a cheaper 
house built by Peter Huxford, one of 
the early settlers in Glastonbury, now 
in the township of Marlborough. 
About 1725 Peter moved to Glaston- 
bury from Chappaquidick, Martha's 
Vineyard. The arrangement of the 
inner house varied, of course, to cor- 
respond to the size ; but usually, there 
were two front rooms, a parlor or best 
room, and the sitting or second best 
parlor; a large kitchen and "buttery" 
m the rear and frequently a "sink" 
room ; but often the whole family took 
their matutinal wash from a hollow 
rock near the well. If the house was 
of sufficient size, there was a bed room 
or two on the first floor, but generally 
the sleeping rooms were on the floor 
above. In winter these bed rooms 
were above and were exceedingly 
cold. The roof was thin; the walls 
and partitions were thin and water 
could not be placed in them because it 
Would freeze and ruin the vessels in 
which it was stored. Bitter cold 
nights there were in those times and 
the children shivered and huddled to- 
gether for warmth. Then was the 
good mother and grandmother very 
much in evidence. The old brass 
warming pan was produced and filled 
with hot coals, drawn quickly about 
between the sheets and over the pil- 
lows. The little and big shivering 
folks jumped in and were made happy 
by the grateful warmth. Fire places 
had to be built in every living room. 
The kitchen had to be a particularly 
large one. In the big open fire place, 
the long black heavy "crane" 
mortared into the side could be swung 
backward and forward as desired. 
"Pot hooks and tramels" and short 
stout links of chains were suspended 


from the crane and pots and kettles 
could be lowered to the fire or raised 
from the fire at will. Kitchen uten- 
sils were not then as now. A tea ket- 
tle, two iron pots, one holding per- 
haps a gallon and another two or 
more, were indispensible. A couple 
of "spiders" of different sizes; a big 
iron kettle and brass kettle holding 
from eight to ten gallons were used 
for washing purposes ; to make soap 
and to boil down cider. Necessarily 
there was the big brick or stone oven, 
four or five feet in length and of pro- 
portionate width. This was heated 
every Saturday, and if the family was 
large, again about the middle of the 
week. Hard, well-seasoned wood 
must be carefully selected and the 
housewife must use experienced judg- 
ment to bring the oven to the right 
temperature. Dear reader, just think 
of the good things that came out of 
that old stone oven. The roasts of 
beef; the "spare ribs" of pork; the 
chicken pies, the pumpkin, apple, 
mince and custard pies. Does your 
mouth water, as imagination goes 
back to those old days? I confess 
mine does. There was a smaller re- 
cess, generally under the oven, and 
here was stored the family dye pot, 
an indispensable vessel also. The 
housewife must do her own "dying" 
and color the cloth, homespun and 
home wove for outside garments ; for 
stockings, mittens and many other 
purposes. Most of the dye stuffs were 
procured about the homestead. But- 
ternut bark made a brownish yellow. 
The bark from the yellow oak made a 
good enough yellow and was nearly a 
fast color. Indigo weed made a blue, 
but this would "run" and so small 
quantities of merchantable indigo 

must be purchased. Cochineal was 
required for a brilliant red that should 
be "fast," that is, unfading. Scoke 
berries made a kind of purple — not a 
royal purple, but it answered. Wild 
pigeons were also much addicted to 
this berry. 

Every farmer raised his own sheep. 
The sheep were grown, washed and 
sheared and there his responsibility, 
so far as the wool was concerned, end- 
ed. Then the housewife took the ma- 
terial in hand ; carded, spun, wove and 
fashioned the necessary garments 
therefrom. Sometimes within a rad- 
ius of ten or fifteen miles, carding ma- 
chines, run by water power, were es- 
tablished. Here the wool could be 
carded and made into "rolls." Then 
the woman spun and wove the yarn 
into a flannel ; again taken back, where 
it was dyed and "fulled" and pressed 
into a home made broadcloth. If the 
womanly head of the family did not 
possess the knowledge, or had not the 
necessary time an itinerant tailoress. 
would come and spend a week or two, 
in making coats and trousers for the 
men and boys. The woman almost 
invariably made her own and female 
children's garments. There were no 
wrappers or underwear for the women, 
girls or boys. The farmer who 
was much out in the snow and 
cold weather, wore two shirts, a white 
and red one, both flannel. Among 
men ovecoats were not much worn, 
and if a boy had a flannel shirt, jack- 
et, trousers, woolen stockings that 
came to his knees, cowhide shoes, a 
"comforter," or tippet and mittens, he 
was equipped for anything the weath- 
er could produce. Girls were even 
more thinly clad. A chemise, a flan- 
nel petticoat or skirt, woolen stock- 


ings, home knit, of course, coarse 
shoes, and for dress occasions a pair 
of pantalettes, and she could wade 
through the snow, knee deep, to 
school, a distance often of one or two 
miles. There were many frost bites 
in those days, but not so much sick- 
ness as would be supposed. Boys 
and girls' feet were wet from the time 
of arrival at school till after supper at 
night. Then, shoes and stockings 
were dried and before the fire, ready 
for another day's experience. Gum 
shoes were unknown. Rubber boots 
were still in the future; so the far- 
mer wore his top cowhide boots, filled 
them with melted tallow and lamp 
black and trudged all day through the 
snow, in the woods, chopping fire or 
cord wood; driving his oxen with a 
load of logs or wood as the case might 

If the men and women of this gen- 
eration could fully realize the amount 
of severe physical work their ances- 
tors had to perform, the bare thought 
would be likely to give them nervous 
prostration. The householder arose 
at daylight and nine o'clock in the 
evening found him in bed. The first 
thing in the morning was to start the 
kitchen fire, then to barn and feed his 
stock. The partly grown boys and 
girls (sometimes) did the milking. 
The housewife would cook the break- 
fast and after it was eaten, "do" the 
dishes, spin or weave till it was time 
to make the mid-day dinner. The 
man took his axe and away to the 
woods, there to cut down big trees, 
chop fire and cord wood, or if expe- 
rienced with the broad axe, hew out 
ship timber, such as knees, "futtucks" 
or the ribs of vessels, deck beams, etc. 

jnBq puB uaxo siq zypA. ;uSiiu 9q jo 
wood to the door ; logs to the saw mill 
or perhaps the prepared timber to the 
ship yard or to the nearest point for 
water shipment. He also split chest- 
nut wood rails twelve feet long, and 
bar posts. These were frequently 
sent to Long Island where fencing 
material was scarce. Of course there 
were farms generally not far from 
the larger rivers and streams where 
raising produce and stock was the 
principal business. And yet those 
hilly, stony lands, for the most part 
covered with forests, yielded as much 
cash revenue as the more easily culti- 
vated ground. In the spring out 
came the clumsy plough, and he could 
not do much more, among the stumps 
and stones, than barely scratch the 
ground. Here he planted his corn, 
potatoes and sowed his oats and oth- 
er grains. Then building and repair- 
ing fences, laying up stone wall, 
planting and hoeing, all came readily 
to his hand. 

About the first of July came the 
most severe labor of the whole sea- 
son — haying and harvesting. Never 
less than twelve hours for a day's 
work and frequently fourteen. The 
writer has often worked in the hay and 
grain field for eight consecutive weeks 
and when the last load of hay was in 
the barn, or the last stack properly 
capped, there went up an immense 
sigh of relief. It meant, perhaps, the 
head of the house would cover his ox 
cart and take his whole family to the 
sea shore, sleep under the cover of the 
cart; dig clams and catch fish. Any- 
how, three were a few days of rest and 
recreation for the family. In those 
days they had no reapers ; no mowers. 




Mr. Ransom is the septuagenarian artist whose remarkable painting of the Christ, entitled 
** Follow Me," ts known throughout the country. His canvases have always portrayed a wonderful, 
originality and individuality and in his long poem he again breaks all conventionalties, instilling 
eccentricities of genius into vivid poetic pictures. In art and poetry the white-haired painter sets his 
own standard of form and color, his work glowing with his own strong personality.— Editor 


When done from keel to futtock bands 

The iron workers throng 
Around the sledge leviathans 

And chant this craftman song : 

1 ' We are the sons of Tubal Cain ; 
And our wild refrain 

Of sledges' clash and anvils' clang 
Long before the Deluge, rang. 

"Our fathers clamped tall Babel's stones: 
And their ancient bones 

Were dust and ashes ere the loain 
Was broke where stood Imperial Rome. 

1 ' They forged the sword of Joshua — 
Aye, the first sword tempered they, 

They wrought ere war or warriors were, 
Ere Nimrod or the tribes of Ur. 

1 ' Their chisels clave the rocks of Nile ; 
And the dateless pile 

Of Cheops and the Coptic shore 
They from mountain ledges tore. 


" Count, count our hoary age, who can ? 
For the life we ran 

Is older than empire, — 
Old as toil and fire. 

" Bright the myth that Venus girdled, 
Charmed the ancient kings of heaven, 
And where the tranquil cirrus curdled, 
Led enslavers the enslaven. 

" A thousand years her throne debated, 
A thousand years her throne awaited, 
We, in the girdled world, restore her, 
To charm as none have charmed before her. 

M Through the constellations swinging, 
Motion's bounding anthem singing, 
All the stars she coys above her, 
Or kisses with eclipse shall love her. 

' ' Rock on rocky anvil dashed 
In the world's May ; 
Then brass on brazen masses clashed ; 
Rough laid, boulder forges lashed 
Primeval sombers with prophetic day, 
Till now steel tons their timbered anvils bray 
With blows that shake 

And make 
The world. 

"Our iron fingers, combing through the upper sea, 
In midrush grip the thunderbolt 
And drag it harmless 
To the jarred earth. 

" God waged with fire creation's changes ; 
Astounding ranges 

Of mountains groined the sky on, 
Building their solid frames of iron. 


' ' We have been and we shall be 
Forever ; 
Deep in the gloom of legend we, 
And when a million years shall see 
The future dawn, 

Then, as now, these arms of brawn 
Shall strive with rock and fire. 

1 ' Empires may rise, empires pass away ; 
Kingdoms fret their day, 

But the ton hammers and the engine's brawn 
May lull their thunder on the Judgment dawm. 

1 • The tower clock tells the hours that go ; 
Volumes, how the ages flow — 
I,et the booming sledge arise 
And strike the rounded centuries." 

Now 'tis counting, 
Heed it, heed it ; 
One by one the number mounting, 
Read it, read it ; 

In its beats are tones complaining ; 
In its tramp are nations waning 
And it calls the long dead peoples 

From the night. 
Higher than the piercing steeples 
Feel the flight 

Of souls by millions risen 
From their tenebrated prison — 
Down the hammer comes ! 
And the furnace glums 

Flash lightning. 

Count the rhythmic calculations — 

One — two — three — 
And its iron palpitations 

Like a deep telluric sea 


Beating through the glum profound. 
Feel the shudder — shudder — shudder, 
And the dull Plutonian mutter 

Under ground. 

Years long dead the live review — 

Four — five — six ; 
Time that's passed, the passing, too, 
In maddest resurrection mix — 

Hark — the building's upper antrie calls 

And plunging from the dingy vault 
The dropping engine mauls, 
Mauls a tocsin of revolt. 

Strike — strike — strike ; 
Seven — eight — nine ; 
Crash, the crash and Thormon-like, 
Bounding down the thunder-line ; 
It is the vanished cycles' firman, 
With the voice of storm or merman 
Calling from their wizard region 
Into line and into legion 
Wraith of saint and wraith of demon ; 
L,o ! they throng and pour and press on 
Like the ghostly dim procession 
Of sea waves in the dark, — 

How the vast, obscure gyrations 
Sweep the long extinguished nations 
In their whirl ; 

And where the smoky shadows curl, 
Whites the flitting film of spectre 
With misty diadem and sceptre ; 
Their steps are still as steps of vision 
Trooping in serene derision 
Of our puny mortal hector 
And this puny mortal spark 
That's blown out by the breathing, — Hark ! 


Sharp the sledge and anvil clash, 

Ten — eleven — twelve — 
Glare the beaten metals flash — 
The red hot, welding glow — 
Feel the seismic shudder delve 
In headlong lunges 
When he plunges 
To the blow. 

Thirteen — fourteen — fifteen, 
Pile — pile — pile 

The dark years in the light 

Till the unseen be seen 
And the hammer tale their height. 

Sixteen — seventeen — eighteen — 
Stop the count — there high between 

The massive anvil and the vault, 

Making the pending sledges halt. 

Christ, the Master Lord, was set 

The gnomon for all time ; 
Nineteen hundred years have let 
The great world ring the chime 
Of a new hope and a new day 
Since his ray 
Alit the new sublime : — 

Let the ponderous hammer stay ; 
The rounded century is run, 
The builded ship is done ; 

Aye, from stiff keel to the bulwark's crests 
To taffrail's coping and the splice 

Of the deep stepped and sturdy masts, 
The builded hull is done — 
Done to the last device. 

Tear down the scaffolding ! 
Strip him naked for the leap ! 


Free limbed, unhampered let him be — 
Unharnessed of all baffling 
When he plunges to the neap, 

For he will grandly be 

A monarch of the sea, 
With the wave's foot 
And the wind's wing, 
Indeed a king. 

Drive the blocking out ! Set him free 

For a running leap into the sea ! 

There he goes, a huge, exulting race, 
The hard ways smoking 'neath his ardent pace- 
And lo ! his quick foot signalling, 
Glad Ocean throws her arms apart 
And clasps him to her yearless heart 
A proud, respondent, living thing. 

They rein him to the rigging pier 
And make his proud head fast, 

Then build his lofty sailing gear, 
Mast rising over mast. 

Yard and sail and hempen stay, 
Slack halyard, spar and block, 

Were fitted for the strong wind's play, 
For the mid sea's lunging shock. 

And so he grew through skill and strife, 
The last blow struck at length, 

A creature rife with the wild sea's life 
And the live oak's rigid strength. 

Now his caverns long and dim, 
With priceless freights are stowed, 

Then cast his lines, the broad sails trim, 
And take to the ocean road. 


T is said by travelers 
that nowhere else in 
the world are to be 
seen such wonderful 
effects in autumn fol- 
iage as in Connecticut. 
As the leaves lose their green the scar- 
lets and cardinals and yellows and pur- 
ples, intercepted with evergreens, all 
with infinite arrangements, transform 
the hills into huge bouquets, chame- 
leon under the changing sunlight. 
The falling leaves color the very 
breezes into brilliance as they float 

along in irregular buoyancy, making 
vast carpets woven by the gigantic 
hand from the richest colors. Then 
in a night the genii of the storm trans- 
form the illuminated forests into bare 
limbs and twigs ; the hazy blueish 
brown and greens alternate with 
darker shades and the winter snow 
and sleet whiten the limbs, clothing 
them with glittering diamonds, as if 
some great spirit had blown its breath 
upon the forest and it had frozen 

"Bathed in the tenderest purple of distance. 
Tinted and shadowed by pencils of air." 

The illustrations are reproduced by permission of the Central New England Railroad 
Starting from Hartford and continuing along the line of the Central Now England arc some 

of the most beautiful retreats in America, visited by thousands of the lovers of majestic 






IN a large old fashioned brick 
house built nearly one hundred 
years ago in the City of New 
Haven, there is a low studded, roughly 
plastered room, which was once used 
for a kitchen by the occupants of the 
homestead, but is now set apart as a 
memorial of the olden time. 

Passing through the long broad hall 
of the mansion, you descend a short 
flight of stairs, and immediately the 
atmosphere of 1776 seems around and 
about you. The dark oaken floor is 
brightened by a rug of rag-carpet 

spread in front of the wide fire-place, 


"While the red logs before us beat 
The frost line back, with tropic heat ;" 

the eye, following the flame upward, 
rests upon an appointment which 
gives rise to conflicting emotions 
within the patriot breast, for verily 
the high fluted mantel once had its 
place in the home of Benedict Arnold. 
It is well to state right here, that this 
mantel is not an heirloom in the fam- 
ily of which I write. 

An old bull's eye hangs decoratively 



at one side, while plates of ancient de- 
sign and queer shaped flasks adorn the 
top, giving evidence that the fore- 
fathers did not depend solely upon 
glowing logs for warmth. Bright as 
in days of yore, shine the pewter plat- 
ters and the brass candlesticks. 

Above the mantel hangs an old flint 
lock and powder-horn. The bellows, 
warming-pan and foot stoves are con- 
veniently placed. The long old-fash- 
ioned peel, worn smooth by the pass- 
ing of cakes, pies and baked beans to 
and from remote corners of the oven, 
leans lovingly against its square iron 
door, which with its close shut draft 
has a tantalizing look, for, 

"Take all sweet odors, from all the spheres. 
And multiply each through endless years, 
One whiff from that oven was worth 
them all !" 

Still farther on, above, hang strings 
of red peppers, the fire- bucket and the 
candle mould. A high-backed settle 
flanks one side of the room. Ancient 
chests of drawers, brass bound, with 
heavy table and desk covered with old 
books and parchments are set in stiff 
array. Well worn chairs which gave 
rest to the sturdy ancestors, still stand 
invitingly before the blazing logs. 
Rare old china gleams through the 
glass door of the great grandmother's 
buffet in the corner. 

The spinning-wheel and the distaff, 
the reel and the great bread-tray 
hewn from the trunk of a tree, are all 
here showing marks or frequent use, 
thereby bearing testimony to the 
thriftiness of ye olden time house- 

"T'was in this dusky room, 
Shut in from all the world without 
We sat the clean-winged hearth 

and watched and waited for the com- 
ing of the New Year. 

As the tall old clock, accurate to a 
dot, like its maker (the great-grand- 
father) struck the. hour of twelve, the 
outside door is pushed slowly open 
and there on the threshold we behold 
the sad Old Year, pale of face, and 
with snowy beard. His bent form 
sways in the doorwiy, and then his 
tearful eyes seek ours, while from his 
trembling lips there falters : 

"O list ! my friends, that you may hear, 
The solemn passing of the year — 
Those strokes attend ! It is the knell 
Of 19-3, farewell, farewell." 

Slowly he sinks back into the dark- 
ness, while from without comes the 
sound of gay hurrahs, and the sweet 
face of a tiny boy flashes in the door- 
way, his fresh young voice piping, 

"He's gone ! he's gone, old 19-3, 
And I am come to stay with thee 
Don't cry for him — give smiles galore 
For I'm your little 19-4. 

Then with one accord we arise, and 
drawing near each other, we sing 
"With heart and voice," "Should auld 
acquaintance be forgot," following it 
with the doxology. It seems a bene- 

Were the old room to voice its e\ 
periences, it might carol, 

"I've seen the years when growing old, 
Go mournful out through gates of gold, 
While light of foot, or swifl oi wing 
The young year's came in, caroling, 

But whether grave, or whether gay, 
They passed away— they passed away." 






Regular Correspondent of the National Museum at Washington, D. C. 

THE age of candlesticks is one 
of the most interesting in 
the history of lighting, and it 
is with this that this article will deal. 
A kind of candle-chandelier, known 
as a "Candle Beam," was a wood or 
metal hoop, upon which was secured 
tin sockets to hold the candles. This 
was suspended by chains or wire in 
the center of places of public assem- 
bly, or other large rooms. Some- 

times these were made to support 
thirty or more candles, and when in 
full glow made quite a brave show. 
Another form of candle-chandelier 
.was known as a "Candle Tree," 
and was much in use in the public 
room of old time inns. The "Candle 
Tree" shown in Plate VIII hung for 
more than eighty years in the old 
Eagle Hotel at Windsor, Conn. 
A candle holder to be placed upon 



the walls of public halls, or private 
rooms, was known as a " Sconce." 
The more common kind were of tin, 
the back often corrugated, and kept 
polished as a reflector, Plate IX. 
The Sconce was also made in more 
beautiful forms, frequently silver 
plated, brass, and sometimes bronze, 
and with fine cut glass pendants. 
They frequently were supplied with 
two or more graceful, projecting 
branches secured to a decorated disk 
or mural plaque, and when hung 
upon the wall added greatly to the 
brilliancy of the stately and spacious 
salons of the fine old colonial man- 

Pewter candlesticks were largely 
imported. Some of these are mas- 
sive and elegant. In 1730 pewter 
candlesticks of various styles were 
largely made in Boston. Paul Re- 
vere, of heroic fame, offered quite 
an extensive line of these goods to 
his customers. The large, plain 
pewter candlestick shown in Plate 
X, was on duty in the room the night 
that Hannibal Hamlin, the future 
vice-president of the United States, 
was born. 

Brass candlesticks in a multitude 
of forms, as shown in Plate XII, were 
largely imported from England and 
Europe. Newburyport, Mass., as 
well as New Bedford, Mass., very 
early in the history of the colonies 
produced very many of the plainer 
and more common kind. Those im- 
ported were often very elegant, and 
some of the choicest gems among 
the collections of to-day a*-e the 
beautiful and graceful brass candle- 
sticks, which were the pride of the 

colonial housewife. A pair of bra — 
candlesticks was considered a very 
appropriate wedding gift, and a col- 
lector who to-day can point to one of 
these pairs which have historical as- 
sociation is considered very fortu- 
nate. A tall, beautiful candlestick 
of very fine brass is shown in Plate 
XL This is from the family 
of Elbridge Gerry, one of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and the third vice-president 
of the United States. 

The large, rich, fire-gilt and glass 
pedestaled candelabra shown in Plate 
XIII is one of a pair in our collection 
which enjoys the distinction of hav- 
ing graced the dining table in the spa- 
cious dining room of an old colonial 
manor house near Trenton, New Jer- 
sey, when the immortal Washington 
and the honored Lafayette were 
guests during their stay in that his- 
toric town. The three gracefully 
shaped branches are richly decorated 
with raised vines and leaves, while 
the candle sockets are crown shaped. 
The beautiful, gracefully tapering 
pedestal is of green glass and decor- 
ated with raised gold vines, leaves 

n.m- Will 

To Madame Hancock on her arrival in Phlladel 

phia as the bride of John llmioivk- P 
Silver Candlesticks 



and grapes, while the massive base 
is of pure white Italian marble. On 
each candelabra there are forty long, 
three-sided cut glass pendants. This 
pair of candelabra is undoubtedly of 
French make, and in their day must 
have been costly. 

A beautiful brass candlestick is 
shown in Plate XIV, which is Rus- 
sian antique, and is of the so-called 
lace pattern, and is not only exquisite 
in the leaf-like tracings and delicate 
perforations, but in general form ex- 
hibits the highest type of the metal 
workers' art. This particular candle- 
stick came from Count Tolstoi's na- 
tive village, near Tula, Russia. 

The marine candlestick, Plate XV, 
is not only graceful and beautiful in 
form, but is of unique construction, 
and is the only marine candlestick in 
the collection. This is so hung on 
its lyre-shape support that it can be 
adjusted to any position like the mar- 
iner's compass. The base has a bay- 
onet slot which may be adjusted to a 
holder placed upon the wall, so that 
the candlestick cannot only be used 
as an upright upon the table, but may 
be hung as a mural sconce. On the 
base is stamped the legend "U. S. S. 
Constitution." This was a part of 
the furnishings of the Captain's 
cabin on that historic man-of-war 
known as "Old Ironsides." It is of 
the most beautiful French brass, and 
capable of taking the highest polish. 
The arrangements for holding the 
candle are very ingenious. The bot- 
tom of the candle holder proper is 
removable, while the barrel of the 
candlestick contains a powerful 
spring. The candle is inserted from 

the bottom, the compressed spring 
being placed beneath, and then the 
bottom is secured. By this means the 
candle is automatically fed through 
the aperture at the top as fast as it 

A graceful bronze candlestick of 
the French Empire pattern is shown 
in Plate XVI. The historical inter- 
est connected with this candlestick 
arises from the fact that it was for- 
merly a part of the furnishings of 
the house of the chaplain who accom- 
panied the great Napoleon in his ban- 
ishment on the island of St. Helena. 
Nearly all the older and better can- 
dlesticks were furnished with what 
were known as glass "Bobesches," 
which were circular shields or guards, 
usually of glass, placed on the top of 
the candlestick, and which, while ad- 
ding to the beauty, also served to re- 
tain any drippings from the burning 
candle. See Plate XVI. 

The silver-plated candlesticks, 
known as the "Sheffield," Plate 
XVII, from having been manufac- 
tured in Sheffield, England, were 
among the frequent and early impor- 
tations of luxuries into Boston. Our 
great-grandmothers regarded their 
pair of Sheffield candlesticks with 
especial pride, and they were consid- 
ered as among the chief ornaments 
of the "best room." The beautiful 
silver candelabras, with their numer- 
ous cut-glass pendants, were consid- 
ered a mark of affluence and social 
distinction. Not infrequently the 
more wealthy had their silver candle- 
sticks made to order in England and 
France. A stately pair of these "or- 
dered" candlesticks is shown in Fig. 



2-3, Plate XVII. They are of Shef- 
field plate, and were imported by Sir 
John Wentworth while he was gov- 
ernor of the New Hampshire prov- 
ince in 1768. The graceful, fluted, 
Sheffield candlesticks shown in Fig. 
I, same Plate, is one of a pair that 
formerly belonged to Gov. Seymour, 
first mayor of Hartford. 

Of all the proud triumphs of the 
American navy, none will ever awake 
a more profound enthusiasm, or 
achieve a more lasting renown, than 
the glorious victory of the noble old 
frigate Constitution, under the com- 
mand of the brave Captain Hull, 
over the British man-of-war Guer- 
riere, commanded by the haughty 
and boasting Captain Dacres. This 
splendid victory of the Constitution 
so endeared the grand old frigate that 
the people by popular acclaim re- 
christened her "Old Ironsides." It is 
said that in less than an hour after the 
opening of the action, which took 
place August 19, 1812, off the coast of 
Massachusetts, the proud British man- 
of-war was a helpless hulk, shot 
through and through by the well di- 
rected fire of the brave Amercians. 
After the surrender of the Briitsh 
frigate, Captain Hull sent a prize 
crew aboard, under command of Lieu- 
tenant Hoffman. It was soon dis- 
covered that the Guerriere had four 
feet of water in the hold, and was in 
a sinking condition. Lieutenant Hoff- 
man was directed to set fire to the 
prize and blow her up. Before carry- 
ing out his orders, he had the personal 
effects of the British officers removed 
to the Constitution. 

Desiring to possess something as a 
souvenir of the brilliant engagement, 

Plate XX 

Glass Abatjour, 22 inches high, from residence 
of Chief Executive of South Carolina 

he secured an elgeant brass marine 
candlestick from the cabin of the 
British commander. This beautiful 
and highly prized historical relic is 
shown in Plate XV, page oS. last 
number of this magazine. On one 
side of the square base is stamped the 
"Broad- Arrow." the royal mark 
placed on British government stores 
of all kinds since 1005. On the oppo- 
site side of the base is stamped : "l S 



S. Constitution," and on the other is 
engraved, "19 — August — 181 2." 


Candlesticks, as well as three and 
four branched candelabra of solid sil- 
ver, were not uncommon in the more 
wealthy families of early New Eng- 
land. A beautiful and massive four- 
branched, solid silver candelabrum of 
very rich design, and exquisite work- 
manship, graced the hospitable board 
of the stately Hancock mansion on 
Beacon Hill, Boston. But the most 
common of all the finer candlesticks 
were the so-called "Sheffield." These 
were of copper, heavily silver-plated. 
Many of them were of beautiful de- 
signs, and all were of most excellent 
workmanship. Plate XVI shows sev- 
eral Sheffields that are interesting for 
their historical association, as well as 
for their beauty. The handsome fluted 
stick on the left is from the old home- 
stead of Governor Seymour, first 
mayor of Hartford, Conn. The sec- 
ond and third from the left were im- 
ported by Sir John Wentworth, gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire province in 
1768. The fourth is from the old Lee 
estate at Arlington, Va. The fifth 
is from the first Confederate White 
House at Montgomery, Ala. 

A unique pair of solid silver can- 
dlesticks, almost miniature in size, is 
shown in Plate XVIII. These are of 
peculiar construction, being made 
with a ratchet joint, just below the 
candle socket. The base is concave, 
within which is a ring of compressi- 
ble material, not unlike soft rubber. 
These were called "sconce sticks," 
and were used in connection with "my 
lady's toilet." The large, full length 
pier glass, which was a common fea- 
ture in all well-furnished Colonial 

houses, was a beautiful and prominent 
article of furniture in "madam's 
room," in the Hancock mansion on 
Beacon Hill, Boston. These "sconce 
sticks" were used in connection with 
the pier glass. By bending the Joint 
at right angle with the pedestal, and 
then pressing the base on to the sur- 
face of the glass, they would by suc- 
tion adhere firmly. They were placed 
well up on the mirror for her ladyship, 
the better to see to the proper arrange- 
ment of the hair, and then removed 
and placed lower down on the glass, 
that the drapery might be inspected. 
These tiny candlesticks are of French 
make, solid silver, and derive their 
historical value from the fact that 
they were presented to Mrs. Hancock, 
nee Dorothy Quincy, by Benjamin 
Franklin, on her arrival in Philadel- 
phia as the young bride of John Han- 

Glass candlesticks, Plate XIX, were 
introduced into New England about 
1700. These were of a variety of 
shapes and styles, and were often very 
beautiful. The large cut glass can- 
dlesticks of French make were often 
quite as costly as those of silver, and 
were considered almost a necessary 
adjunct to all well-laid dining tables. 
When supplied with good spermaciti 
can dels and lighted, the effect was 
beautiful in the extreme, and added a 
grace and elegance that was a mark of 
refinement and good tsate. 

Single glass candlesticks were made 
plainer, and were used in sleeping 
rooms. The tall, glass candlestick, 
Plate XXI, with its unique shaped 
abatjour, is from the home of John 
Adams, second president of the Uni- 
ted States, and tradition says, was im- 
ported from France as a gift to his be- 



loved wife Abigail. Undoubtedly 
this is one of a pair. The feature of 
this candlestick is that it is made to 
hold the large, so-named, "adaman- 
tine" candle, which was about twice 
the size of the common candle, and 
was a compound of spermaciti and 
some substance which made it very 
hard, hence its name. Candles of this 

Plate XXI 

Glass candlestick with glass Abatjour presented 
by the second Vice-President of the United States 
to his wife, Abigail, in 1765 

kind were largely used in the U. S. 
navy in later years. Candlesticks 
adapted to support small glass abat- 
juors were also made of pewter, brass, 
and Sheffield plate, and were often 
found in the houses of the better class, 
and were a part of the requisites on 

the toilet table on either side of the 
mirror in"madam's dressing room." 
All candlesticks of the better kind, 
whether silver, brass, pewter or glass, 
were most frequently made in pairs. 

Candlesticks were also made of the 
prized "Queen's ware," Plate XXII, 
Fig. 2, this material lending itself 
readily to the skill of the artisan in 
the production of beautiful wares. 
China and porcelain were also em- 
ployed in making candlesticks, and 
with their beautiful decorations and 
graceful shapes, were often very high- 
ly prizde. The china candlesticks 
shown in Plate XXIII, ist Fig. on the 
left was from the home of Governor 
Israel Washburn, the noted war gov- 
ernor of Maine. 

Hospitality that was almost regal 
in its lavishness, was a leading char- 
acteristic in many of the line old 
homes of the wealthy in ante-revolu- 
tionary times in the American col- 
onies. The dining rooms of the large 
manor houses in the country, and 
stately town mansions, were often of 
such generous dimensions, and - 
magnificently furnished, that some of 
them were not inappropriately spoken 
of as banquet halls. The massive oak 
or mahogany dining tables were of 
such goodly size, that there was al- 
ways ample room for the invited 
guests, as well as all chance comers. 
Most conspicuous on the elegantly laid 
board, was almost always the tall. 
beautiful candelabrum, with its grace- 
ful branches, hung with clusters oi 
prismatic pendants, supporting from 
four to eight caudles. Long dining 
tallies frequently had a candelabrum 
at each end, while from the center of 
the room over the table was suspend- 
ed the many branched candle-chan- 



Plate XXII 

Figure 1, China candlestick from Scotland 1749— 
Figure 2, Queens-ware candlestick from England 

delier. This with its many cut glass. 
prsimatic pendants, added a glow and 
brillinacy to the elegantly laid table, 
that gave it a most gorgeous and in- 
viting appearance. A dining room 
candelabrum, thai is one of a pair in 
our collection, that formerly graced the 
i able in the Van Clove manor house 
near Trenton, N. J., where Washing- 
ton frequently dined during his stay 
in that vicinity in 1776, is 
shown in Plate XXIII, page 97, 
last issue of 1 his magazine. It 
las a large, white marble base 
which supports a tall, graceful, green 
glass 1 edestal, from vhich extend 
fo ir 1 mate gilt branches, from which 
hang forty-eight long, c it glass pend- 
ant. s. The terminal p un.s of the 
branc les support four candles. Wind- 
ing about the tapering pedestal is a 
raised gilt vine, with leaves and 

bunches of grapes. With its mate, and 
both supplied with lighted candles, the 
generous dining room which they 
graced must have been brillinatly il- 

Abat jours, or candle shades, Plate 
XX, were tall, massive glass cylin- 
ders, often standing 23 to 30 inches in 
height, which were placed over the 
lighted candles to protect them from 
the draught, and were much used in 
the Southern states where the weather 
conditions favored wide-open win- 
dows, and gentle, soft winds were wel- 
comed. The effect of a pair of these 
beautiful shades on either side of the 
stately French clock, on the high man- 
tel, with a beautiful mirror as a back- 
ground, gave an air of exquisite 
beauty to the room. The abat jour 
here shown is from the old mansion of 
Governor Pickens, in Charleston, 
S. C. 

Extinguishers as shown in connec- 
tion with Fig. 5, Plate XI, were point- 
ed, cap-shaped covers, for extinguish- 
ing the flame, and also to prevent the 
smoking of the wick after the flame 
had been put out. They were so con- 
srtucted with an inverted L shaped 
projection on the larger end that the}' 
could be secured in a perforation in 
the handle, or attached to a like per- 
foration on the body of the candle- 
stick proper, when not placed over the 
candle. Some had long delicate 
chains secured to the base of the can- 
candlestick. Extinguishers always 
matched the candlestick in material. 
That is, a silver candlestick would 
have a silver extinguisher ; a brass 
candlestick a brass extinguisher. 

Snuffers, Plate XXIV, for snuffing 
or removing the charred or carbonized 


wick of the burning candles, were as 
varied in shape and material as the 
circumstances of the family owning 
them would admit. Many were of 
silver, beautifully chased and other- 
wise artistically decorated. Some had 
handles of brass finely wrought, and 
were always kept scrupulously clean 
and polished. Less expensive snuf- 
fers were of steel. A snuffer tray. 
Plate XXIV, always accompanied a 
pair of the more elegant snuffers, and 
were considered a necessary part of 
the illuminating apparatus of all well- 
regulated households. These trays 
were frequently of silver, while others 
were of Sheffield plate, and the more 
common kind were of jappanned tin. 
the latter often exhibiting gorgeous 
decorations, of which flowers and 
fruit were prominent figures. 

Plate XXllI 


Figure 1, China Candlestick from home of Gov- 
ernor Washburn, war governor of Maine in 18(50- 
65— Figure 2, China candlestick from home of 
Jefferson Davis 


f/w/y/i- (Q3'$' trtf/M tU 






Mr. Smith develops a phase of Connecticut history about which little is known. He tells the story 
of John Davenport and his quaint little Republic of New Haven, and his apparent ill use at the hands 
of Governor Winthrop, many of the facts of which are corroborated in the second paper on "The 
Courts of the Kings" by Miss Atwater in this issue. Mr. Smith is a member of the New Haven 
County bar and treasurer of the Mt. Carmel Home, a philanthropic institution which is doing com- 
mendable work under his management.— Editor 

fN the spring of the year 1637 
there set sail from London in 
the ship Hector and a com- 
panion vessel a company of some two 
hundred and fifty Puritan souls of 
both sexes and different ages, bound 
for the forest clad shores of New 
England to plant new homes and new 
institutions and where they would be 
free to worship God according to 
their own ideas, far beyond the easy 
reach of the arm of a tyrant King and 
his mercenary ministry. These colo- 
nists landed at Boston June 26, 1637, 
and remained there and in the neigh- 
boring settlements until the following 
spring, when they removed to their 
future home at the mouth of the 
Quinnipiack River, where they settled 
and founded the Colony of New Ha- 

The leader of the New Haven Col- 
ony was the Reverend John Daven- 
port, whose prominence in the cause 
of the English Puritans, while he was 
vicar of St. Stephen's Church in Cole- 

man Street, London, brought him in- 
to disrepute with Archbishop Laud, 
and to escape from the warrant which 
was out for his arrest, he crossed over 
the sea into Holland, where he re- 
mained three years, when he returned 
to England for a brief period before 
departing for America. Though a 
young man when he accepted the 
Church of St. Stephen's, Davenport 
was one of the most learned ministers 
of the Church of England. The Pur- 
itan party in the church was rapidly 
growing in strength, and it is little 
wonder that the popularity of the 
movement early attracted the atten- 
tion of Davenport, and that he elected 
to cast his lot with the reform ideas. 
The energy of youth, together with 
his learning and ability at once placed 
him in a high position among the 
leaders of the opposition to Laud and 
his ecclesiastical tyranny. Cotton 
Mather says of him, "The ablest men 
about London were his nearest 
friends." Archbishop Laud jealously 


watched the movements of Daven- 
port, and singled him out as an object 
of his persecution. Men of Daven- 
port's influence and ability were dan- 
gerous enemies of the already waning 
power of the Established Church, and 
to preserve it from ruin the High 
Commission was called upon to reduce 
to silence the more radical of the Pur- 
itan ministers. The attempt to secure 
Davenport's arrest and imprisonment 
proved futile, and the learned young 
vicar of St. Stephen's braved the per- 
ils of the sea, and feared not the threat 
of Laud, uttered upon hearing of his 
successful escape to America, — "My 
arm shall reach him even there." 

The colony of which Davenport 
was the leader, and the recognized 
head in ecclesiastical affairs, and the 
adviser and counsellor in all civil af- 
fairs, had a motive in declining the 
overtures of the towns in the Bay Col- 
ony and at Plymouth to settle in their 
midst, and instead seek a new and iso- 
lated territory in which to lay the 
foundations of their government and 
institutions. The leading men in the 
company that had followed Davenport 
out of England were merchants of 
London, whose ambition to gain riches 
in commercial pursuits did not inter- 
fere with their faith in the divine in- 
stitutions ordained by God. Non- 
conformity to the Established Church 
had more attractions for them than the 
income of business. They according- 
ly closed out their business in London 
and sought a place where the worship 
of God in accordance with their con- 
science would not interfere with the 
pursuits of commerce. 

Consequently we find that the Col- 
ony of New Haven had a larger per- 
centage of men of wealth than any 

other of the colonies in New England. 
Theophilus Eaton, who next to Dav- 
enport, was the most conspicuous per- 
sonage in the new settlement was for- 
merly a leading merchant in London, 
and the inventory of his estate after 
his death amounted to over fifteen 
hundred pounds, showing him to have 
been one of the wealthiest inhabitants 
of all New England. Men of that 
character, whose ambition was yet ac- 
tive, did not favor the idea of settling 
in the midst of a town already popu- 
lated. They aimed to found a new 
colony and be at the head of a govern- 
ment fashioned according to their own 

The New Haven colonists at first 
were little concerned with civil gov- 
ernment in the new plantation. Land- 
ing as they did early in the spring and 
scarcely before the snows of winter 
had disappeared, they were compelled 
to devote most of their attention to the 
felling of the forests which covered 
the site of their future homes, and 
constructing rude habitations out of 
the material thus obtained. The next 
important move was that of planting 
the season's crops upon the success of 
which so much of the approaching 
winter's comfort depended. Provi- 
sion being at first made for the sup- 
port of themselves and families during 
the winter, they next turned their at- 
tention to the serious problem of for- 
mulating certain laws for their guid- 
ance in civil affairs, and the yet more 
serious problem of organizing a 

The New Haven Colony was dis- 
tinguished from many of the other 
colonies in the New World by the pe- 
culiarity of its civil government and 
the administration of its laws. To 


them the law of God as contained in 
the Scripture was the one rule to 
which all civil affairs ought to con- 
form. The New Haven planters aim- 
ed to build up a christian common- 
wealth, in which the laws given to 
Moses should be the supreme law of 
the colony. Accordingly we find that 
they laid the foundation of their state 
in strict conformity to scriptural 
teachings. In doing so they estab- 
lished institutions, both civil and ec- 
clesiastical as near as possible to those 
under which the Israelites lived after 
their escape from bondage in Egypt. 
Nowhere in the world, except when 
the Lord ruled Israel, has a common- 
wealth approached so near the ideals 
of the divine brotherhood of men. 
The chief fathers of New Haven took 
a long step forward towards the gold- 
en age of a civil government fashion- 
ed according to the will of God, and 
may it be recorded to their credit that 
for a quarter of a century they pros- 
pered under its blessing and lived in 
peace with their neighbors. 

Owing to the stress of domestic re- 
sponsibilities the New Haven plant- 
ers were without an organized gov- 
ernment for fourteen months after 
they landed and commenced the work 
of building up a settlement. In the 
meantime, however, there was a sem- 
blance of civil order, for the records 
of the colony show that soon after 
they landed they set apart a day of 
"extraordinary humiliation," at which 
time the whole assembly of free plant- 
ers having come together they drew 
up a plantation covenant wherein 
they bound themselves to "be ordered 
by those rules which the Scriptures 
hold forth to us." They were careful 
to call this "a Plantation covenant to 

distinguish it from a Church covenant 
which could not at that time be made ; 
a church not being then gathered." 
This covenant or provisional compact 
under which they lived for more than 
a year, and which was the supreme 
law of the little community, ordained 
and provided that the rules as set forth 
in the Holy Scripture should govern 
them in the "choice of magistrates and 
officers, making and repealing of laws, 
dividing allotments of inheritances, 
and all things of like nature." 

It was not until "the 4th day of the 
4th month called June, 1639," that 
"all the free planters assembled to- 
gether in a general meeting to consult 
about settling civil government ac- 
cording to God." This gathering of 
the New Haven colonists, which ac- 
cording to new style met on the 14th 
day of June, 1639, was a momentous 
occasion for the young common- 
wealth. There is a strong local tra- 
dition, — not without foundation, that 
this assembly of free planters con- 
vened in a barn belonging to Robert 
Newman, an influential planter who 
acted as secretary of the meeting; as 
a church was not yet constructed, and 
the town being without a public build- 
ing of any sort, they probably met in 
Mr. Newman's barn for the want of 
a more commodious place. In this 
unconventional meeting place was laid 
the foundations of a theocratic gov- 
ernment, the like of which was un- 
known in the new world. The con- 
stitution adopted at that time was the 
only law of the colony for more than 
a quarter of a century, or until the 
jurisdiction of New Haven lost its 
identity by submitting to the claims of 
Connecticut and becoming a part of 
that colony in 1665. 


The months intervening between 
the landing of the colonists and the 
meeting in Robert Newman's barn 
was time well spent in preparation for 
this solemn and important convention. 
During that time the Reverend John 
Davenport brought forth his famous 
pamphlet, concerning the authorship 
of which so much has been written, 
entitled "A Discourse about civil gov- 
ernment in a new plantation whose 
design is religion." Davenport un- 
doubtedly wrote this tract not only to 
prepare the public mind for the work 
of the convention, but also in answer 
to certain views upon civil govern- 
ment entertained by his colleague in 
the New Haven ministry, Mr. Samuel 
Eaton, who, as Cotton Mather says, 
"dissented from Mr. Davenport about 
the narrow terms and forms of civil 
government" advocated by him. It 
appears that these two gentlemen, the 
spiritual leaders of the colony, were 
constantly opposed to each other, and 
that there were frequent "passages be- 
tween them two" upon the question of 
the freedom of the elective franchise. 
The views of Davenport as set forth 
in his pamphlet ultimately prevailed in 
the convention and became the funda- 
mental constitution of the colony. 

The meeting in Mr. Newman's barn 
was attended by nearly, if not all the 
free planters of New Haven. There 
is no accurate record of the fact but 
from the conspicuous part Mr. Daven- 
port took in the meeting it is to be 
supposed that he acted as chairman. 
The record says, — "After solemn in- 
vocation of the name of God in pray- 
er for the presence and help of His 
Spirit and grace in those weighty bus- 
inesses, they were reminded of the 
business where about they met, viz: 

for the establishment of such civil or- 
der as might be most pleasing unto 
God, and for the choosing the fittest 
men for the foundation work of a 
church to be gathered." Mr. Daven- 
port admonished them "to consider se- 
riously in the presence and fear of 
God the weight of the business they 
met about, and not to be rash or slight 
in giving their votes to things they 
understood not, but to digest fully and 
thoroughly what should be propound- 
ed to them." Having invoked the 
blessing of God upon their undertak- 
ing they proceeded to formulate a sim- 
ple constitution which should be for 
all time the fundamental law of the 

The faith of these merchant plant- 
ers in the will of God, and the fact 
that they recognized no other rule of 
civil action but that contained in the 
Scriptures, makes the constitution 
that was adopted at this convention 
one of the most interesting and unique 
instruments in New England colonial 
history. It contained two cardinal 
principles upon which all civil affairs 
in the colony were to turn. The first 
was the reaffirmance of the plantation 
covenant agreed to by all "the first 
day of extraordinary humiliation," 
which they had after they landed up- 
on the site of the town. That cove- 
nant, under which they lived and pros- 
pered for fourteen months declared in 
few words the single principle that 
the law of God as set forth in the 
Scriptures should govern them "in all 
public offices which concern civil or- 
der." T he second principle of gov- 
ernment was that church membership 
was essential to the enjoyment of the 
right of suffrage; so that no man 
could be considered a free burgess 


without first being "in the foundation 
work of the church." The placing of 
the elective franchise in the hands of 
church members alone was a great 
triumph for Mr. Davenport, who was 
a strong advocate of the position final- 
ly taken by the convention. It ap- 
pears from the record of the meeting 
that the question was put to vote twice 
without opposition, but "one man 
stood up after the vote was passed and 
expressing his dissenting from the 
rest in point." The record fails to 
mention the name of the dissenter, but 
it is reasonable to suppose that it was 
Rev. Samuel Eaton, with whom Mr. 
Davenport had previously had contro- 
versy over the limiting of the right to 
vote to church members. Mr. Eaton, 
if such he was, argued for the rights 
of the planters whether they were in 
church fellowship or not, and contend- 
ed, "that free planters ought not to 
give this power out of their hands." 
The fact of his allowing the question 
to be put to vote before expressing 
his dissenting opinion indicates that 
the sentiment in favor of Mr. Daven- 
port's views was overwhelmingly 
strong. Viewing Mr. Eaton's opin- 
ion from the standpoint of these days 
of liberal suffrage we may well call 
him a prophet of the seventeenth cen- 
tury in New England for his demo^ 
cratic views were far in advance of 
his time. 

The founders of the New Haven 
Colony were not content to simply in- 
vest church members alone with the 
voting power; but they took a step 
still further in the direction of found- 
ing a christian commonwealth by pro- 
viding that magistrates and all other 
civil officers should be chosen "out of 
the like estate of church fellowship." 

In short no one but church members 
could hold office in the colony, and 
no one, but church members, was to 
have a voice in placing them in au- 
thority. The theocratic theory of 
government was accordingly carried 
to an extreme form in New Haven. 
The colony being made up of the 
wealthiest men of New England, who 
while resident in London, were ac- 
customed to aristocratic ways of liv- 
ing, naturally adopted a conservative 
form of government, more so in fact 
than any other in the new world. 
John Fiske has well said, — "the feder- 
al republic of New Haven was the 
most theocratic and aristocratic of the 
New England Colonies." 

In limiting the exercise of civil au- 
thority to those only who were free 
burgesses in the foundation work of 
the church they adhered closely to the 
ideas entertained by their pastor, Mr. 
Davenport, who stoutly maintained 
both from the pulpit and in his pamph- 
let upon the subject, that civil govern- 
ment is a divine institution "appointed 
by God to men." For more than a 
year he had taught them from this 
text, so that they had come to believe 
in the teaching of their beloved pas- 
tor, whose wisdom ruled the little col- 
ony in all affairs both civil and ec- 
clesiastical. We learn from the anc- 
ient record of the proceedings that Mr. 
Davenport "declared unto them by 
the Scriptures what kind of persons 
might best be trusted with matters of 
government." He referred them to 
certain passages in the Old Testament, 
and "by sundry arguments from Scrip- 
tures proved that such men as were 
described" in Exodus and Deuteron- 
omy were the only men fit to be en- 
trusted with the exercise of civil au- 


thority. The powerful influence of 
Davenport's learning and ability 
placed his teachings beyond the reach 
of criticism or dispute, and save for 
the dissent of Mr. Eaton, his views 
were unanimously adopted and made 
the basis of government for the plan- 
tation. Likewise, it was ordained and 
provided that all matters with which 
civil government was concerned 
should be conducted after the manner 
of scriptural relation. Of such were 
the making and repealing of laws, the 
dividing of inheritances, the deciding 
of differences that might arise be- 
tween individuals, "and all the busi- 
nesses of like nature are to be tran- 
sacted by those free burgesses" under 
the guidance and direction of the Law 
of God as contained in the Scriptures. 
The early records of the General 
Court, or town meeting are full of in- 
teresting incidents in which these laws 
were enforced, and it is significant 
how closely they adhered to the old 
Mosaic laws in executing justice and 
in the punishment of offences. 

In the year 1662 the Connecticut 
Colony procured their charter from 
King Charles II. In order that they 
might be better represented before 
the King they despatched their Gov- 
ernor, Mr. Winthrop, on a special mis- 
sion to England. Through his influ- 
ence Connecticut obtained a charter 
whose privileges were exceedingly lib- 
eral. This charter, so famous in col- 
onial history on account of its con- 
nection with the Charter Oak, made 
provision for the absorption of the 
New Haven Colony and the union of 
the two colonies under one jurisdic- 
tion. In obtaining from the King 
privileges so ample in scope. Govern- 
or Winthrop betrayed the personal 

trust reposed in him by his friend in 
the New Haven ministry. Previous 
to his departure for England Govern- 
or Winthrop had promised Mr. Dav- 
enport that New Haven should not be 
included in the jurisdiction of Con- 
necticut, unless its people desired it. 
Connecticut had no sooner received 
its royal charter before it resorted to 
various measures to bring New Hav- 
en into submission to its demands for 
union of the two colonies. 

Against this attempted union on the 
part of Connecticut the New Haven 
people were strenuously opposed. 
The leader of the opposition in New 
Haven was Mr. Davenport, who, aside 
from the personal offence given him 
by the Connecticut people, had other 
and yet more grave reasons for pre- 
serving the independent jurisdiction 
of his colony. For a quarter of a 
century he had been the chief person- 
age in a colony whose laws and insti- 
tutions were engrafted upon divine 
principles in accordance with his in- 
terpretation and exposition. He and 
his followers had journeyed out of old 
England imbued with the purpose of 
founding a christain community in 
which the Kingdom of Christ might 
be set up and the will of God done 
upon earth. In seeking a home in a 
wilderness, far removed from all oth- 
er attempts at colonization, he gath- 
ered around the church of which he 
was the pastor, a commonwealth, 
composed of God fearing men, and in 
which God's word was to rule. In 
the Connecticut Colony the religious 
standards had never been so high ; nor 
were the churches so free from the 
control of secular government. Con- 
necticut had never taken the advanced 
position of limiting the right of suf- 


frage to church members. The quali- 
fication of a voter was never made de- 
pendent upon his fellowship with the 
church. The Connecticut churches 
recognized church members in all per- 
sons who had been baptized. Against 
this Mr. Davenport rebelled. He 
maintained a higher standard than 
that exacted by the Connecticut 
churches. He opposed the union 
largely on the ground of the influ- 
ence it would have upon the purity of 
the churches. According to his idea 
the New Haven government and the 
New Haven church was as near the 
Kingdom of God upon earth as it was 
possible to obtain in a world of im- 
perfection. He denounced the union 
both from the pulpit and in the town 
meeting. At a general court held Oc- 
tober 31, 1662, he took occasion to be 
present, and in an address of much 
force strongly opposed the measure. 
The result of his opposition was that 
the New Haven Colony held out 
against the demands of Connecticut 
until January 5, 1665, when it having 
appeared that resistance was no long- 
er expedient the submission was unan- 
imously made. 

Mr. Davenport had at length yield- 

ed to the necessities of the case, and 
the model commonwealth of which he 
was the founder and leader ceased to 
exist as an independent community. 
His dream of a golden age in human 
affairs, and which, for a quarter of a 
century came so near to realization, 
had at length been shattered, and the 
blow to this mighty man of Puritan 
piety was greater than he could bear. 
The last tie which bound him to his 
beloved republic had been severed, 
and like one who has given up all 
hope, he resigned his pastorate in 
New Haven and removed to Boston in 
April, 1668, to become the minister to 
the congregation of the First Church. 
The date of his removal to Boston 
was just thirty years from the time 
when he first touched foot to the soil 
of Quinnipiack, full of hope and zeal 
for the upbuilding of the cause of 
Christ in a new land. Like one over- 
come by grief and disappointment he 
was heard to exclaim, "In New Ha- 
ven Colony Christ's interest was mis- 
erably lost." The name of John 
Davenport is forever linked with the 
cause of Christ in New Haven and 
the promoter and protector of a Pur- 
itan Christian Commonwealth. 

Great music is always sad, because it tells us of the perfect ; and such is the difference 
between what we are and that which music suggests, that even in the vase of 
joy we find some tears. 




I love to sit for hours and hear the cat bird sing, 

And try to catch in his every note the throb of its mocking heart, 
Till on the lilt of his music my own thoughts rise a- wing, 

And flee on the song's strong pinions to that land whence all longings start. 

They talk of the nightingale's singing 

In the gardens of the West, 
In the cool, calm shade of arbors made 
By hands that have long found rest, 
Or in that scented stillness, where the Eastern beauties lie. 
But my heart loves best 
That song by the nest — 
The Northern cat bird's cry. 

It is no rush of music that flows — that falls asleep — 

Nor the sudden and loud-voiced language of one who is ill-content ; 

But here and there still laughter, then a strain so sad and deep 
My heart arises and follows it, with words accompaniment. 

Then swiftly sadness ceases, he mocks the tramp of men ; 

The quick call of the clarion, when the foemen close and meet. 
The hurry of their struggle now re-echoes through the glen, 

The shout of labored victory — the wild cries of defeat. 

Now, now the measure softens — he sings but to his nest, 
And she who sits upon it, a-brooding o'er her care — 

A song of happy home-notes, as if his heart confessed 
The sum of all his rapture-song was but to see her there. 


Perhaps he fears a gossip, and chatters fast and wild ; 

Perhaps a parson, droning o'er some long-forgotten text ; 
Perhaps a mother, croning softly to her ailing child ; 

Perhaps the querulous questionings of critics sore perplexed. 

The burden of earth's mystery is beating in his song ; 

The fountain of all passion upwells and overflows ; 
The hope for good triumphant ; the shame for sin and wrong — 

The beauty of the lily, and the warm blood of the rose. 

Till maddened by the sunshine, and drunken by the sky, 
The luminous still mid-day, and the roses crimson hue, 

He drowns his soul in music, the articulate prophecy 

That sings, "All life is sweet, sweet, sweet; all love is true, is true ! " 

They talk of the nightingale's singing 

In the gardens of the West, 
In the cool, calm shade of arbors made 
By hands that have long found rest, 
Or in that scented stillness where the Eastern beauties lie. 
But my heart loves best 
That song by the nest — 
The Northern cat bird's cry. 

"Beauty like truth and justice lives within us; like virtue and like moral law it is a 
companion of the soul— the power which leads to the production of beautiful forms ; 
perception of them in the works which God has made, is an attribute of humanity" 





(Member of the Wisconsin Bar) 

The eccentricities of genius are well illustrated in the strange life of James Gates Percival, poet 
and scientist. In Volume VI, Page 81, Magee Pratt, then literary editor of The Connecticut Maga- 
zine, presented an interesting illustrated article on the life of this Connecticut litterateur, and in 
the same issue Rev. C. A. Wight wrote on Percival's western career, with photographs portraying 
the scenes of his activity at Hazel Green, Wisconsin. Several hitherto unpublished reproductions o f 
paintings of the poet were also presented. Mr. Mowry, a member of the Milwaukee bar, has made 
further investigations, and from personal conversations with many of Percival's old acquaintances 
the following memoir is gathered.— Editor 

fT is now nearly a half century 
since James Gates Percival en- 
tered what he chose to call in 
one of his poems "the sleep of death." 
In the little hamlet of Hazel Green, 
situated in the very heart of the lead 
region of the extreme southwestern 
part of the state of Wisconsin, and 
within scarcely a stone's throw of 
what has since become the historic 
town of Galena, Illinois, because of its 
having been the abode of General 
Grant prior to his distinguished mili- 
tary and civic career, this New Eng- 
land bard, on the morning of the sec- 
ond day of May, 1856, in a strange 
country, among strangers, without a 
single relative to sympathize or 
mourn, passed into "the undiscovered 
country." A few friends he had 
among the residents of this rough, 
mining village, but his retiring and 
singular ways tended to repel rather 
than make friends and confidants. 
Among the latter, however, was Dr. 
J. L. Jenckes, his medical attendant. 

and to him he said, "I have overtasked 
my physical strength, and I feel that 
I am worn out." 

In the village cemetery, in accord- 
ance with his dying wish, is buried 
the Connecticut poet. After many 
days, indeed, too many, admiring 
friends have caused to be placed over 
his sepulchre a granite monument on 
which appears the following inscrip- 
tion: "James Gates Percival, Born in 
Berlin, Connecticut, September 15th, 
1795 ; graduated at Yale College, B. A. 
1815; M. D. 1820; State Geologist of 
Connecticut, 1835-1842 ; State Geolo- 
gist of Wisconsin, 1854- 1856; Died in 
Hazel Green, May 2nd, 1856. Emi- 
nent as a Poet; Accomplished as a 
Linguist; Learned and Acute in 
Science; A Man without Guile." 
Thus is summarized and eulogized the 
distinguished career of one of the in- 
teresting characters of the nineteenth 

There are still living in the great 
west and in the northwest a few per- 



sons who knew Dr. Percival after he 
came to Wisconsin. It has been the 
good fortune of the writer to be able 
to get a pen picture of this talented 
man, as he actually appeared there 
while engaged in his daily toil. The 
number of persons who knew him 
while he lived in Connecticut, among 
the living, must now be small. But 
they will doubtless appreciate any- 
thing which may be said of him in his 
later life. And his college friends 
and admirers, who only know him 
through his works, will certainly wel- 
come anything which may now come 
from the fountain of historic truth. 

In all that has been said of Percival, 
he has been represented as morbid, 
sensitive and retiring. There is much 
testimony concerning his earlier life 
that tends to confirm this view. 
Friends and co-workers in Wisconsin 
still living say this peculiarity is not 
true of his later life. One of these 
says: "He entered upon his new field 
of labor in the mines with much zeal 
and pleasure, which seemed to in- 
crease with the prosecution of his re- 
searches, whether viewing the rocky 
bluff of a stream, or examining the de- 
bris from some mineral range with the 
view of deducting some facts con- 
nected with industrial science for the 
benefit of mining. His ardor and 
earnestness in the discharge of his du- 
ties were intense and hardly ever until 
the fading hours admonished him the 
day for toil was ended would he turn 
his steps homeward. This unflagging 
devotion to the love of work and the 
consequent exposure therefrom prob- 
ably was the leading cause of his last 
illness. However eccentric or forbid- 
ding Dr. Percival appeared to outside 
observers, in the social circle he was 

full of cheer and mirth, and his ut- 
terances often were sparkling with wit 
and wisdom. 

A friend of the poet writes me: 
"There were occasional intervals of a 
few days that an unpleasant restraint 
seemed to rest upon him, probably pro- 
duced by ill health ; at other times his 
intellectual powers would, apparently, 
exercise free scope in the domain of 
thought, then, if he felt communica- 
tive, to sit in his presence and 'drink 
at the fountain' was an inspiring 
pleasure that few men have been able 
to impart. The true and beautiful 
were real existences with him. Noth- 
ing short of a clear and correct knowl- 
edge of everything worthy of investi- 
gation would satisfy him. Whether 
botanizing a flower or placing a piece 
of rock in its proper geological order, 
the utmost care and accuracy were ex- 
ercised. Neither was his intellectual 
greatness and power confined to geol- 
ogy and poetry, but embraced a va- 
riety of subjects. * 

"He wrote no poetry for a number 
of years previous to his coming west. 
But the muse had not departed ; it was 
only held in reserve, as the following 
incident will show: While surveying 
the mining lands near Sinsinawa 
Mound for the American Mining 
Company in 1853, Percival was lodg- 
ing for the time in one of the early- 
built hotels at Fairplay, in which 
sleeping apartments were partitioned 
with boards, with a narrow hall ox- 
tending the entire length of the build- 
ing. In those days, the boarders. 
mostly miners, were not governed by 
any rules of custom for the time of re- 
pose, but were in the habit of wending 
their way up the staircase and along 
the dark hall at all hours of the night. 



The noise was quite annoying to the 
doctor. Wishing in some way to en- 
ter his protest against such disorder 
and confusion, he took a pencil and a 
slip of paper from his pocket, and, 
while waiting for breakfast, wrote a 
caustic poem in Greek, which, during 
the day, he read to two or three of his 
friends, and also its translation in 
English. While not very severe on 
the landlord, the house and boarders 
were neatly satired." 

Another correspondent who knew 
Dr. Percival when engaged in his 
work as state geologist for Wisconsin, 
informs the writer that at Madison he 
wrote at least one short poem in the 
Danish language. It was published 
in one of the local papers with an Eng- 
lish version made by himself. This 
must have been as late as 1855. ' This 
gentleman gives the assurance that it 
appears to have been one of Percival's 
diversions to compose a poem in the 
German or Scandinavian language 
and to parallel it Jh English of com- 
paratively the same meter and rhythm. 
He is quite certain that this "diver- 
sion" occurred on several occasions 
during the last years of his life in the 

Another anecdote illustrative of his 
character, is told by a gentleman who 
accompanied him on his mining and 
geological expeditions, and who still 
lives at Hazel Green. "After writing 
a preliminary report of his survey of 
the Hazel Green lead mines to the 
president of the American Mining 
Company, he submitted it, through the 
general agent of the company, Wil- 
liam Warner, Esquire. Mr. Warner, 
who was a highly educated gentleman, 
suggested a change of a single word, 
substituting another he deemed better. 

Percival insisted upon the correctness 
of the word as he had used it. Re- 
monstrance proved unavailing. The 
definitions of words and their proper 
use in sentences were to him postive 
things. And after writing an impor- 
tant document, he could not admit it 
contained mistakes." 

The presentation of Dr. Percival's 
career in the west would not be com- 
plete without giving the subjoined 
testimony of Colonel E. A. Calkins, a 
venerable member of the editorial staff 
of one of Chicago's daily newspapers. 
He was, during Percival's residence in 
Wisconsin, connected with the Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, papers. And it was 
while Dr. Percival was state geologist 
that business brought him to Madison 
and Col. Calkins met him. He thus 
describes him: 

"Dr. Percival became a resident of 
Wisconsin in 1853, and in the follow- 
ing year was appointed state geolo- 
gist. He was then fifty-nine years 
old, but he had the appearance of 
greater age. He was of medium 
height, spare and wrinkled, with a 
sort of stoop in his walk and when 
standing in conversation. His eyes 
were almost constantly fixed on the 
ground, a habit which, perhaps, was 
acquired with his stoop by his long 
researches in geology and plant life, 
of which he was a close student. He 
spoke with a low voice though it was 
not unmusical. He was remarkably 
bashful and difficult to engage in con- 
versation ; though, if he began to talk 
on a subject of science, especially on a 
familiar rock formation, he would be- 
come exceedingly loquacious and pro- 
lix, using technical terms without a 
great degree of interest to the casual 
listener. He absolutely avoided socie- 



ty, had no intimate friends, never 
spoke to a woman, except from neces- 
sity, and wandered around with his 
mind preoccupied, as if in deep 
thought, traversing the fields of mem- 
ory, or roving in the heights of specu- 
lation. These observations apply to 
Dr. Percival during his leisure hours 
at Madison; he was very industrious 
in the field while at his work. 

"Habitually he was poorly, not to 
say shabbily, dressed. He had old 
clothes of antiquated cut and thread- 
bare texture. His cap, which was on 
his head summer and winter alike, was 
a wonder of dilapidated cloth and 
front-piece with much worn fur trim- 
mings. Yet there was nothing of the 
ill-clad tramp in his appearance. 
Notwithstanding his faded and frayed 
garments, his bent form, and his un- 
certain gait, any close observer would 
have perceived that he was not a vag- 
rant on the street. When, in answer- 
ing a salutation, he lifted his fine oval 
though seamed countenance and his 
soft blue or grayish eyes to a passer- 
by, he betrayed the marks of no or- 
dinary genius. With his shrunken 
form, his aspect of debility, his hes- 
itating timidity, he never lost the dig- 
nity of demeanor with which his nat- 
ural greatness was clothed. Called 
out by a thrill of enthusiasm on the 
subject brought to his notice, when the 
momentary delight of his mind and 
fancy had subsided, he dropped back 
again into his habitual downcast reti- 
cence and self-absorption in the sub- 
jects engrossing his mind. 

"The very frugal habits of Dr. Per- 
cival, while he lived in Wisconsin, 
could not have been a matter of neces- 
sity. His salary, when state geolo- 
gist, was $1,200, or $1,500 a year, as 

much as was paid in those economical 
times to other state officers and to the 
judges of the courts. He was not a 
miser ; he saved up nothing for future 
use. It seems that it was a trait of 
his character that he had no idea of 
the value of money. And yet nobody 
could tell where his very considerable 
earnings for many years had disap- 
peared. His general aspect of pover- 
ty was not produced by a lack of in- 
come during the last years of his life. 

"He made but one annual report as 
state geologist of Wisconsin. It was 
extremely technical with no features 
of popular interest. He was prepar- 
ing the materials for his second an- 
nual report when the illness inter- 
vened which proved fatal. He had 
become endeared to many citizens of 
Wisconsin who regarded his death as 
a personal bereavement. 

"During Dr. Percival's residence in 
Wisconsin he regarded more particu- 
larly as his home the village of Hazel 
Green, in Grant county, where he 
lived in the house of the Honorable 
Henry D. York, a prominent citizen, 
active in public affairs, at one time a 
member of the Wisconsin legislature 
and interested in the great lead mining 
operations of that locality. In the 
members of Mr. York's family he 
seemed to have found more congenial 
associations than any to which he had 
been accustomed during his former 
years. Their gentle ministrations, 
their respect for his recluse habits, and 
their gentle kindness, added much to 
his later enjoyment of life. His last 
illness and death occurred in this ref- 
uge which he had found from the dis- 
tractions, the weariness, the desola- 
tion and the sufferings of his earlier 
years." (Dr. Percival actually died 



at the home of Dr. J. L. Jenckes, who 
was his attending physician during his 
last illness.) 

Colonel Calkins tells us how Dr. 
Percival became state geologist of 
Wisconsin. "The office had been cre- 
ated by an act of the legislature passed 
at the session of 1852. Governor Far- 
well appointed Edward Daniels, a 
bright scientist Just graduated from 
Ripon College, to fill the position. 
Professor Daniels did some good 
work and published some brilliant re- 
ports. In 1853 William A. Barstow 
was elected governor on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, and soon after he was in- 
augurated it was rumored that he 
would remove Professor Daniels from 
office. There was an artificial howl 
throughout the columns of the oppo- 
sition newspapers. When it was an- 
nounced that James Gates Percival, 
one of the most expert geologists of 
the age, a scholar of the highest repu- 
tation, already familiar by personal 
study and investigation with the geo- 
logical formations of many states, was 
to succeed Professor Daniels, the cry 
of the opposition subsided. Dr. Per- 
cival assumed quiet possession of the 
office in which he rendered the greatest 
service to the state and to its mining 

Colonel Calkins, himself a very in- 
telligent and well-read man, admits 
that Dr. Percival had very great at- 
tainments, but says in his conversa- 
tions on scientific subjects he was ex- 
ceedingly technical in his language, so 
much so "that I would not have un- 
derstood him nor remembered what he 
said. He was very dreary, when he 
got deep into a scientific line of con- 
versation." Thus it appears from liv- 

ing testimony that Dr. Percival was 
not able to awaken interest in subjects 
of really great practical interest, be- 
cause he could not treat them in a 
manner suited to the education and 
capacity of his hearers. His learning 
seems to have been for the few. 

A copy of all the items which ap- 
pear in the inventory of Percival's es- 
tate verifies all that Colonel Calkins 
has said about his abject condition. 
The total of these items is appraised 
at the sum of four hundred and ninety- 
eight dollars and twenty-five cents. 
The principal items in value are a cer- 
tificate of deposit in the bank at Ga- 
lena for $300.00; cash in hands of J. 
Crawford for $79.90; horse, buggy 
and harness for $100.00. The small- 
er items consist of a gold pen and sil- 
ver case, portfolio and stationery, pen- 
knife and spectacles, razor strop and 
box, two books, wearing apparel, etc. 
No mention is made of the valuable li- 
brary which it has been said was sold 
for twenty thousand dollars. The will 
was what is known as an oral or nun- 
cupative will, and would not, it is said, 
have stood the test of a court, so in- 
complete and primitive was it. But 
this was in keeping with all of Perciv- 
al's business matters, utterly impracti- 
cal and inadequate. It is no wonder 
that a relative should have filed a let- 
ter in the probate court in which he 
says: "I suppose Mr. Percival was 
not competent to make a will. He has 
been deranged, in a measure, for a 
great many years." 

A further explanation of Dr. Per- 
cival's poverty while living in Wis- 
consin can be found in the fact that 
he was endeavoring to pay up some of 
his delinquencies in the east, those he 



contracted before leaving for the west. 
The latter part of the inclosed letter, 
which, I believe, has never been pub- 
lished, would seem to sustain that 
view. The letter has more than a 
passing interest and is as follows: 

Oshkosh, July 14, 1855. 
Dr. L. A. Thomas : 

Dear Sir: — I sent you from Madi- 
son a few days since a copy of my re- 
port on the Iron Mines of Dodge & 
Washington counties, and have since 
traveled to this place through Water- 
town (a city on the Rock river,) Wau- 
pun (the site of the State Prison,) and 
Fond du Lac (a city at the head of 
Lake Winnebago.) This place is a 
city, too, at the junction of Fox river 
with Lake Winnebago, containing a 
population of about 4,000, and favora- 
bly situated for commerce as the out- 
let of the Upper Fox and Wolf rivers 
— the last an outlet for the extensive 
Pineries. It is named from the head 
chief of the Menominee tribe, now liv- 
ing in this neighborhood. I sent Mr. 
White a draft for $200, what I could 
save from the sum allowed me for ex- 
penses. The state of the treasury 
does not yet allow of the full payment 
of my salary. Mr. Barry, my assist- 
ant, has been appointed school super- 
intendent, vacant by the death of Mr. 
Wright, the incumbent, and the gov- 
ernor has readily consented that the 
sum allowed him should be applied for 
the three last quarters of the year to 
chemical analysis under my direction. 
I shall not visit Lake Superior unless 
in September, the season is now too 
uncomfortable. I have finished the 
Lead Mines for the present, and am 
now employed on a reconnoissance of 

the eastern part of the state, particu- 
larly in reference to the stratification. 
You can arrange with Mr. White for 
the amount of the note due Mr. S. 
Babcock, if you wish it. 

Yours very truly, 

In the foregoing letter is presented 
the best evidence of the absolute hon- 
esty of Percival. He was poor, 'tis 
true. But his integrity will have to 
be handed down as unquestioned and 
unsullied. There is much other testi- 
mony to the same effect which could 
be adduced. 

Dismissing the further considera- 
tion of Percival, the man, and conced- 
ing that he has never been accredited 
first place with the American poets, it 
may be asked why it is that he is not 
appreciated as he should be ? The an- 
swer has been given in this way. 
"The country was not ripe enough to 
prize such mental gifts as his ; nor was 
he one who could desecrate his genius 
by indulging the whims and passions 
of the crowd. He loved truth better 
than men. And his knowledge of hu- 
man nature came to him rather 
though imagination than experience. 
From such causes it happened, of 
course, that his life was a struggle, 
and, compared with his real power, 
seems like a failure. For while he 
had such memory, such quick percep- 
tion, such intellectual grasp as few 
men have, he had also all the tremu- 
lous sensitiveness of another Keats. 
He had the humility of a peasant and 
the modesty of woman united with an 
ambition which, while it was wholly 
unselfish, would allow nothing to stop 
its progress. He had such penetra- 



tion that he mastered every subject 
which he once took up, such activity 
of thought and sight that nothing es- 
caped him ; and yet he had so little of 
executive ability, that he has made 
public but little from that treasure ^of 
vast acquisitions and wide-ranging 
thoughts which his friends know he 
had in store. A wild impetuosity was 
strangely mingled in him with ex- 
treme delicacy of feeling ; and a mys- 
tic spirituality dwelt in a mind which 
did not tire of the minute details of 
science. Although he had all of his 
faculties in command, it is easy to see 
that a man whose life was made up of 
such delicate contrasts was not well 
fitted to meet the trials of life. If 
such a man devote himself to litera- 
ture without a fortune he is sure to 
suffer When his ex- 
treme sensitiveness, intellectual pride, 
and strong love of literary pursuits 
are compared with the poverty which 
beset him, it seems to us that no man 
of eminent ability, in our time, has yet 
been called to go through severer 

It seems to me that the informant 
just quoted has most admirably and 
truthfully explained the reason of the 
want of appreciation and popularity 
of Percival's poetry. He summarizes 
the greatness of a truly great Ameri- 
can character, great in almost every 
field of human endeavor which he 
chose to enter. Yet where he seems 
to have won the most enduring place 
in his country's esteem is the dis- 
tinctively one place where his right of 
position is most seriously and persist- 
ently questioned. In the world of 
scientific effort and discovery he takes 
rank with the most eminent. As a 
master of languages none of his coun- 

trymen can contest his right to the 
first ranks. He has been fitly de- 
scribed as "a universal linguist." As 
a poet, however, he has been denomi- 
nated "crude and extravagant," 
" spontaneous," and "immature." If 
Percival could have drawn more on 
human experiences and less on the 
imagination, these criticisms would 
have to fall. As it is, he has given us 
in "The Coral Grove," "Seneca Lake," 
"The Last Days of Autumn," "Morn- 
ing Among the Hills," "Home," what 
is possible to do in the way of splen- 
did descriptions. Perhaps, in descrip- 
tive poetry, or in the description of 
natural scenery in poetical language, 
Percival has few superiors. Perciv- 
al's poem entitled "Night Watching," 
in which a maiden is watching over 
the pillow of her dying lover, "her 
hand rested upon his clay-cold fore- 
head," is a delicate writing in which 
the author is shown at his best. Pro- 
fessor Goodrich, of Yale, says of this 
poem that it alone "would give your 
name to distant ages as a genuine 
poet." Probably Percival's shorter 
poems will be longest and best remem- 
bered. "The Mind" is probably the 
most intellectual of his longer poems. 
But so much has been said of this, and 
indeed, of all of Percival's poetry, that 
I am reluctant to further refer to it. 

If James Gates Percival had been 
more given to material things, if he 
had possessed a little business talent, 
if his bent had not been along lines 
thoroughly impractical and chimeri- 
cal, if, united with his great scholarly 
attainments there had been given some 
thought to existing physical condi- 
tions, his poety would to-day take a 
higher place in the literature of the 
country, perhaps, a leading position. 





Mr. Adams, who is connected with the office of secretary of the faculty at Wesleyan University 
has given much attention to the constitutional history, and was awarded the Harrington Essay prize, 
1903. His researches have been extensive, and for those who may be interested in the subject he refers 
to the following references which he has consulted in the preparation of this article: "Eliot's 
Debates," 5 Vols., Phila., 1861, Vols. I, II 185-202; "Constitutional History of the United States," G 
T. Curtis, New York, 1866, 2 Vols., Vol. I see "Connecticut" in index, Vol. II 152-167 : "Writings of 
James Madison" (1787), edited by Gaillard Hunt, New York, 1902, Vol. HI ; "Essays on the Constitu- 
tion of the United States," Paul Leicester Ford, Brooklyn, 1892, Vol. I, 135-241 ; " History of Connecti- 
cut," 2 Vols, New Haven, 1855, by S. H. Hollister, Vol. II, Ch. XIX especially ; The Literary Diary 
of Ezra Stiles" by F. B. Dexter, 3 Vols., New York, 1901, Vol. Ill; "The Secret Proceedings and 
Debates of the Convention of 1787," by Luther Martin, I Vol., Richmond, Va., 1839; " The Life of Roger 
Sherman " by S. H. Boutell, Chicago, 1896; "The Life and Times of Wm. S. Johnson, L.L.D., by E. E. 
Beardsley, New York, 1876, I Vol., especially 118-129; "The Growth of the Federal Constitution " by 
W. M. Meigs, I Vol., Phila., 1900, 2d edition; "History of the Formation of the Constitution of the 
United States " by George Bancroft, II Vols., New York, 1882, see table of contents; "Connecticut's 
Part in the Federal Constitution" by John Fiske, pamphlet, Hartford, 1901 ; "The Critical Period of. 
American History " by John Fiske.— Editor 

^Bj**HE part of Connecticut in the 
^1^ . framing of the federal Con- 
stitution was remarkable. 
The significance of the relation of the 
early constitutional history of the 
state to the federal constitution has 
been emphasized by the late John 
Fiske. As an introduction to the 
main discussion it is necessary to con- 
sider the ratification of the Articles of 
Confederation and the official acts of 
Connecticut as a member of the Con- 
federation. The plan of confederat- 
ing the colonies first received serious 
attention from the Continental Conr 
gress on June 1 1, 1776, when a com- 
mittee was appointed to draw up a 
form of Union. After much discus- 

sion and revision the Articles of Con- 
federation were adopted on June 26, 
1778, and sent to the state legislatures 
for ratification. The necessities of 
the war hastened action in many of 
the states, but it was not until March 
1, 1 78 1, that Maryland, the last state 
to ratify, gave her adherence to 
the Confederation. Connecticut was 
among the first of the states to ratify, 
taking action in April, 1779. 

The delegates of Connecticut in the 
Continental Congress who were most 
prominent at this time were Roger 
Sherman, who served from 1774 to 
1781, and again in 1783; Oliver Ells- 
worth, who served from 1779 to J 7^3 ; 
and William S. Johnson, who served 


from 1784 to 1787. These were the 
men who were later to represent Con- 
necticut in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1787. Sherman in the early 
period opposed the plan of Confeder- 
ation. Johnson in the last years of 
the Confederation opposed the 
Amendment of the Articles. Both 
were prominent in Congress. Sher- 
man was a member of numerous com- 
mittees especially in 1779 and 1780. 
Johnson was a member of the com- 
mittee of Congress on the advisability 
of the amending of the articles. 

It is not necessary to dwell upon the 
details of Connecticut's action as a 
member of the Confederation. The 
conservative element which has al- 
ways been prominent in the state had 
opposed the grant of even limited 
powers to the general government,, 
and continued to oppose both the let- 
ter and spirit of the articles of Con- 
federation with some success. Just 
previous to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1787 Connecticut refused to 
comply with the requisitions of Con- 
gress, but this action was largely due 
to the repeated failures of other states 
to respond and the consequent unwill- 
ingness of Connecticut to bear more 
than her share of the burdens. She 
had even proposed to further limit the 
powers of the Congress of the Con- 
federation to maintain a . standing 
army in time of peace. In 1782 the 
long standing dispute with Pennsyl- 
vania over the possession of the Wy- 
oming Valley, which had been or- 
ganized as Westmoreland County and 
annexed to Litchfield County for pur- 
poses of administration, was settled. 

Connecticut's charter, like most of 
the early documents, made a grant of 
land "extending Westward to the 

South Sea." This conflicted with the 
more precise grant of Pennsylvania, 
and moreover gave Connecticut a 
title to a considerable strip of land 
west of that state. Pennsylvania ap- 
pealed to Congress to appoint a fed- 
eral court to decide the jurisdiction. 
A court of five judges was according- 
ly constituted and sat at Trenton, New 
Jersey, from Nov. 12, to Dec. 30, 1782. 
William S. Johnson, Eliphalet Dyer, 
and Jesse Root were the counselors 
for Connecticut. The decision of the 
court was unanimous in favor of 
Pennsylvania and Connecticut sub- 
mitted. Later Ellsworth with Ham- 
ilton and Madison sent an address to 
the states in the name of Congress 
urging the cession of all Western 
lands to the fe4eral government. 
Connecticut at length ceded all her 
claims except those to a strip along 
Lake Erie thereafter known as the 
"Western Reserve." This was kept 
ostensibly as a means of rewarding 
the revolutionary veterans of the state. 
Connecticut had been extremely op- 
posed to the action of Congress in re- 
tiring the soldiers on five years" pay. 
The state afterwards received as the 
proceeds of the sale of the "Western 
Reserve" two million dollars which 
was the beginning of the present 
school fund. 

The craze for the issue of paper 
money by the state governments was 
checked early in Connecticut. There 
were issues from 1775 to 1777 and 
another in 1783 which was not legal 
tender in private transactions. In 
1780 a law was passed drawing a dis- 
tinction between contracts made in 
specie and those made in paper. A 
pay table for settling the progressive 
rate of depreciation was constructed 


and power was given to the courts fr 
adjust directly or by referees all cases 
of injustice arising from the strict ap- 
plication of the law. Thus the whole 
matter was gradually settled once for 
all so that Connecticut escaped the 
financial troubles of 1786 which op- 
pressed most of the states. 

In many ways Connecticut held a 
unique place among the colonies. In 
order to understand thoroughly the 
conditions in the state between 1781 
and 1787, and the attitude of the peo- 
ple toward the question of revising the 
Articles of Confederation, a hasty con- 
sideration of her own constitutional 
development is essential. "The Fun- 
damental Orders" of Connecticut 
(1639) were "the first written Con- 
stitution that created a government." 
When the commission of government 
received from the Massachusetts au- 
thorities expired at the end of one 
year the settlers of the three towns of 
Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield 
organized a government which was at 
once federal and national. Moreover, 
the "Fundamental Orders" make no 
allusion to any sovereign beyond the 
seas or any other source of authority 
except the three towns. They created 
a state which was really a tiny federal 
republic, recognizing federal equality 
in town representation in the General 
Court and sanctioning popular sover- 
eignty by electing the governor and 
upper house by a plurality vote 
Finally no powers were conferred up- 
on the General Court except those ex- 
pressly granted. Throughout the 
whole colonial period the state main- 
tained an attitude of decided indepen- 
dence. The privilege of local self- 
government was obtained from 
Charles II by the younger Winthrop 

when it was found expedient to ap- 
ply for a charter to the crown. The 
provisions of the charter were so sat- 
isfactory that it remained the state 
constitution until 181 8. The state 
claimed that it had never yielded full 
allegiance to any foreign sovereignty. 
This jealousy of the rights of the state 
manifested itself continually in all the 
early relations with the Continental 
Congress and that of the Confedera- 
tion. The state had an excellent form 
of government with full powers and 
was not inclined to surrender any of 
her privileges to a superior authority,, 
even of her own creation. Thus she 
became at once the model state as re- 
gards her independent form of gov- 
ernment, and a staunch supporter of 
states' rights. Hence the state was 
decidedly opposed to the calling of a 
convention to revise the Articles of 

After the close of the war all the 
states had acted independently for the 
most part. In Connecticut the move- 
ment for a new state constitution 
failed. At this time also the struggle 
against the practical unity of church 
and state was begun by the indepen- 
dent denominations. This later be- 
came the chief cause of the revision 
of the constitution in 18 18. Finan- 
cially, the state was in far better con- 
dition than any of her sisters having 
escaped the financial troubles of 1786 
as shown above. There were disputes 
with Massachusetts over the levying 
of a duty on imports from that state. 
There was much ill feeling toward 
New York because of her action in 
levying imposts on goods for Connec- 
ticut consumption passing through the 
port of New York. The feeling nat- 
urally prevailed that the more thor- 


oughly national the government be- 
came the greater would be the pow- 
er of the large states. Dr. Ezra Stiles 
expressed himself as opposed to the 
revision of the Articles of Confedera- 
tion on the ground that there were no 
men of sufficient experience to draw 
up a satisfactory and permanent form 
of government. Connecticut sent no 
delegates to the Annapolis Conven- 
tion. The state legislature was slow 
in appointing delegates to the Phila- 
delphia Convention. The delegates 
themselves were tardy in arriving. 
The delegates elected by the state leg- 
islature to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, which Congress was finally 
forced to call, were Oliver Ellsworth. 
William S. Johnson, and Erastus 
Wolcott, who resigned because of the 
prevalence of smallpox in Philadel- 
phia at the time. Roger Sherman 
was appointed in his place. Oliver 
Ellsworth was born in 1745 at Wind- 
sor, Connecticut. He matriculated at 
Yale but because of some trivial mis- 
understanding or boyish restlessness, 
withdrew and entered Princeton 
where he graduated with high rank in 
1766. After graduation he studied 
law under Governor Griswold and 
Judge Root. He was inclined to pur- 
sue those studies which attracted him 
to the neglect of required work during 
his college course. He became state 
attorney in 1775. He was a member 
of the general court and one of the 
"paytable" established in 1780. (See 
above). From 1778 to 1783 he was 
a member of the Continental Con- 
gress, and that of the Confederation 
serving on its committee of appeals. 
In 1784 on becoming judge of the 
Superior court he abandoned the law 
practice which he had continued uo to 

this time. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787. 
One of his greatest services to his 
state and country was rendered in the 
first United States Senate where he 
sat from 1789 to 1796. During this 
time he was chairman of the commit- 
tee on the federal judiciary. Of his 
work in this capacity it is said: "The 
whole edifice, organization, jurisdic- 
tion, and process was built by him as 
it now stands." (Notes to "Whar- 
ton's State Trials," Page 41.) Al- 
though this statement is somewhat toe 
broad the chief share in this most im- 
portant work was his. The draft of 
the bill is undoubtedly from his pen. 
He was the first chief justice of the 
United States supreme court consti- 
tuted by this judiciary act serving 
from 1796 to 1800 when he resigned 
on account of ill health. He was at 
that time in Europe, having been sent 
abroad on a diplomatic mission, 
From 1807 to his death he was chief 
justice of the Connecticut supreme 
court of which he had been a member 
since 1802. "His life for forty years 
was always in those high positions 
that sought him often unavailingly 
and never proved too large for him to 
fill." (W. C. Fowler "Local Law and 
Other Essays.") 

William S. Johnson, the scholar of 
the delegation, was born in 1727. He 
received his bachelor's degree from 
Yale and his master's degree from 
Harvard. As the delegate of Connec- 
ticut to the Stamp Act Congress of 
1765 he took a most prominent part. 
The protest to the king, in his hand, 
is also largely of his composing. He 
spent five years in England as the 
agent of Connecticut in charge of an 
important law suit. While abroad he 


formed the friendship of the famous 
Dr. Johnson and of many whig states- 
men. Oxford honored him with a 
doctorate of civil law at this time in 
recognition of his brilliant parts and 
broad learning. He was one of the 
fourteen assistants or upper house of 
the Connecticut legislature and judge 
of the superior court. He was sent 
on a peace mission to General Gage at 
Boston but lacking revolutionary 
nerve kept aloof from the war for In- 
dependence. Yet he was appointed 
one of the counselors of Connecticut 
in the dispute with Pennsylvania (see 
above) and a delegate to the fifth and 
sixth Continental Congress. In 1786 
he was a member of the grand com- 
mittee and its sub-committee to re- 
form the federal government (see 
above). Of a calm and conservative 
temperament he opposed the call for a 
constitutional convention. In 1789 he 
was elected president of Columbia Col- 
lege, a position which his father had 
filled with honor. At the same time 
he was a United States senator from 
his native state, serving in both ca- 
pacities until Congress removed to 
Philadelphia, when Ke resigned his 
seat. In the Convention of 1787 he 
was chairman of the committee "on 
style/' which gave the Constitution its 
final form. The other members were 
Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, Mad- 
ison, and King. The terse English of 
the instrument is due to Morris who 
really performed the work of the com- 

The oldest man in the Connecticut 
delegation was Roger Sherman. Born 
at Newton, Mass., April 19, 1721, the 
support of the family devolved upon 
him at the age of twenty on the death 
of his father. He was descended 

from the Shermans and Wallers of 
Yaxley, Suffolk, England, who came 
to America in 1634. Having felt the 
lack of educational advantages him- 
self, he gave his brother every oppor- 
tunity of a liberal education. In 1743 
he removed to New Milford, Conn., 
with his brother. He was a shoemak- 
er by trade but spent every spare mo- 
ment in reading and study. So dili- 
gent was he that in 1754 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Litchfield county. 
In 1 761 he removed to New Haven 
where he became a deacon in the Con- 
gregational church and treasurer of 
Yale College. From the first his 
adopted city and state delighted to 
honor him with the highest offices in 
their power. He was the first mayor 
of New Haven, an office which he 
held for life; judge of the court of 
common pleas and for twenty-three 
years judge of the superior court. He 
was a member of the upper house of 
the state legislature, a member of the 
Continental Congress from 1774 ex- 
cept when excluded by the law of rota- 
tion in office. 

In 1787 he was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention ; and the 
first senator of Connecticut under the 
new constitution. He was a unique 
man, perhaps the most distinguished 
citizen of the state during the last 
quarter of the eighteenth century. 
To him alone was it given to sign all 
of the four famous documents which 
record the development of the United 
States of America from thirteen sep- 
arate colonies into a centralized feder- 
al government. The Declaration of 
1774, often regarded as the date of 
our nationality ; The Declaration of 
Independence ; The Articles of Con- 
federation ; and the Federal Constitu- 


tion. Next to Franklin he was the 
oldest man in the convention. His 
legislative experience exceeded that of 
any other member. 

The Connecticut delegation was 
thrice remarkable. It took precedence 
from the age and experience of its 
members and as illustrating the force 
of religion on human life. More- 
over her delegates represented a state 
which was "the most homogeneous 
and the most fixed in the character of 
her consociate churches and her com- 
plete system of government." (Hist, 
of the Formation of U. S. Const. Geo. 
Bancroft Vol II. P. 47). These men 
were to stand in the breach at the 
greatest crisis which ever confronted 
the people of this country and point 
the way to peace and prosperity with 
calm foresight and assurance. 

The leader was Roger Sherman. 
In the early years of Confederation he 
saw its weakness. He saw the need of 
national control of foreign and do- 
mestic commerce, the post office and 

the like, the income from which 
should be applied to public expenses 
and debts ; of universal federal laws 
binding upon the legislature, execu- 
tive and judiciary in matters of gen- 
eral welfare, with state control in lo- 
cal affairs, as internal police, of the 
administration of United States' laws 
in the respective state by the local 
state authorities; of a supreme judic- 
ial tribunal ; of the prohibition of the 
issuance of bills of credit by the states ; 
of compulsory requisitions apportion- 
ed among the states according to pop- 
ulation; of federal power to enforce 
laws ; of the guarantee of jury trial. 
These were all the amendments which 
Sherman and his associates thought 
necessary when they took their seats 
in the Convention. About one-half of 
the members of that body saw no need 
of a radically new order. There was, 
however, no party organization on 
these lines, "a more independent body 
of men never met together." ("Life 
of Roger Sherman," Boutell, P. 135.) 



As when a child roams over meadows green, 

Plucking the flowers that here and there are seen, 

Until it chances on a sheltered spot 

Where blooms a flower at first it noticed not, — 

So I, when far in Memory's fields I rove, 

Oft will recall some little act of love, 

Some light caress of thine that my heart stirred, 

But which I had forgotten afterward ; 

And as the child its treasure holdeth fast, 

So prize I this remembrance of our past. 





Mr. Eliot presents a familiar scene in the early years of the last century. While the declama- 
tions of the several characters are not verbatim, they are historically true. The trial took place in 
one of the leading churches in New Haven, when the offender was charged with attending a ball at 
the pavilion on Washington's Birthday, February 22, 1836. However intolerant it may appear to us in 
the present day, it must be remembered that it was this very characteristic that made possible the 
felling of the forests; it was this dogged, persistent, rigorous application of principle that gave men 
a willingness to sacrifice and a courage to undertake the tremendous task of the building of a nation. 
It is this tenacity of principle, however narrow it may seem to us today, that laid the solid foundation 
of a new world. "Unconscious, pathetic heroes," Joseph H. Twichell terms them ; " sublime, uncon- 
querable manhood." Whatever their apparent bigotries, they were men of M masterful quality of 
mind and spirit ; they had endless pluck, intellectual and moral. They believed it was the property 
of a man to have opinions and to stand by them to death ; they were no compromisers." Their relig- 
ious restrictions nourished and nurtured the broad and absolute liberty which we are now enjoying.— 

Scene : New Haven. 

Time : On going to a Ball at the Pavilion, Feb- 
uary 22, 1S36, Washington' s Birthday. 
Heman, High Pontiff and Lord Chief Justice ; 
Newton, Guy, Amos and Stephen, Judges 

Heman : 

Good morrow, gentlemen, salute ye all. 

We are convened, ! just and holy men, 

On great and most important business. 

A sheep hath strayed from our holy fold, 

And with remorseless front hath joined 

Himself to Hell's dark followers. The 

Fiend, no doubt, hath welcomed him 

With loudest shouts of joy. For great 

Is his delight when, by his wiles, 

And deep laid schemes of cunning policy, 

He finds another victim hath been trapped 

And added to his numerous proselytes. 

Full well ye know that one who worked with us, 

And filled a seat within our holy church, 

Hath proved himself a dastard recreant, 


And joined himself to Hell's dark, fallen crew. 
Yes, brothers; he was one whom we did love 
With all a brother's deep and holy ardor, 
One who our feasts of love, and meetings held 
For holy prayer and conference often, 
Whose hand was always open to our wants, 
And willing to sustain our sacred cause. 
But, ah ! the Devil opened his luring wares, 
A Ball was given — our brother went — and fell. 
Grim was the smile that lit old Satan's front, 
As, peeping from the burning realms of Hell, 
His face all smeared with sulph'rous streams of smoke, 
He gazed delighted, and beheld his triumph. 
To judge our brother's cause have we convened. 
What punishment, think ye, is meet for one 
Whose crime is of such lofty magnitude, 
And to high Heaven so loudly calls for vengeance? 
Upon this subject, brothers, I would know 
Your free, unbiased minds. 
As for myself, I vote that he forthwith 
Be from our high and holy church expelled, 
Until repentance deep shall wring his heart, 
And cause him to confess before the church, 
With due humility, his awful crime, 
And promise that henceforth he'll sin no more. 
These, brethren, are my views. What sayst thou, Newton? 
Newton : 

O, most lofty and most gracious pontiff, 

Lord chief Justice, and most holy Heman, 

Here, at thy sacred feet, I humbly bow, (kneels) 

And cry Amen to all thy sentiments. 

Behold, are we not just and holy men, 

And upright in our dealings with mankind. 

And shall we herd with those who frequent balls, 

Those vile resorts, where Satan's followers 

Indulge in all their leud profanity, 

And, unrestrained, practice their base pranks? 

Shall we — we moral men — the elect of God 

And patterns, whom the gazing world regards 

As prodigies in moral excellence, 

And bright examples to the Christian world, 

Shall we with such vile men associate, 

And sink ourselves to their degraded level? 

High Heaven forbid. No; cast the unworthy out, 

And spurn him from our presence. 



Let not thy fiery 
And impetuous zeal, O ! Newton, 
Thus eclipse the milder ray of reason's 
Calm and purest light. Thy ardor, like a 
Mountain wave roused by the winds of Heaven, 
Frowning, swells high, and would o'ertop all else. 
More charity, my brother, and remember 
That charity a multitude of sins 
Shall cover. And hast thou none to hide, none 
Thou wouldst wish erased from that great book above ? 
Cast thou th' impartial retrospective eye 
O'er all the scenes of childhood early days, 
And manhood's more mature and sober stage, 
And say if thou no secret sin can see, 
Which thou couldst wish had never been performed. 
Then, O ! forgive as thou wouldst wish to be forgiven. 
Remember once when thou didst sell thy wood — 
But, hold, I spare thee, brother, doubtless that 
Was through mistake, for much I doubt that thou, 
Whom all the world doth call a holy man, 
Wouldst take thy brother in. I recommend 
That we pursue not this, our erring one, 
With this rude hand of cruel heaviness, 
But to him straight our charity extend, 
And pardon, Christian-like, his first offence. 
We should remember, friends, that he, like us, 
Is but of mortal mould and apt to err. 


Oh ! Oh ! I groan to think that we can wink 
At such high-handed sin, which cries aloud 
To sacred Heaven, — and talk of charity ! 
With holy Newton and our righteous priest 
Do I agree, and give my willing voice 
To excommunicate the wretch forthwith. 

Stephen : 

Amen to that, amen with all my heart. 
Drive out the wretch, and show the world that we, 
The precious lambs of our dear righteous fold 
No wolves, though clad in stolen fleece of sheep, 
Will countenance among us. Expel him ! 

Amos : 

Let not your hearts with this fierce hatred burn, 
Which, like a wild and widely spreading flame, 


Eats all your good and kindlier feelings up. 

Be not thus hasty, brothers, in your Judgment. 

Methinks you should somewhat deliberate. 

'Tis hard to expel our brother from the church, 

For merely going to a ball ; why worse 

Than going to a party, or a play? 

Think ye, my friends, our brother sinned more 

In going to a ball upon the eve 

Of that blest anniversary of his 

Birthday who freed his nation from the hand 

Of British slavery — Great Washington, 

A time when all should dance and merry be, 

Than they belonging to our holy church, 

Who but a short twelve month ago with glee 

Did start upon a sleigh ride to the country, 

And spent a greater portion of the night 

In guzzling wines and eating savory meats ? 

'Twill hurt our cause, if we expel our brother, 

And strike a deadly blow at the roots 

Of dear Christianity. Full well I know, 

And so, dear brothers, do ye each and all, 

That if amusement be denied to those 

Who join our ranks then will we lack disciples. 

Besides, I hear that Brother Guy and Newton 

Did further this same Ball, for Newton let 

His carriages to carry people there, 

And Guy to them did sundry trinkets sell. 

Newton : 

'Tis true that I did let my carriages, 

And Guy did sell his stores and gilded lace, 

To those who to this wretched ball did go, 

For well we knew, if we refused them, 

That they would elsewhere still procure them, 

So, since they were resolved, we thought we might 

The profit reap, as well as let another, 

And care we took to make them soundly pay 

For their vile joys by charging twice their worth. 

Say, Brother Guy, have I not spoken truth? 


Yes; even so, my brother, all is truth. 
If folk to these base balls and routs will go, 
'Tis right that they a certain tax should pay, 
Which we inflict by charging for their mirth. 


Had we refused, as Brother Newton says, 

Still of another would they've sought these things. 


Thy arguments, my brothers, are not good. 

If I should ask you for a brand of fire, 

To burn my neighbor's house, would you consent, 

And ease your conscience by declaring that 

If you gave it not perhaps some other would ? 


Methinks, O ! brothers, Amos is as bad 

As him whom we have here convened to judge. 

'Tis plain that he upholds him in his course, 

By vindicating his high-handed sin. 

And since religion sits so loose on him, 

I think he'd best look closely to his ways, 

Or he ere long the same dire fate will meet. 

Newton : 

I think so too; 'tis plain his righteousness 
Shines not as brightly to the perfect day 
As that which lightens up the rest of us. 
We are good men, and to the church belong. 


Yes ; so we do. Our deeds speak for themselves. 
We heal the sick, and we the naked clothe. 
We give the poor and cheer the widow's heart, 
And men, beholding, wonder at our goodness, 
And shall such men as we with sinners herd ? 
No ; turn the apostate forth upon the world. 


I shall not, brothers, vaunt myself, nor with 
I^oud voice my actions trumpet to the skies. 
I have my faults, and so, I know, have you. 
Perfection lovely dwells not here below. 
For, since the Fall, it is the lot of man 
With dark and fierce besetting sins to strive, 
And ever and anon he's doomed to slip, 
In spite of his most violent endeavors. 
Our brother's sin is great, but have we not 
In all our lives as great a sin committed? 
Sure, sure I am we have, and therefore vote 
That we this time our erring brother pardon. 

Stephen : 

I think our Brother Amos is too mild 

In this his Judgment, and with hand too slack 


Draws he the cords of even-handed Justice. 
Our brother's sin is black, yes, black as night, 
And was, ye know, with open eyes committed ; 
Therefore say I, O ! let us turn him out, 
Nor hold communion longer with the wretch. 

Heman : 

Brothers, what boots it longer to debate, 

Without the voice of Amos we have three 

To one, which is majority sufficient. 

Our brother, therefore, is by our decree 

From our most holy church henceforth shut out, 

And of its sacred privilege deprived, 

Until he shall humiliate himself, 

And feel his heart with deep repentance sore. 

To this effect I will a letter write, 

And quick dispatch to him, that he may know 

That by this high tribunal he's been tried, 

And guilty found of this dark, fearful sin. 

And, O! may heaven his wandering steps control, 

And smile in mercy on his erring soul. 

CONTRIBUTOR'S NOTE,— The above, edited by myself, was found among the papers 
of a clergyman. I have also personally heard the occurence narrated by a sweet old lady 
who was present. The actors I believe are now all dead and the worn manuscript has so 
greatly interested me that I give it to the present generation. 





( Supervisor of Music in Public Schools in Bridgeport ; 
Vice-President of the Connecticut Association ) 

At a recent gathering of prominent musical critics and instructors, in conjunction with the annual 
convention of the Connecticut State Teachers' Association, convened in Hartford, Professor Howard 
spoke before the assembly at Park church, following the organ recital by John Spencer Camp, on 
''Voice Culture as Exemplified in Schools and Vested Choirs," developing a discussion which has 
since become of general interest and a debatable subject. Under a different title and in magazine 
form Professor Howard presents his theories for the students of The Connecticut Magazine.— 

SPEAKING broadly, all art has 
beauty of expression for its 
idol. The architect, sculptor, 
painter, poet and musician seek to ut- 
ter each in his own manner some 
dream of perfection either of form, 
design, color, sound or some combi- 
nation of these factors. The import- 
ance of tone in singing can hardly be 
exaggerated. Beauty of tone is the 
very essence of music. We expect it 
from the violin, piano and all musical 
instruments as well as from the voice. 
Art, however, is not an expression 
of man's ideal of beauty alone, it ex- 
presses something of all that is in 
man, its roots go down to the very 
foundations of things human. Its 
fruitage from age to age has been 
man's expression of his highest con- 
ceptions. Art is universal. It is a 
speech understood of all because it 
appeals primarily to the emotions, the 
feelings. Long before man thought, 
he felt. He sought even while fear- 

ing the unknown. He fashioned 
images which we call idols and he 
called gods that he worshipped and to 
whom he built temples. Here was 
the beginning of architecture and the 
sculptor's art. Oratory which ap- 
peals to the feelings rather than to rea- 
son is an art in which primitive peo- 
ple of to-day are wonderfully adept. 
The poet and the orator date far be- 
yond the beginning of letters. 

So with music. That is old as ar- 
ticulate speech. It is probably older 
even. The birds that visit us in 
spring have among them all the tones 
which make up our scale, and many 
animals can and do make musical 
tones. Man we may be sure shouted 
his joy of victory. The mother 
crooned over her babe. The death 
wail went up and priests chanted their 
rude liturgy in groves or around piles 
of stones as long ago as men fought, 
loved, sorrowed, or worshipped. My 
purpose in making these observations 



is to call your attention to the real 
dignity of all art and more particu- 
larly that of music. 

It is commonplace to say that this 
is a practical age, and that the indus- 
trial take precedence over the fine arts. 
Certainly the people of our time work 
and strive tremendously for what they 
eat and drink and clothe themselves 
withal, yet, the fine arts are not neg- 
lected. The man who hears the voice 
within, who has the overpowering im- 
pulse to create, will always find means 
of expression. So the artist, he who 
voices the feelings common to all, has 
left his mark on his age as indelibly as 
has the genius of industry. Music il- 
lustrates this, — it is the greatest of the 
fine arts of to-day and has become so 
within the last few centuries. We, 
indeed, in a large measure, are obliged 
to guess what the music of the 
ancients was, for, and note the wide 
significance of this fact, no intelligible 
system of notation was evolved until 
three or four hundred years ago. 
The need for a wider musical expres- 
sion than simple melody afforded, the 
developing sense of harmony com- 
pelled men to work out a system by 
which they might write music in a 
way to be understood by all who 
chose to study. So in like manner 
man evolved the phonic system of 
writing speech sounds. We may ask, 
in view of the universal habits of sing- 
ing and dancing among all men and 
in all times why notation of music 
was so slow in reaching practical 
form. One reason is, that music un- 
til of late, was the handmaiden of 
speech, melody merely enhanced the 
meaning of words, or lent charm to 
rhythm, for pure rhythmic music as 
illustrated in the dance or in the beat- 

ing of drums or tom-toms is the oldest 
of all. 

Modern notation was evolved to 
express music alone. Hence the de- 
velopment of symphony and other 
forms of pure music was made possi- 
ble. Nothing shows more thoroughly 
and at a glance the difference in char- 
acter and function between music and 
language than these plain facts of his- 

No one truth stands out more 
clearly than that music, pure music 
unassociated with words, scenery or 
action, is not a language in the sense 
that English, French and German are 
languages. Pure music has no ob- 
jective meaning. It can not be trans- 
lated into terms of speech as you can 
translate the French into English 

Music has no equivalents. It 
stands alone. Unite it with words, as 
in songs, or with scenery and action as 
in the march, with the dance as in the 
opera, and it becomes alive with mean- 
ing but this meaning is suggested by 
the accessories. It merely illustrates 
and emphasizes the words or the 
thought. It gives exhilaration to the 

Pure music is sound. It may have 
all the color that various voices and 
instruments can yield but it is inartic- 
ulate. Words on the other hand are 
crystalized forms which the power of 
articulate speech makes possible, and 
they have definite meaning. They 
also, when written or printed, have 
definite form. Pure music does not 
tend to crystalize into set phrases. If 
it did inarticulate melody could take 
the place of articulate speech, you 
could hum your spelling lesson or vo- 
calize the story of Gettysburg with O 



or Ah. So in its notation set forms 
of melody do not appear again and 
again as do words. 

Quite different views of the nature 
of music are prevalent. It is treated 
as a language not in the broad sense 
of the term, which, of course, includes 
music, but in a much narrower sense. 
You hear and read the statement, 
"children can learn to read music as 
well as they can read English/' con- 
stantly. No one can read music at 
sight with the same degree of certain- 
ty. This idea that music is to be 
treated as a science rather than as an 
art, or on its scientific side first, and 
that it can be systematized into a vo- 
cabulary like that of a language is 
persistently held. Children do not 
acquire the ability to sing with cer- 
tainty at first sight, any but the most 
simple rhythms and melodies, and 
the most accomplished musicians 
stumble in sight reading constantly, 
yet such is the force of this idea that 
music can be treated as a spoken lan- 
guage and its signs classified along 
similar lines, that, in many school 
rooms, odd as the statement may 
sound, singing has almost stopped. 
This naturally affects voice training, 
for the first essential of voice training 
in singing is practice. The muscles 
which control the various movements 
of the vocal bands become strong and 
responsive through exercise as do the 
muscles used in playing the piano. 
The vocal bands need exercise in the 
production of the singing tone to keep 
up their elasticity. In a well trained 
voice the muscles of the larynx and 
the vocal bands act automatically as 
do the fingers of a good pianist. 
Again, practice, exercise in singing is 
necessary to get resonance. It is not 

enough that the air be set into vibra- 
tion at the vocal bands. These vibra- 
tions must have a partially inclosed 
space in which they may swing back 
and forth, — like the box of a violin, 
— the space within an organ pipe or 
the cavity of the throat and mouth. 
Now the resonance cavities of man 
and woman can be changed in forms. 
In this way the various vowel quali- 
ties are produced. This would be no 
light task for the singer even if the 
need of articulating consonants was 
not constantly interfering with the 
continuity of vowel sounds. 

Consonants are interruptions in 
singing. To produce good sustained 
tone upon a vowel sound requires a 
proper adjustment of the resonance 
cavities. To secure differing vowel 
sounds is more difficult, demanding 
constant and rapid readjustment of 
form in the cavities of the mouth. 
Now add to this the necessarily con- 
tinuous interruption of consonants 
which occur when we sing words, and 
you will see the need of practice, long 
continuous practice, before the reso- 
nance cavities can co-operate with the 
larynx without a hitch. But this is 
not all. The motive power of song, 
speaking from the mechanical stand- 
point, is air; the breath in short, and 
the muscles which control the move- 
ments of the air while within the 
lungs must be trained to pay it out to 
the vocal bands, now with even pres- 
sure, now with a sudden increase, and 
again with a pressure so light it 
seems hardly enough to lift a feather. 

Is this power of muscular control 
gained by talking about it? Well, 
hardly. It comes as the result of long 
and unremitted practice. I think it is 
plain now that a trained voice in sing- 


ing can come only as the result of a 
long continued co-ordination of cer- 
tain nervous and muscular functions. 
The union of breath control, vocaliza- 
tion, and resonance can be secured 
only through long practice. 

The well trained singer does not 
have to think of breath, or tone plac- 
ing or resonance. These have become 
habit through intelligent repetition. 
This is the way in which we acquire 
all skill. Every person who leads an 
active life can see in themselves and 
those whom they know, constant proof 
of the adage "practice makes perfect." 
The same law applies to singing that 
applies to all other products which are 
brought about through co-ordination 
of the will with muscular activities. 
This co-ordination becomes perfect or 
affective only after long practice, that 
is, when it goes on unconsciously. It 
may be then the result of reflex action 
or merely habit. 

The tendency to teach things about 
music and to dwell upon notational 
signs, the disposition to teach music 
as a language to which it is so often 
compared, is so strong that many chil- 
dren leave school with a very good 
knowledge of things relating to nota- 
tion which they can tell in words, but 
very little power to sing and slight 
skill in translating notation into what 
it really stands for, that is, music.. 

rhythm, melody, harmony. 

It is depriving children of the pow- 
er to sing, and skill in reading nota- 
tion, which comes through singing, 
and not by naming the sign, — and a 
vocabulary of songs worth remember- 

Vocal music should be song and not 
speech. How can one talk of voice 
training in schools when all the sing- 
ing that pupils do is a few disconnect- 
ed tones each day in interval drill, so 
called, a few exercises without tune, 
and a few, a very few songs, or, where 
each child gets perhaps only a half 
minute each day to lift his or her 
voice in alleged song, or where the 
time is mostly spent in reciting about 
keys, notes, rests, etc.? Why the 
name and meaning of each sign used 
in musical notation can be mastered by 
any intelligent person in two or three 
hours, that is, all you can tell in words, 
but the real thing these notational 
signs stand for is music, a flow of 
rhythmic sound, either in a single 
stream as in unison melodies or in two 
or more blending yet distinct streams 
of sound as in part songs. 

The gist of the matter is that music 
is an art, its office is to enrich exist- 
ence, to beautify life. To love music is 
to get more pleasure from life than 
you otherwise would. 






Miss Atwater continues her researches and investigations of the history of the Connecticut 
A.g-ents who appeared before the EJnglish thrones in an endeavor to arbitrate difficulties in the set- 
tling of Connecticut. The boundary disputes are given in this article. It is significant and interest- 
ing that Miss Atwater touches upon the subject which is also mentioned in the article entitled. 
"The First Theocratic Government in the New World," by George V. Smith in this same issue. Mr 
Smith states that Governor Winthrop mislead John Davenport in the plans to absorb the unique re- 
public of New Haven. Miss Atwater, although writing upon an entirely different subject, comes to 
the conclusion that " this sudden absorption of the weaker colony by the stronger was the result of 
an arbitrary, unauthorized piece of wire pulling on the part of Winthrop." She will continue her 
investigations for The Connecticut Magazine through the coming numbers.— Editor 

IN reviewing the work accom- 
plished by the Connecticut 
agents the subject first in im- 
portance as well as in time was the 
securing and the maintaining of the 
charter. The Connecticut agency prac- 
tically originated in efforts to gain a 
charter. Among the first steps toward 
the agency, to be sure, were the efforts 
of Hopkins in regard to the Dutch, 
but Fenwick, if he actually served as 
agent at all, did so with the avowed 
purpose "to endeavor the enlargement 
of Pattent." Governor John Win- 
throp, Junior, may be considered the 
first real agent. The Assembly learned 
that he was anxious for private rea- 
sons 148 to go to England, and prevailed 
upon him to go as their agent. 149 The 
troubled and chaotic period of the 
Civil War, the Commonwealth, and 

the Protectorate, was over. Charles 
II was reorganizing the government. 
The tangle of colonial misrule was not 
to escape his notice. The situation 
was indeed critical, for the colony had 
no patent. Its claim to jurisdiction, 
based on Fenwick's partial grant from 
Lord Save and Sele and the other 
proprietors, was recognized as being 
at best an uncertain basis, ir,,> and back 
of that was the question whether these 
proprietors had a valid title. 111 Af- 
fairs had been in such confusion in 
England that many uncertainties as 
to patents had arisen. Moreover, the 
hazy and conflicting grants in the Xew 
World were just beginning to cause 
disputes as actual settlors gave validity 
to abstract claims. 

The colony had recognized Charles 
II, 152 and now sent to him an address 
and petition. 188 Much dependence was 

148 September, 1660, Letter to his son 
Fitz John, Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety Collections, 5th Series, VIII. 70. 

i*»May 16, 1661, Connecticut Colonial 
Records, I, 368. 

150 Connecticut Colonial Records, I, 
586 (with note). 

i&iJohnston. Connecticut, s. 

LMMarch 14, 1660. Connect tonlal 

Records. T. 861. 

ir>r>Text of petition. Trumbull, Connecti- 
cut, I, 511. and Hinman Letters to the 
Governors, etc., "7: text of address. Con- 
necticut Colonial Records. I. 582. 



placed on the friendship and help of 
Lord Saye and Sele, the sole survivor 
among the proprietors, who had just 
been made Lord Privy Seal, and that 
of Lord Manchester, "a friend of the 
Puritans and of the rights of the 
colonies," who was then "chamberlain 
of the king's household," and letters 
were sent to them both. 154 Governor 
Winthrop was certainly well fitted for 
the task he undertook. The fact that 
he was one of the earliest members 
of the Royal Society 155 shows that he 
was recognized in England among the 
scholars of the day. The military 
connections of his family led him to 
hope for aid also from General Monk. 
According to Cotton Mather's well 
known story, 156 a ring given to the 
governor's grandfather, Adam Win- 
throp, by Charles the Second's father, 
proved to be more important than any- 
thing else in securing the king's good- 
will. Professor Alexander John- 
ston, 157 however, put great stress on 
the fact that the colony gave their gov- 
ernor five hundred pounds for this 
mission, 158 and that his salary as 
agent could hardly have been very 
large at a time when, as governor, he 
received only eighty pounds. 159 Cer- 
tainly money could do a great deal at 
the court of Charles II, and the gov- 
ernor seems to have given no account 

of his financial transactions. 160 At any 
rate, in some way Winthrop obtained 
the charter — the most famous, per- 
haps, as well as the most liberal of 
all the American charters, outlined, 
it is claimed, by the colony itself. 161 

The charter thus at last gained with 
comparative ease was still to be sub- 
jected to fierce and unremitting at- 
tacks for more than half a century. 
The first violent attack came in the 
days of Edward Randolph, when he 
and Dudley were busy with their 
schemes in New England. 162 Two 
writs of quo warranto were issued, 
and in each case no opportunity was 
given the colony to defend itself, as 
the time of warning elapsed before 
the news reached them. 163 In this 
emergency the Assembly resolved to 
appoint an agent to defend its charter, 
fearing especially the threatening dan- 
ger of a union of the colonies under a 
royal governor general. 164 They 
chose Mr. William Whiting of London 
to carry on the case, which was a for- 
mal case at law. 165 He was carrying 
it on apparently with diligence, 166 in 
spite of the indifference of the British 
officials and the lack of money and 
information on the side of the 
colony, 167 when, while the issue was 
still in doubt, the colonial government 
was abruptly ended, and that of An- 

i54(July 7, 1661), text of letter to Saye 
and Sele, Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 513, 
and Hinrnan, Letters to the Governors, 
etc., 41. Text of letter to Manchester 
(doubtful) Connecticut Colonial Records, 
I, 583. 

^Massachusetts Historical ' Society 
Collections, 5th Series, VIII, Preface, p. 

i56Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 248, Life 
and Letters of John Winthrop, I, 27. 

i57Johnston, Connecticut, 170-171. 

158 (a) Connecticut Colonial Records I, 
369. (b) Hinrnan asserted that in all the 
charter cost the colony $6,000. Hinrnan, 
Letters to the Governors, etc., 41 (note). 

^Connecticut Colonial Records, I, 369. 

19 °No money repaid. (October, 1663.) 
Connecticut Colonial Records, I, 416. 

i6i Johnston, Connecticut, 172. 

i«2For account of Randolph and docu- 

ments see Publications of the Prince So- 
ciety, Edward Randolph, I, 254, 257, 258, 
285, 296, II, 10, 46, IV, 136 and 137. 

163(a) July 8, 1685, first writ of quo 
warranto signed, received July 20, 1686. 
July 25, 1685, Sheriff's order to appear No- 
vember 18, 1685, received July 21, 1686. 
Second writ of same date, but time to 
appear April 19. Connecticut Colonial 
Records, III, 356 and 357. (b) October 
26, 1686, third writ signed, text Hinrnan, 
Letters to the Governors, 171. (c) Janu- 
ary, 1686-7, letter from General Court to 
Earl of Sunderland, Secretary of State, 
Conn. Col. Rec, III, 377 (Cf. 226). 

iC4july 28, 1686. Connecticut Colonial 
Records, III, 211. 

issAugust 24, 1686, the same, III, 211. 

i66Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 370. 

i67Letters of Whiting, Connecticut Col- 
onial Records, III, 237, 284-286. 



dros took its place. Whether the pic- 
turesque story of the saving of the 
charter in the famous charter oak is 
really authentic or not, Andros cer- 
tainly failed in his efforts to gain pos- 
session of that precious document. 
When William and Mary were pro- 
claimed, the charter government was 
quietly restored, and the colony sent 
an address to King William. 168 This, 
however, Whiting, who was still giv- 
ing some attention to their interests, 
did not present, owing to his objec- 
tions to its language. In the letter 160 
in which he reported this action Mr. 
Whiting spoke of "another address 
by word of mouth" being made in its 
stead in their behalf. He also de- 
clined to act longer as their agent. He 
wrote as to a copy of their charter: 
"(It) was made use of at the council 
board in a plea before them, when it 
was asserted that there was neither 
record of surrender of judgment 
against your charter and was ac- 
knowledged by the late Attorney 
Generall and Mr. Blaythwaite that 
there was not any ; so suppose your 
charter to be good." Owing partly 
to this favorable report, but more to 
their lack of money, the colony did not 
appoint another agent. 170 Later James 
Porter was asked to undertake the 
agency, but he declined. 171 Yet he 
and Increase Mather performed sev- 
eral kind acts for the colony, 172 and 
probably presented at least one ad- 
dress to the king for them. 173 

In 1693, when Governor Fletcher 
of New York, by authority of his com- 
mission, 174 claimed control over the 
Connecticut militia, the colony thought 
it best to take active measures to de- 
fend its charter. The General Court 
appointed Major General Fitz John 
Winthrop to be their agent, "to go 
over for England," so the quaint 
record runs, 175 "and to endeavoure to 
present an address to their Maties and 
to obteyn in the best way and manner 
he shall be capable of a confirmation of 
our charter privileges." The instruc- 
tions were mainly concerned with ar- 
guments as to the command of the 
militia. 176 Winthrop's early life and 
military training in England fitted him 
especially well for his task. Upon his 
arrival he presented the petition and 
a statement of the whole case was 
drawn up and laid before the king. 177 
The decision in favor of Connecticut's 
right to command its own militia was 
made by His Majesty, April 19, 

1694. 178 This decision seemed to have 
been based on the opinion of Attor- 
ney-General Somers, backed by those 
of Treby and Ward, in August, 

1690. 179 Their idea was that the in- 
voluntary submission to Andros "did 
not invalidate the charter, or any the 
powers therein, which was granted 
under the great seal, and that the 
charter not being surrendered under 
the common seal, that surrender duly 
inrolled in Record, nor any judgment 
of Record entered against it, the same 

ie.8Text, Trumbull, Connecticut I (Ap- 
pendix), 537. Adopted June 13, 1689, 
Connecticut Colonial Records, III, 254. 

i69August 12, 1689, the same, III, 469. 

iTOApril, 1690, and May, 1691, Connecti- 
cut Colonial Records IV, 17 and 52. Cf. 
(June 15, 1687) the same, III, 237. 

iTiApril, 1690, the same, IV, 17, and 

3 72May 14, 1691, the same, IV, 52, and 
Trumbull, Connecticut I, 374, 382, 386. 

improbably address of January 3, 1690. 

174N. Y. Colonial Documents III, 827 
(Cf. 818). 

i75September 1. 169;', Connecticut Colo- 
nial Records IV, 102. 

i™(September 1, 1693) Text. Hinman, 
Letters to the Governors. 107. abstract 
in Trumbull, Connecticut T. 390. 

i77Trumbull. Connecticut I. 391. 

i 7S Text. of order in council based on 
report of Ward and '"Treves" (or Trevor^ 
of April 2. 1694. Trumbull. Connecticut, 
541 (Cf. 395), and Htnman, Letters to the 
Governors, etc.. 215. 

17! >Toxt of opinion. ITinman, Letters to 
the Governors. 191. (Cf. Johnston. Conn.. 



remains good and valid, and that the 
Corporation may lawfully execute the 
powers and privileges thereby granted, 
notwithstanding such submission/*' 
Naturally there was great rejoicing 
over the success of Winthrop's 
agency, especially as he could write 
to the Assembly from Boston on his 
way home: 180 

"The Government of Connecticut is 
well in the king's favor and under a 
good opinion with the Lords Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations." 

This feeling of security 181 did not 
last, however, for before the end of 
the reign of King William 182 a new 
plan for the consolidation of New 
England was apparently being formed 
which would necessitate the abroga- 
tion of the charters. Fortunately for 
the colony of Connecticut, Sir Henry 
Ashurst had just accepted their 
agency. When a bill that proposed to 
unite all the charter colonies again to 
the crown was brought into Parlia- 
ment, 183 Sir Henry petitioned to be 
heard at the bar of the House of 
Lords. 184 The petition was granted. 185 
The bill was lost, owing, according 
to the Board of Trade, to "the short- 
ness of time and the multiplicity of 
other business." 186 But no sooner 
was Queen Anne's government fairly 
constituted than the colony was 
brought to trial before the queen in 

council (February 12, 1705) with a 
view to replacing the old government 
by a royal governor. 187 As the As- 
sembly of Connecticut was in entire 
ignorance of the case, Ashurst was 
obliged to depend on his own re- 
sources. 188 His defence was certainly 
one of the most brilliant achievements 
in the whole history of the agency, 
for he made use of every possible in- 
fluence at court, including especially 
that of his powerful brother-in-law, 
Lord Paget, 189 while he employed the 
best of counsel. Trumbull says : 190 

"He stood firm against all the 
charges of Dudley, Lord Cornbury, 
Congreve and others against the 
colony, and by his counsel for an hour 
and a half defended it against all the 
art and intrigue of its adversaries and 
all the law, learning and eloquence of 
the attorney and solicitor general." 

At last it was decided that the 
charges might be sent to Connecticut 
to be answered. 191 Although the 
colony was able to send back docu- 
ments ample for their defence, 192 the 
bill of 1706, based on the colonial re- 
ports, passed the House of Com- 
mons, failing, however, before the 
Lords. 193 194 

The next great attack on the charter 
came to issue in 171 2, when Jeremiah 
Dummer, the agent for Massachusetts 
since the death of Ashurst, 195 had be- 

i80(After December 11, 1697) Connecti- 
cut Colonial Records IV, 234 (note). 

isiCf. Trumbull, Connecticut. I, 403. 

i82p or assertion that this biil was not 
brought in till Anne's reign see Hinman, 
Letters to the Governors, etc., 299. Evi- 
dently based on Trumbull, Connecticut T, 
408, which has no dates. 

i83Text, Hinman, Letters, etc., 299. 

i8*Text (undated), the same, 303. 

185 Text of order granting- above (dated 
"Die Sabbati," May 3, 1701) to appear 
"on Thursday next," the same, 304 (Cf. 
Trumbull, Conn. 1, 409). 

ise Andrews (C. N.), Connecticut Intes- 
tate Law, Tale Review, 1894. His ref- 
erence is "Board of Trade to Governor 
Blakeston, B. T. Papers, Md. Entry Book 
B. ff. 86, 88." 

i87Trumbull, Connecticut I, 414. 

188 (February 15, 1704-5,) Full account 
in Ashurst's letter, Hinman, Letters to 
the Governors, etc., 320. 

i89See his letter as above. 

iGOTrumbull, Connecticut I, 414. 

191(a) Cf. the same I, 418, and Hinman, 
Letters, etc., 327. (b) Text of charges, 

192 (February 2, 1705,) Letter of Ash- 
urst, Hinman, Letters, etc., 325. (Au- 
gust 25, 1708.) Letter of Ashurst, Hin- 
man, Letters, etc., 332. Cf. Trumbull, 
Connecticut I, 418. 

193 i94Palfrey, History of New England, 
IV, 368. 

195(1710) Sewall Papers, Massachu- 
setts Historical Society's Collections, 5th 
Series, VI, 267 (note). 



come agent for Connecticut also. 196 
The Assembly in its October session 
gathered all the evidence and argu- 
ments. 197 Dummer made use of every 
possible influence, and succeeded in 
quieting the matter for the time being. 
The English government, however, 
had concluded that it was the height 
of folly to allow the disconnected 
and semi-independent governments in 
America to continue longer. 198 A bill 
was accordingly brought into Parlia- 
ment in 17 1 5 to repeal the charters. 
Dummer reported this fact at once 
to the General Assembly. 199 They 
went over the entire ground carefully 
and decided that there was nothing 
new which could be said. 200 They had 
already sent their agent liberal sums 
for the prosecution of the case, 201 but 
now, owing to the public spirit of 
Governor Saltonstall, who offered 
them his credit, they were able to send 
three hundred pounds in addition, 
with the instructions to spare no cost 
in the defence of their interests. 202 
Dummer proved equal to the emer- 
gency, both then and later in 1720, 
when the same bill was brought in 
again. 203 It was in connection with 
the later effort that Dummer pub- 
lished his famous "Defence of the 
New England Charters." 204 

While the continued controversy in 
regard to the Massachusetts charter 
was still keeping the people of Con- 
necticut in some anxiety, there came 

196 Commission and instructions dated 
October 16, 1712, Connecticut Colonial 
Records V, 360. 

"^Trumbull, Connecticut II, 52. 

i98Cf. Chalmers, History of the Revolt 
of the American Colonies II, 38, etc. 

1 »9Letter sent to Governor, dated Au- 
gust, 1715, Trumbull, Connecticut II, 52. 

-'oooctober 13, 1715, Connecticut Colo- 
nial Records V, 522. 

20iNovember, 1713, Connecticut Colo- 
nial Records V, 414. 

202October 13, 1715, the same, V, 522. 

203Chalmers, History of the Revolt of 
the Amer. Col. II, 38. 

204London, W. Wilkins, 1721. Reprints 

from the English government the 
somewhat undignified proposal that 
this colony should voluntarily give up 
its charter. 205 Naturally Connecticut 
had no intention of doing this ; but 
the long struggle over the intestate 
law, which had begun in the mean- 
time, made people wonder whether 
their powers were not to be taken 
from them in another way. Their 
fears were so great that they hardly 
dared to prosecute the case for the 
intestate law, lest that should in some 
way involve the loss of the charter. 206 
In this crisis Jonathan Belcher was 
appointed to aid Dummer, whose 
health was failing, and one thousand 
pounds additional was granted to 
carry on the case. 207 Such was their 
success that, although the intestate 
law was not finally upheld until 1742, 
the question of the charter played no 
important part in the case after the 
end of the joint agency of Belcher 
and Dummer in 1730. 208 The great 
period of the defence of the charter 
closed, and thereafter other questions 
occupied the attention of the agents. 
In reviewing these fifty years, when 
at the English court every effort in 
law and in intrigue was made to take 
away from Connecticut "its choisest 
possession," 209 the charter of 1662, it 
is clear that the saving of the charter 
was due largely to the ability of those 
four loyal, untiring agents : Fitz 
John Winthrop of Connecticut, Jere- 

(1), Boston, S. Kneeland, 1721: (2> Bos- 
ton, B. Greene, 1745; (3) Boston. Thos. 
and J. Fleet. 1765: (4) London. Almon 
(1765). Sabin, Dictionary of Books relat- 
ing to America. 

205Trumbull. Connecticut II, 54. Letter 
dated October 2S. 1723, "B. T. Papers. 
Proprieties. R. 49." Connecticut Intes- 
tate Law. Yale Review. 1 S9 1. p. 274. 

206Trumbull. Connecticut II. 56. 

207October. 172S. Connecticut Colonial 
Records V, 218. 

20«Cf. (October, 1754) Agent to oppose 
plan to unite colonies, the same. X. 293. 

200 (October 29, 1729. The Assembly > 
Trumbull. Connecticut II. 55. 


IN run COURTS OF the kings 

miah Dummer and Jonathan Belcher 
of Massachusetts, and the English- 
man, Sir Henry Ashurst. 

None of the English colonies in 
America escaped boundary disputes, 
owing to the meagre geographical in- 
formation possessed when the grants 
were made and to the carelessness 
due to the idea that exact boundaries 
were not essential in a wilderness in- 
habited only by savages. The little 
colony of Connecticut was especially 
unfortunate, for it was engaged in 
territorial disputes during most of its 
colonial existence, and had difficulty 
with each of the colonies that bounded 
it, aside from the question of its juris- 
diction over New Haven and the Sus- 
quehanna controversy. The complete 
history of the disputes would fill 
volumes, and so much has already 
been printed in regard to them that 
only a brief summary is needed here, 
the object of which will be to show 
the share of the agents in these trans- 

To begin with New Haven, the in- 
corporation of that colony in Con- 
necticut was a direct result of the 
charter of 1662, as obtained by Gov- 
ernor Winthrop. His correspondence 
and the public documents of the 
time 210 give the impression that this 
sudden absorption of the weaker 
colony by the stronger was the result 
of an arbitrary, unauthorized piece of 
wirepulling on the part of Win- 
throp. 211 Yet in spite of the long con- 
troversy and the show of resistance 

made by New Haven, it is asserted 
that there was a strong party in that 
colony behind Winthrop, who were 
glad of the prospect of coming under 
the firm rule of Connecticut. 212 At 
any rate, New Haven submitted at 
last in December, 1664, and its terri- 
tories became a part of Connecticut. 213 
Another negotiation that Winthrop 
had entered into was not so easily set- 
tled. The people of Rhode Island 
about this time had become aroused 214 
to a sense of their defenceless condi- 
tion in the confusion that resulted 
from their different charters. 215 John 
Clark, acting as their agent, attempted 
to get them a new charter. As Rhode 
Island at this time consisted of only 
the four towns of Newport, Provi- 
dence, Portsmouth and Warwick, he 
was naturally anxious to gain suffi- 
cient extension of its boundaries to 
give it some footing among the colo- 
nies. After the Connecticut charter 
was granted, a controversy arose be- 
tween Winthrop and Clark 216 as to the 
boundary line between the two colo- 
nies, which a commissioner had at- 
tempted to settle in 1658. 217 They 
decided to submit the case to arbitra- 
tors there in England. This being 
done, they signed a formal agreement 
as to boundaries. 218 In accordance 
with the terms of this document the 
Rhode Island charter of 1663 was 
granted, which made the Pawcatuck 
River the boundary, whereas the Con- 
necticut charter of the year before 
had made that colony extend as far as 

^Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections, 5th Series, VIII, 77, 80, etc. 
(Cf. Trumbull, Connecticut I, 250-278.) 

2 iiFor moderate view see Dr. Bernard 
C. Steiner, General Wm. Leete and the 
Absorption of New Haven Colony by 
Connecticut, American Historical Asso- 
ciation Report, 1891. 

2i2Johnston, Connecticut, 182-183. 

21 "(December 13, 1664) Trumbull I, 273. 

214 Cf. Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections, 5th Series, VIII, 75. 

2i5ist Charter 1643, 2d 1651. A part of 
the towns wished to stay under the first, 
so the latter was revoked, 1652, but the 
attempt to put the first in force partly 
failed. Updike, Memories of the Rhode 
Island Bar, 15. 

2i6Trumbull, Connecticut I, 320. 

2i?Johnston, Connecticut, 209. 

2i8Text, Connecticut Colonial Records 
II, 528, Rhode Island Colony Records I, 
518, Massachusetts Historical Society Col- 
lections, 5th Series, VIII, 82. 



Narragansett Bay. Naturally the peo- 
ple of Connecticut were indignant. 210 
They declared that Winthrop's term 
as agent had expired before the date 
of the agreement, and moreover that 
he was not authorized to treat with 
Rhode Island as to anything. So be- 
gan a conflict that lasted for more 
than sixty years. 

Some idea of the vague titles of the 
time may be gained from Rufus 
Choate's^ famous characterization of 
one decision in the long dispute: 220 

"The commissioners might as well 
have decided that the line between the 
states was bounded on the north by 
a bramble bush, on the south by a 
blue jay, on the west by a hive of bees 
in swarming time, and on the east by 
five hundred foxes with fire brands 
tied to their tails." 

It was to settle the Rhode Island 
boundary claim that William Harris 
sailed for England in 1679, 221 an d 
this effort alone cost the colony 
twelve hundred dollars, as he was 
captured by a Barbary corsair and 
taken to Algiers, where he had to be 
ransomed. 222 His expedition ended 
in utter disaster, as he died a few 
days after he reached London. Com- 
mission after commission attempted 
to settle this boundary dispute; both 
colonies made efforts to collect taxes 
and violence on both sides re- 
sulted. 223 Appeals to England 224 en- 

dangered the charters, for the Board 
of Trade went so far as to suggest 
that both colonies be united with New 
Hampshire. 225 Agent after agent 
took charge of the case, 228 until, on 
February 8, 1727, in the days of the 
energetic and resourceful Dummer, 
the king in council at last gave the 
final decree. 227 A new survey fol- 
lowed and the final settlement on 
September 2J, 172&. This line, how- 
ever, was said to have been tampered 
with, so the actual adjustment was 
delayed until 1742. 

The agents were connected with 
the dispute between Massachusetts 
and Connecticut only at intervals. 
There was apparently no appeal to 
England before 1708. 228 A short 
time before Ashurst's death Con- 
necticut had sent him a memorial 
giving a full history of the matter. 220 
After he died there was an attempt 
to settle the difficulty at home, as the 
colony felt too poor to have an agent, 
and a partial settlement was effected 
in 1713. 230 Then a joint commission 
considered the case (17 16-17) and 
made a decision. 231 The towns, how- 
ever, that were transferred to the 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, object- 
ed, and in 1747 petitioned Connect- 
icut to come under its rule. 232 The 
appeal was made to England in 1740. 
and the case was put into the hands 
of the agents. 232 England was too 

2 i9Trumbull, Connecticut I, 321, 353. 

2 20Quoted in Johnston, Connecticut, 209. 

221 (October 9, 1679) Address to King 
Charles II, Hinman, Letters to the Gover- 
nors, etc., 116. 

222Connecticut Colonial Records HT, 38, 
51, Cf. C. W. Bowen, Boundary Disputes 
of Connecticut, 39. 

223March, 1665, First Roval Commission, 
Second, October, 1683, Third (?). 1702, 
(Royal?), Bates, Rhode Island and the 
Formation of the Union, 24. 

224(October 13, 1720) five hundred 
pounds granted, if needed, Connecticut 
Colonial Records VI, 226 (Cf. 507). 

226(February, 1723) Bowen, Boundary 
Disputes of Connecticut, 47. 

22ccf. (February 5, 1796-7) P. J. Win- 

throp's petition, Mass. Hist. See. Coll 
Series, VIII, 33S. 

-'"Bowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 
necticut, 47. 

-- s Bowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 
necticut, 47. 

-- !, Bowen. refers to "Colonial Bounda- 
ries, Hartford MSS., Vol. III."' Cf, refer- 
ence in letter to Ashurst (March 9, 1710- 
11 and April 81, it ti) Connecticut Colo- 
nial Records V, 199, 204. 

sraojuly 13, 1713. Trumbull, Connecticut 

I, 446. 

wiBowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 
necticut; 56. 

*8»Bowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 
necticut, 61-63. 



busy with the Seven Years' War to 
pay much attention. 232 At last the 
Connecticut agents, supplied by the 
Assembly with all the documents of 
the case, succeeded in obtaining for 
them the jurisdiction over all the ter- 
ritory according to the line of 171 3, 
including that over the towns in dis- 
pute. 233 

The New York boundary contro- 
versy was almost entirely carried on 
in America after the conquest by the 
English. Before that this boundary 
had been one of the vital points in 
the quarrel between Holland and 
England in the New World, but 
most of the American agitation had 
been conducted by the New England 
Confederacy except, as has been 
shown above, 234 in the special cases 
of the appointments of Hopkins and 

of Astwood as agents for Connecti- 
cut and New Haven. The frontier 
had been steadily pushed westward un- 
til the conquest by the Duke of York 
placed the Connecticut claims in a 
new light. The Long Island towns 
that had been gradually coming un- 
der the rule of Connecticut were 
taken possession of by the Duke of 
York, and the Connecticut claim 
ended in 1675. 235 The main bound- 
ary was not so easily settled, but the 
agreement of the two colonies of 1683 
was at last confirmed by the king on 
March 28, 1700. 236 Later, in 171 3 
and 1 71 8, Connecticut appealed to the 
king as to Bedford. Agreements, 
delays and quarrels followed till the 
joint survey of 1731, but on the whole 
the agents had little to do with the 
transaction. 237 

-■^Trumbull, Connecticut II, 297. 
2::4 See above, page 4. 
235Bowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 
necticut, 27, 28. 

236Bowen, Boundary Disputes of Con- 

necticut, 73. Cf. Trumbull, Connecticut 
I, 401. 

237Connecticut ceded to New York 60,000 
acres in return for the "Oblong 1 ," Trum- 
bull, Connecticut I, 401. 




A dreary stretch of wild and sandy waste, 
Neglected, bare, deserted now, and lone ; 
A stagnant pond, unkempt, its broken banks 
With sparse, unsightly, tangled weeds o'ergrown. 

Rising like spectres of the shadowy past, 
Quickening fond memories (like written page,) 
Of glories won, within its welcome bed, 
The "Caravels" find lasting anchorage. 

A grim dismantled fleet, they silent, guard, 
This "Mecca" of the World's Late eager tread 
All undisturbed, down by the water's edge 
A basking tortoise Lifts its Languid head. 





Associate Judge Hartford County Court of Common Pleas 
Member Faculty Yale Law School 

IT is a reasonable inference that 
Dunbar's refusal to listen to a 
Congregational minister led to 
Mr. Jarvis,a leading clergyman of his 
own faith, who was also a loyalist, 
being invited to preach the sermon to 
him. His treatment would not seem 
in this matter to have been harsh or 

Mr. Strong's references to him in 
his sermon are also entirely free from 
bitterness of tone ; he ends thus : 

''With regard to the dying criminal, 
while you acquiesce in the necessity of 
his fate, give him your prayers. 
Though public safety forbids him par- 
don from the State, he may be par- 
doned by God Almighty. As Chris- 
tians, forgive him ; let not an idea that 
he hath sinned against the country 
keep alive the passions of hatred and 

Remember the instruction of Christ, 
forgive our trespasses as we forgive 
them that trespass against us, forgive 
your enemies, and pray for those who 
use you wickedly ; commend his spirit 
to the mercy of God, and the Saviour 
of men's souls." 19 

The text was I Tim. v., 20. "Them 
that sin rebuke before all, that others 
also may fear." 

The excitement among the loyalists 
by Dunbar's sentence and impending 
death appears very clearly in this 
statement by Judge Jones, in the His- 
tory of New York already cited r 20 

"No less than four expresses, at 
four different times, were sent to Gen. 
Howe between the condemnation and 
the execution, to each of which the 
most faithful promises were made, 
that an application of such a serious 
nature should be made to the Govern- 
ment of Connecticut, as should insure 
his discharge. 

There were about four hundred 
rebel officers and five thousand sol- 
diers at this time prisoners within the 
British lines at New York. 

No application was evci made, and 
while the general was lolling in the 
arms of his mistress, and sporting his 
cash at the faro bank, the poor un- 
happy loyalist was executed. This 
is a fact, and the General knows it 
His word, his honour, and his human- 
ity were all sported away in this af- 

Jones goes on to accuse the Con- 
necticut authorities of barbarous treat- 
ment of Dunbar's wife: 

"Dunbar had a young wife, big with 
child. On the day of execution the 
High Sheriff (by orders no doubt). 

19 Strong's sermon, Conn. Hist. Library. 

20 Vol. I, page 176. 



compelled her to ride in the cart, and 
attend the execution of her husband. 
This over, she left Hartford, and went 
to Middletown, about sixteen miles 
down the river, where a number of 
loyalists lived, and where several Brit- 
ish subjects were living upon parole. 
Her case being stated, a subscription 
was undertaken for her comfort and 
relief. No sooner was this hospitable 
act known to the committee at Middle- 
town, than they sent for the poor wo- 
man, and ordered her out of town, 
declaring at the same time, that if she 
should thereafter be found in that 
town, she should be sent instantly to 

The unhappy wretch was obliged to 
leave the town in consequence of this 
inhuman order, and had it not been for 
the hospitality of a worthy loyal fam- 
ily, who kindly took her under their 
roof, she would in all probability have 
been delivered in the open fields. A 
striking instance this of American 
lenity, which the rebels during the war 
proclaimed to the world with so much 
eclat." 21 

As to this, of course there is now 
no contrary proof; but few classes of 
statements are so unreliable as the 
countercharges of severity in a civil 
war. Jones's authority is very small, 
as I was assured by the late President 
of the Connecticut Historical Society, 
and State Librarian, Mr. Charles J. 
Hoadley, he certainly is wrong in his 
previous statement that Dunbar was 
tried under an ex post facto law, and 
the treatment by the authorities in 
other respects does not seem to have 
been unkind. 

If Mrs. Dunbar rode with her hus- 
band to execution, I think it much 
more likely that it was from her de- 

voted wish to stay by him to the last, 
than from any compulsion put upon 
her by the sheriff. That she may have 
been subjected to persecution after- 
ward is likely enough, from all that 
we know of the usual treatment of the 

A reference to the date of the bap- 
tism of Moses, son of Moses Dunbar, 
on the New Cambridge church record, 
December, 1777, confirms Jones's 
statement as to Mrs. Dunbar's condi- 
tion. Mr. Welton says that this son 
came to an untimely end; how, I do 
not know. Mrs. Dunbar went within 
the lines of the British army for pro- 
tection, but afterward returned to 
Bristol, and married Chauncey Je- 
rome, the brother of Dunbar's first 
wife, with whom she went to Nova 
Scotia. After the peace, they returned 
to Connecticut, and were the parents 
of several children. 22 

Many years afterward Mrs. Jerome, 
then an old woman, was driving by the 
hill where Trinity College stands, with 
Erastus Smith of Hartford ; pointing 
out to him an apple tree, she said: 
"That is where my poor first husband 
was buried." Smith related this to Mr. 
Hoadley, who told it to me. 

More than a century after Dunbar's 
execution, when an old house at Har- 
winton was destroyed, papers were 
found in the garret and examined, 
among which were two papers written 
by Moses Dunbar, on the day before 
his death. 

The first was addressed to his chil- 
dren, and was as follows : 
"MY CHILDREN : Remember your 
Creator in the days of your youth. 
Learn your Creed, the Lord's Prayer, 
and the Ten Commandments and Cate- 
chism, and go to church as often as 

21 Jones's History of New York, Vol. 1, page 177. Vol. 1, page 4. Centennial Sermon of Rev. E). 

22 Sabine's American loyalists, under Moses B. Hilliard, Plymouth, 1876. 
Dunbar. Records of State of Connecticut, 



you can, and prepare yourselves as 
soon as you are of a proper age to 
worthily partake of the Lord's Supper. 
I charge you all, never to leave the 
church. Read the Bible. Love the 
Saviour wherever you may be. 

I am now in Hartford jail, con- 
demned to death for high treason 
against the state of Connecticut. I 
was thirty years last June, the 14th. 
God bless you. Remember your Fa- 
ther and Mother and be dutiful to'your 
present mother. 

The other paper is an account of his 
life, and a statement of his faith. I 
have already quoted from it. It con- 
cludes as follows : 

"The tremendous and awful day 
now draws near, when I must appear 
before the Searcher of hearts to give 
an account of all the deeds done in the 
body, whether they be good or evil. 
I shall soon be delivered from all the 
pains and troubles of this wicked mor- 
tal state, and shall be answerable to the 
All-Seeing God, who is infinitely just, 
and knoweth all things as they are. I 
am fully persuaded that I depart in a 
state of peace with God, and my own 
conscience. I have but little doubt of 
my future happiness, through the mer- 
its of Jesus Christ. I have sin- 
cerely repented of all my sins ex- 
amined my heart, prayed earnestly 
to God for mercy, for the gracious par- 
don of my manifold and heinous sins. 
I resign myself wholly to the disposal 
of my Heavenly Father, submitting 
to His Divine will. From the bottom 
of my heart I forgive all enemies and 
earnestly pray God to forgive them all. 

Some part of T S 's 

evidence was false, but I heartily for- 
give him, and likewise earnestly beg 
forgiveness of all persons whom I have 
injured or offended. 

I die in the profession and com- 

munion of the Church of England. 

Of my political sentence I leave the 
readers of these lines to judge. Per- 
haps it is neither reasonable nor pro- 
per that I should declare them in my 
present situation. I cannot take the 
last farewell of my countrymen with- 
out desiring them to show kindness to 
my poor widow and children, not re- 
flecting upon them the manner of my 
death. Now I have given you a nar- 
rative of all things material concern- 
ing my life with that veracity which 
you are to expect from one who is 
going to leave the world and appear 
before the God of truth. My last ad- 
vice to you is, that you, above all 
others, confess your sins, and prepare 
yourselves, with God's assistance, for 
your future and Eternal state. You 
will all shortly be as near Eternity as 
I now am, and will view both worlds 
in the light which I do now view them. 
You will then view all worldly things 
to be but shadows and vapours and 
vanity of vanities, and the things of 
the Spiritual world to be of import- 
ance beyond all description. You will 
then be sensible that the pleasures of a 
good conscience, and the happiness of 
the near prospect of Heaven, will out- 
weigh all the pleasures and honours of 
this wicked world. 

God the Father, God the Son. and 
God the Holy Ghost, have mercy on 
me, and receive my spirit. Amen and 

Moses Dunbar. 

Hartford, March iSth, 1777. 

As we read these high-minded 
words, in which there is neither am 
retraction nor attempted excuse, am 
effort at denial of the facts, nor anv 
bitterness of complaint against the au- 
thorities who had condemned him, but 
a calm statement of his opinions, his 
acts, and his sufferings, and a reitera- 



tion of his devotion to the church of 
his choice, as we think of this young 
man of thirty, leaving four children to 
be fatherless, motherless, and exposed 
to hatred and persecution for their fa- 
ther's sake, a wife married but a few 
months, and a child yet unborn, and 
meeting death for the faith to which 
he had been converted, and the king 
and country to whom he believed that 
his loyalty was due, I hope we can see 
that there was devotion, heroism, and 

martyrdom on the loyalist, as well as 
on the patriot, side. 

The revival of historic patriotism 
of these past few years ought to bring 
an increase of knov/ledge, as well as 
of zeal; certainly after a century and 
a quarter we can afford to look at the 
great struggle from both sides ; and so 
I have taken pleasure in drawing the 
picture of a man high-minded, devout, 
and heroic, and yet a determined and 
obdurate tory, whom the state of Con- 
necticut hanged as a traitor. 



They sing, wierd voices of the past, 
Ah, wailing rhapsody! Thou hast 
A soft refrain for every woe; 
A sympathetic cadence low ; 

And hoarse lament for wild despair; 
While rushing winds, in phantom glee, 
Retune the chords to revelry. 
Confusion thrills each tingling nerve. 
Shrieking, thy shrill crescendos rave. 
The eerie swirl of strains from far 
Commingles with the grand turmoil. 
Now lulls the tumult whispering. 

Whispering, whispering 

A wizard's baton hath control. 
Oh, mad carousal ! Where is he 
Who can create such symphony 
Of clashing sounds and direful moans 
And underlying monotones? 



AMONG the ablest scholars 
and authors in Connecticut 
Thomas Raynesford Louns- 
bury. Professor of English in Yale 
University, holds a leading posi- 
tion. While Professor Lounsbury 
was not born in Connecticut he is a 
son of the State by adoption. He 
graduated at Yale in 1859. He was 
engaged upon the American Cyclo- 
pedia until 1862. In the latter year he 
was commissioned First Lieutenant 
in the 126th Regiment of New York 
Volunteers, and served until the close 
of the Civil War. In 1870 he was 
appointed instructor, in 1871 Pro- 
fessor of English in Sheffield Scien- 
tific School. Among his publications 
are editions of Chaucer's "Parliament 
of Foules" (1877) I a biography of 
James Fenimore Cooper (1883); a 
History of the English Language 
(1879) an d exhaustive studies in 
Chaucer's (3 volumes 1892). Pro- 
fessor Lounsbury was born in Ovid, 
N. Y., sixty-five years ago, January 
1, 1838. His latest contributions is 
Shakespearean Wars ; Shakespeare 
has a dramatic artist, with an account 
of his reputation at various periods. 
This volume was written with the 
approval of President Hadley and the 

fellows of Yale University as one of 
the Bi-Centennial publications. In a 
review of the book entitled "Profes- 
sor Lounsbury on Shakesperian 
Criticism," by Brander Matthews, of 
Columbia University, New York, ap- 
pearing in the International Monthly, 
one of the ablest magazines of con- 
temporary thought. Mr. Matthews 
says : "It was about a century ago 
that Goethe wrote an essay which he 
entitled 'Shakespere and No End;' 
and it was almost half a century ago 
that Lowell called a paper 'Shakes- 
pere Once More.' And at no time in 
the longer period has there been any 
slacking of the full current of 
Shakesperian criticism and commen- 
tary, which is always at flood and 
always brimming over the levies. In 
the past two or three years, we have 
been able to profit by the large specu- 
lations of the Scandinavian critic. 
George Brandes. by the co-ordina- 
ting investigations of the British bi- 
ographer, Mr. Sidney Lee. and by 
the more popular presentation of the 
results of research by an American 
man of letters. Mr. Hamilton \Y. 

"It might seem that everything has 


been said, and said more than once; 
and it might be supposed that there 
was nothing left for any later in- 
quirer to investigate. But those who 
best know the subject are most keenly 
aware that there are certain aspects 
which have not hitherto been ade- 
quately handled. There is no book, 
for example, which does for the 
Elizabethan stage what Mr. Haigh 
has done for 'The Attic Theatre,' 
and what the late Eugene Despois 
did for 'Le Theatre Francais sous 
Louis XIV.' What is even more as- 
tonishing is the fact that although 
Shakespere is the greatest dramatist 
the world has ever seen, great not 
only as a poet in the study, but even 
greater as a playwright on the stage, 
there is no treatise in which his dra- 
maturgic craftsmanship has been an- 
alyzed by an expert in the things of 
the theatre, understanding the con- 
ditions of the rude playhouse for 
which Shakespere prepared his mas- 

"Quite as tempting as either of 
these topics is a third, which has now- 
rewarded the attention of Professor 
Lounsbury. This is the history of 
Shakespere's reputation as an artist, 
— as a dramatic artist. Nowadays 
we have no doubt that Shakespere 
was a dramatic artist, and that when 
he chose to take the trouble, and 
when he had a theme which called 
forth all his interest, he could reveal 
himself as the greatest of all dra- 
matic artists, — a consummate crafts- 
man and the master of every techni- 
cal device. Indeed, there is to-day 
a feeling among us that Shakespere 
is practically faultless,— a feeling so 

strong, so Professor Lounsbury 
notes, as to be almost tyrannical. But 
Voltaire thought — or at least said — 
that Shakespere was a savage with 
flashes of genius; Milton credited 
Shakespere with warbling native 
wood-notes wild; and the more or 
less academic criticism of Shakes- 
pere's contemporaries was voiced by 
Ben Johnson when he told Drum- 
mond that Shakespere wanted art." 

"What did Ben Johnson mean by 
this not unfriendly assertion? Why 
did Milton think that Shakespere 
could sing by ear only? What led 
Voltaire to dismiss Shakespere as a 
savage? To answer these questions 
requires a careful tracing of the suc- 
cessive phases of literary criticism; 
its calls for a conscientious study of 
the transformations of literary theory 
as one generation follows another, 
and overturns the idols of its prede- 

"For any one understaking this ar- 
duous task, a threefold qualification 
is needed ; he must be ascholar, a 
critic, and a historian, — a scholar in 
the solidity of his learning, a critic 
in the delicacy of his perception, and 
a historian in his ability to marshal 
his material and in his command of 
the narrative art. Professor Louns- 
bury not only possesses these treble 
requisites, but he superadds another 
which doubles the value of the rest, — 
he has also a sense of humor, which 
plays along his pages, and which 
makes it easy for us to read what 
has been written with the most pains- 
taking toil." 

" 'Criticism,' said Mr. Goldwin 



Smith a few years ago, 'is becoming 
an art of saying fine things;' and in- 
disputably criticism had better mind 
its own business and refrain from 
impertinent epigram. But if the lit- 
erary historian has done his work as 
thoroughly as any dry-as-dust could 
do it, there ought surely to be no ob- 
jection if he can lighten his labor 
with a smile. Professor Louns- 
bury is a master of exact scholarship ; 
he is as minute in his research and as 
precise in his report as any Teutonic 
philologist; but he is able to record 
the result of his inquiry with a Gallic 
ease. He can give an agreeably ar- 
tistic presentation of an investigation 
which has hitherto been inexorably 
scientific. This it is which gives 
Professor Lounsbury his position of 
pre-eminence among the living his- 
torians of English Literature. Oth- 
ers there are who write lightly, and 
others, there may be, who have a 
knowledge as deep and as wide; but 
no one else is there who has the 
happy combination which Professor 
Lounsbury displayed in his illumin- 
ating biography of Fenimore Cooper, 
in his luminous studies of Chaucer, 
and now in this enlightening consid- 
eration of the strange vagaries of 
Shakesperian criticism." 

"For us, at the beginning of the 
twentieth century who are inclined 
to think that every preceding genera- 
tion has judged itself by the judg- 
ment it passed on Shakespere, the 
story that Professor Lounsbury has 
to tell in these pages is one of the 
most curious in the whole history of 
literature. And what is not striking 
is the evidence here brought together 

to show that the plain people, as Lin- 
coln called them, have been better 
judges of what is best than are the 
professed critics. The plain people 
persisted in flocking into the theatre 
when Shakespere's plays were acted ; 
they did this when these comedies 
and tragedies were new and fresh ; 
they do so now three centuries later. 
They knew what they liked and the 
protests of the professed critics could 
not make them dislike the best of 
Shakespere's plays. It was not the 
plain people who were astray ; it was 
the representatives of the education 
who made spectacles of themselves, — 
Rymer, at one time, and Doctor 
Johnson at another. Professor 
Lounsbury proves this beyond all 
question ; and then he declares that 
there is perhaps no better illustra- 
tion 'of the superiority of judgment 
sometimes shown by the great mass 
of men to that arrogantly boasted of 
by the select body of self-appointee! 
arbiters of taste and guardians of 
dramatic propriety.'' 

"In the course of this history of 
one of the most interesting contro- 
versies in the long annals of criti- 
cism, Professor Lounsbury sets forth 
with a fulness never before attempt- 
ed the theories of dramatic an advo- 
cated by the classicists, and not final- 
ly disestablished until the triumph 
of the romanticists a century or so 
ago. He considers the so called uni- 
ties of Action, of Time, and of Place ; 
and he incidentally declare- that 
Shakespere knew about them and re- 
jected their bondage intentionally 
in which he observed them as 
though to show that he could work 


freely within their limitations when- 
ever he chose to do so. Professor 
Lounsbury also takes up the inter- 
mingling of the comic and the tragic, 
which was always painful to classi- 
cists of the severest sect; and he dis- 
cusses the representations of violence 
and bloodshed on the stage — repre- 
sentations which the classicists held 
in horror. He shows further that 
while Shakespere saw life clearly and 
saw it whole, and while Shakespere's 
moral sense was far more enlight- 
ened than that of any of his contem- 
poraries, he refused resolutely to 
adopt the narrow formula of so- 
called Poetic Justice, preferring al- 
ways a larger vision." 

"It is in his final chapter that Pro- 
fessor Lounsbury is able most amply 
to discuss 'Shakespere as Dramatist 
and Moralist;' and it is in this chap- 
ter, even more clearly than elsewhere 
in the book, that he best reveals the 
robust common sense which is really 
as necessary as the insight of a critic 
and the equipment of a historian. It 
is the same sturdy and invincible 
common sense which dominated his 

admirable 'History of the English 
Language.' And if there is any one 
subject about which foolish folk will 
persist in chatting more superabun- 
dantly than about Shakespere it is 
the English language. A book on 
either subject which is as sane as it 
is scholarly, as sincere as it is acute, 
is something to be profoundly 
thankful for; and therefore is it that 
we now owe a double debt of grati- 
tude to Professor Lounsbury." 

Professor Lounsbury is an inde- 
fatigable worker and his learned es- 
says will be appreciated by the com- 
ing generations. Writing from New 
Haven a few days ago he says, "I 
should gladly present material for 
The Connecticut Magazine but it is 
simply impossible for me to secure 
the time just at present. I am so 
completely behind in completing 
work which I have promised, that 
I have refused for some time past to 
consider offers which have been made 
me, which under ordinary conditions, 
I should like to have accepted. I 
have very limited leisure for I can 
work only by day light." 



He came with laughter, — where men labored long 
And sunk to shallow graves 'neath dunes of sand ;- 
For him, the treasure that had hidden lain ; 
For them, the fruitless labor and the pain. 

From miniature painting of Mrs. Lucius Robinson of Hartford. 
By Albert Edward Jackson 



The revival of the miniature, again develops an entertaining phase in art and since Mrs. Harrier 
L G. Whitmore presented the subject under title, " Miniature Painting in the Colonial Days," in the 
ast two issues of the preceding volume, there has been a renewed interest throughout the state in 
his delicate little handicraft. The miniatures here reproduced were painted by Albert Edward 
ackson, one of the most distinguished of modern miniaturists.— Editor 

T^HE Art of the Miniaturist is 
LI probably as old as the Obe- 
lisks of the Pharoahs and de- 
ives its origin from the ancient prac- 
ice of writing the initial letters of 
nanuscripts in minimum or red lead, 
or the purpose of distinguishing the 
:ommencement of chapters or para- 
graphs. These rubrics probably re- 
vived many fanciful adornments at 
he hands of the illustrator, who add- 
:d rich arabesque borders and finally 
lelicately executed little pictures il- 
ustrating the text, to which the gen- 

eral name of the miniature was ap- 
plied. A collection of fifty-eight il- 
lustrations of the Illiad exhibited in 
the Ambrosian Library at Milan, is 
dated 400 A. D., a time when classic 
art was in a state of degeneracy. The 
period extending from the eighth to 
the fourteenth century witnessed its 
most remarkable development The 
mediaeval monks in the solitude of 
their convents found amusement and 
pious occupation in thus embellishing 
their sacred volumes. 

The Byzantine Artists excelled as 



From miniature painting of Miss Mar- 
jorie Skinner of Hartford 

— By Albert Edward Jackson 

fashionable when pictures in manu- 
scrips ceased to be painted in the fif- 
teenth century. In England the Art 
was cultivated by an eminent line of 

Under the first Empire the French 
had many excellent miniaturists in- 
cluding Isabey, who not only painted 
on ivory portrait pieces containing 
many figures but attempted with suc- 
cess many historical subjects. 

The most eminent American minia- 
ture painter was Balbone whose works 
are executed with great delicacy; 
many others might be mentioned but 
the last famous miniature painter was 
Sir William Ross, who lived to see his 
art superceded by photography just as 
the calligrapher and the illuminator of 
the middle ages had seen their occu- 
pation disappear before the innovation 
of the printing press. 

In the closing years of the glorious 
nineteenth century the art of the min~ 

illuminators and their manuscripts ex- 
hibit intricate arabesques of mixed 
foliage and animals, and the richest 
architectural fancies in the margins. 
Under the early Carlovingian Kings 
the transcription and embellishments 
of manuscripts was encouraged and 
the Bibles of Charles the Bald, pre- 
served in the National Library at 
Paris and in the Benedictine Monas- 
tery of St. Calixtus at Rome, are ad- 
mirably illustrated. 

The English manuscripts are not 
inferior to the Continental and the 
"Benedictional" of St. Ethelwold ex- 
ecuted in 936-7 by Godeman, a monk 
of Hyde Abbey, is considered one of 
the purest specimens of early English 

Portrait miniatures began to be 

From miniature painting of son of Ex- 
Governor Morgan G. Bulkeley of Hartford 
—By Albert Edward Jackson 



iaturist was revived and the minia- 
ture is as inseparable from luxury as 
the jewels that its radiance resembles. 

"Those who know only the finished 
miniature and have no acquaintance 
with the methods of its production, 
cannot conceive the labor that it repre- 
sents, each of those tiny master 
pieces," says an old artist. "These 
ornaments with human identification 
— these concentrated expressions of 
pictorial art — stands for more toil of 
a peculiarly exacting sort than the 
largest canvas, the touches on the frail 
bit of ivory must be as unerring as 
they are light for the smallest mis- 
take may destroy the characteristic 
translucence that constitutes the min- 
iature's greatest charm. The portrait 
in oil elicits our adoration but we 
cherish a little picture with the ten- 
derest love. The one hangs in state- 
liness between the blazen shields ; the 
other is held in fondness as a pledge 
of affection, a priceless treasure. It 
is a poem in colors. The true minia- 
turist does not flatter, he idealizes ; 
and there is wide ground between flat- 
tery and idealization. Flattery re- 
moves the mole from the cheek or the 
squint from the eye. Idealization se- 
lects the side of the face where such 
a defect does not exist or emphasizes 
the brightness of an eye to reduce the 
obstrusiveness of a blemish to a min- 

"In the poetic prettiness and sensu- 
ousness of the miniature lies the temp- 
tation to attribute untruthfulness in 
its rendition. In most larger por- 
traitures smoothness of finish is not 
essential, it therefore follows that a 
more realistic and material sense may 
be exercised ; but in the most delicate 
of arts where even the magnifying 

From miniature painting of Mrs. Wilson 
Marshall, deceased, of Bridgeport 

By Albert Edward Jackson 

glass performs its function, fidelity 
does not mean flattery." 

"There was a time when the great 
artist was called the inventor of beau- 
ty; that will not do to-day. Now he 
may be the discoverer of beauty, but 
not the inventor. In the miniature 
women and children as a rule are more 
difficult than in the case of men. with 
their stronger faces and more visible 
individuality ; but the child gives 
greater opportunity for poetic feel- 
ing, exquisite arrangements o\ color 
and loftiness of thought. The inno- 
cence of babyhood is to humanity 
what miniatures are to art. Some- 
thing dainty and sweet and delicate. 
It must possess the subtle something 
that is found in the flash of a smile. 
the odor of a flower or the breath of a 
sonfr " 


An instance in American art where a unity of purpose is carried throughout, 
expressing harmonious sequence of thought 



Appreciation of Paintings by three contemporary Connecticut artists — The Misses Genevieve 
Maud and Alice Cowles, formerly of Farmington, but whose studios are now in New Haven. — EDITOR 

^^■^HE Lady Chapel of Christ 
II Church, New Haven, offers 
an interesting example of in- 
terior decoration. It is one of the rare 
instances, in America, where a unity 
of purpose is carried throughout the 
entire scheme of decoration. The 
windows and paintings all express 
harmonious sequence of thought. The 
former represent the Fall of Man, and 
His Restoration; the latter symbolize 
the perpetual appeal of humanity as 
set forth in prayers to the Messiah. 

The first window portrays the Fall 
of Man ; Adam and Eve driven by the 

angel from the Garden of Eden ; the 
second, shows the Annunciation, as 
the fulfilment of the prophecy that the 
seed of the woman should bruise the 
head of the serpent ; the third heralds 
the near coming of the Lord as sug- 
gested by the scene of the Visitation. 
The fourth shows His Advent, in the 
form of the Christ Child as repre- 
sented over the altar. 

This is the culmination of thought, 
towards which the mind has been led 
from the beginning. To emphasize 
the spiritual reality of this thought to 
every human soul, the paintings of the 



Panels symbolizing the perpetual appeal of humanity as set forth in the pray- 
ers to the Messiah. An endeavor to interpret the needs of the soul 

antiphons are placed on each side of 
the altar. They may serve as links be- 
tween the past, the present and the fu- 
ture, typifying the unity of the race 
as centered in the Messiah. 

The paintings are in six panels, 
each corresponding to a different an- 

The word antiphon means a psalm, 
hymn or prayer, sung responsively or 
by alternation of two choirs in the 
English Cathedral service. 

These great antiphons were former- 
ly sung seven days before Christmas. 
On each day, the individual need of a 
separate type or class of people is 
presented, but on the seventh day, 
these separate heart cries of the peo- 
ple are united into one great world 

"O Emmanuel, our King and Law- 
giver, the Hope of all nations and 
their Saviour ; Come and save us, O 
Lord our God." 

In answer to this crv the Christ 

Child is symbolized in visible form of 
light, in the window above the altar, 
and in the panels. On the wall below 
are the human forms, each with a 
scroll bearing the inscription of the 
first words of the antiphon in Latin. 

"O wisdom, which earnest out of 
the mouth of the Most High, reaching 
from one end to another, mightily and 
sweetly ordering all things ; Come and 
show us the way of understanding." 

The desire for Wisdom implies that 
one is in the way to find it. Because, 
in the Scriptures, Heavenly Wisdom 
is personified by a woman, the prayer 
for Wisdom is therefore expressed by 
a woman. 
"For of the soule the bodie forme doth 

"For soule is forme, and doth the 
bodie make." 

As one who trusts in the Divine 
guidance, we see the woman advanc- 
ing through the night. Intuitively 
she feels upward for the lamp which 



lights her path, and bravely she walks 
onward in rythmic motion. Her low- 
ered eyelids are turned as if with in- 
ward gaze, she perceived the lamp of 
the spirit shining through her own 
mind. Her outstretched arm indi- 
cates the absolute faith that reaches 
from one end to another. 

"O Lord and Ruler of the house of 
Israel, Who didst appear to Moses in 
a flame of fire in the bush, and gavest 
him the law in Sinai, Come, and re- 
deem us with a stretched out arm." . . 

O Adonai, the Hebrew word for 
greatest power. O Lord and Ruler, 
the cry of the seer, uplifting both 
hands in consciousness of human lim- 

Shadowed against the burning 
flames, as one close to the principles 
of life, he finds himself bound in by 
laws beyond his power to keep. 
Though he stands, thus fronting 
judgment, with his appeal for justice, 
he yet proclaims the fact : "I know 
that my Redeemer liveth." 
"0 Radix Jesse." 

This is the thought of one who is 
strong by grasping the standard of 
righteousness, who offers his entire 
being to the Divine Will, and is ir- 
resistibly drawn onwards to victory. 
At his touch the rod breaks into blos- 
som, above his head the ensign sweeps 

His garments are green, the color 
of hope, as red is the color of power, 
and blue the color of wisdom. 

"O Key of David and Sceptre of 
the House of Israel, Thou that open- 
est and no man shutteth, and shuttest 
and no man openeth ; Come and bring 
the prisoner out of the prison house 
and him that sitteth in darkness, and 
in the shadow of death." 

This painting suggests the mystery 
of sin, and the glory of redemption. In 
the chapel, the painting is so placed 
that the prisoner stands with his back 
towards the altar, to imply that he had 
revolted from the spirit of love and of 
self-sacrifice, which the altar repre- 
sents. Upon the bent shoulders of the 
man there falls a ray of light. A 
door has perhaps been opened. The 
ray suggests a spiritual release, the 
approach of the Christ, who is the 
Light of the World. 

The prisoner turns his head slight- 
ly towards that light. No longer is 
he in darkness. Even his prison cell 
is illuminated. Clearly above him, on 
the wall, is seen a key, emblem of the 
Key of David, that Key which has 
power to shut and to open. 

It might also be the emblem of 

Above the prisoner is a reed, the 
sceptre of Christ, the sign of the king- 
dom, whose rule is not by force. 

There is a look which is seen on the 
faces of prisoners. The expression 
varies according to the character of 
the face, but those who know that 
prison look will recognize it, and all 
the meaning thereof cannot be ex- 

This painting is an attempt to re- 
cord that look. 

The artist has attempted to appre- 
hend and to suggest in the picture 
what bondage means in its deepest 
sense. In seeing the fact of bondage 
in human life, one is filled with awe 
at the sublime possibilities of lives 
which might appear hopeless. 

It is an act of great courage when 
a proud, rebellious will recognizes the 
claim of the law of righteousness, and 
voluntarily surrenders to that law. 



This thought is implied in the figure 
of the prisoner. His slight movement, 
the mere turning of the eyes towards 
the Light, signifies the beginning of 
the grand act of repentence, an act so 
wonderful, that even the angels pause 
and rejoice. 

"O Day Spring, Brightness of the 
Everlasting Light and Sun of Right- 
eousness ; Come and give light to 
them that sit in darkness and the 
shadow of death." 

The picture is also drawn from hu- 
man experience. The soul in darkness 
is typified by a woman seated on the 
edge of a flight of steps, as suggested 
by the lines : 

"Falling with my weight of cares 
Upon the world's great altar stairs 
That slope through darkness up to 

Seen from a distance, at the far end 
of the chapel, the woman appears dim 
and in shadow, but , when you ap- 
proach and reach the chancel, the fig- 
ure is seen distinctly in the atmosphere 
of dawn. 

A faint glow brightens the cloud 
above his head. It is the mysterious, 
imperceptible change from darkness 
to light. The soul has been as it were 
petrified in sorrow, desolate and spell- 
bound in the closed circle of self. 

A violent shock, a sudden vision, 
would suffice to shatter and destroy 
the mind that is racked with anguish. 

Very gently the light comes. The 
power of the Lord is revealed, not in 
awful majesty, but in exquisite tender- 
ness, in the face of a little child ! The 
still, small voice whispers, and the 
soul awakes and sees. Behold she is 
no longer in regions desolate and 
strange ; about her lie the dear, home 
fields and woods, and beyond, the 

mountains and the shining sea. Be- 
fore her, the sun is rising, the light is 
dawning, the Day Spring, Brightness 
of the Everlasting Light! 

"O King of nations and their De- 
sire, Thou Corner-stone, Who hast 
made both one; Come and save man 
whom Thou hast formed of the dust 
of the ground." 

Enfeebled by the long conflict with 
the forces of the earth, bowed down 
by the infirmities of the flesh, the old 
man realizes his oneness with the race. 
In his voice all the race unite in one 
grand appeal to the King of Nations. 

Out of the dust, Man cries to his 

Along the head of the old man is 
seen a crown of thorns, the crown of 
Jesus, King of Nations, the diadem 
which expresses the power of absolute 
love, the omnipotent claim of the per- 
fect sacrifice. 

The heaped up sands in the back- 
ground of the picture suggest the long 
journey of life, and its fearful uncer- 
tainties, and the necessity of the sure 
foundation of the Great Corner-stone. 

Many pages of writing would fail 
to convey the many thoughts of these 
paintings. The language of form is 
so subtle and so comprehensive, that 
it leads the mind into spheres of the 
infinite and the eternal. 

The antiphon, "O Sapientia" was 
inspired by friends of the artist. Each 
study was a different revelation of the 
way in which the Heavenly Wisdom 
may be followed. Through self ab- 
negation, through maternal devotion, 
through visible beauty, but more than 
all these, through a wide human sym- 
pathy, that embraces ail it can reach 
in the desire to uplift and to bless. 
Like some texts of Scripture the Pre- 



Christmas antiphons are always open 
to new interpretations. The endeavor 
to present their inner meaning led to 
many discoveries. The arrangement 
of the three panels in tryptics on each 
side of the altar, revealed the fact of 
a fundamental difference between the 
three first antiphons, and the three 
immediately following : 

The first suggest the realm of the 
ideal, of the imagination, requiring a 
more decorative treatment, while the 
last refer to the conditions of being 
and environment more realistic in ef- 

Harmonious flowing draperies ac- 
cord with the Heavenly Wisdom, 
straight vertical folds stand for the di- 
rect lines of the Law. The martial 
spirit of victory is emphasized by lines 
crossing the figure, and tending up- 
wards to the ensign. 

The pure contrasting colors, of blue 
for reason, red for sacrifice, green for 
regeneration, all appeal to abstract 
ideas. There is no need of any en- 
vironment. Wisdom is felt to be in 
the night merely by the color stones. 
The seer against the purifying flames 
is bound in by the symbols of the 
Law, and the victor ascends to exalt- 
ation with no outward sign of foot- 

How different are the three others, 
the prisoner, the soul in darkness, and 

the old man, close to the dust of earth. 
These paintings suggest the conflict 
between good and evil, darkness and 
light. Therefore in the whole treat- 
ment of the figures, there is at once a 
feeling of greater realism, and greater 

Even in his clothes the prisoner be- 
longs to our own time. There is no 
color in the grey cell, except a touch 
of gold on the key and the clear green 
of the reed. 

The soul in darkness is clothed in 
blue and violet, because these colors 
express shadow and mystery, even as 
the pale yellow green of the sky be- 
tokens dawning light. 

The desert sands of purple and 
gold, may signify the sorrows and 
joys of life through which the old 
man has preserved the image of his 
Maker, as symbolzied by his robe of 

From an architectural point of 
view, these panels were considered as 
a part of the decorative scheme of the 
interior of the chapel ; they were paint- 
ed in place on the wall, under the con- 
ditions of the artificial light, which is 
used during the service. 

It is the great hope of the artists 
that those who come here to worship, 
may find suggested in these pictures, 
the answer to the needs of their own 

From painting by R. Earle, 1792. Now in possession of Connecticut Historical Society 






Dedicated to the Daughters of the American Revolution 



a grove of 
elms, near 
the bank of the 
Connecticut river 
on a street in "anc- 
ient Windsor," is the mansion which 
was for a quarter of a century the 
home of Chief Justice Oliver Ells- 
worth and Abigail Wolcott Ellsworth, 

his wife, and which for a century and 
a quarter has sheltered their descend- 

\ new epoch of its history has non- 
opened and the scattered members of 
the family, to none of whom it offered 
the possibility of a permanent dwell- 
ing, with appreciatio not" its historic 
significance and educative value, have 
united in presenting it to a branch of 
one of the great patriotic societies oi 


the country. The Connecticut Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution are 
honored with this confidence, and 
have assumed the responsibility, that 
it shall be an inspiration to higher 
patriotim in the many who will now 
be able to visit it and a memorial to 
the man who lived and died in the 
service of his country, whose influ- 
ence was avowedly potent in matters 
of great moment to her welfare. From 
under this roof he went out to his du- 
ties as member of the governor's coun- 
cil by annual election until 1784, serv- 
ing four years ; as delegate to the 
Continental Congress until 1783, a six 
years' term ; as judge of the Supe- 
rior court of Connecticut from 1784 
to 1789; as delegate to the Federal 
convention in 1787, which framed the 
constitution of the United States, and 
to the state convention, January, 1788, 
which ratified the same ; as United 
States senator from Connecticut 1789 
-1796 after the organization of the 
new government ; as chief justice of 
the Supreme court of the United 
States by appointment March 4th, 
1796, of President Washington; and 
as envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to France by appoint- 
ment February 25th, 1799, of Presi- 
dent John Adams. And when, this 
last commission ended, he returned to 
"the pleasantest place in the pleasant- 
est town in the best state of the best 
country" as he affectionately wrote of 
it, it was by the gateway of this home 
lot which now slopes unbounded to 
the street, that he paused before enter- 
ing to bow his head in gratitude for 
a mercy his failing health scarce le^ 
him to expect. For these were the 
times that tried not alone men's souls 
but their bodies mightily as well, and 

the weary months of a winter voyage 
had been so dreaded for a system al- 
ready weakened by illness, that the 
chief justice was persuaded to remain 
in England until spring, while his son 
Oliver, acting as secretary, came home 
bearing his father's resignation of the 
high judicial office in company with 
Governor Davie of North Carolina, 
one of his two fellow envoys. 

Some years of honorable usefulness 
were still vouchsafed, however, dur- 
ing which Judge Ellsworth acted 
again upon the Governor's Council, 
and for a term, cut short by sickness, 
as chief justice of the Supreme court 
of the state, before he breathed his last 
upon the bed now standing in the 
southwest chamber of the house. 

"Elmwood," so called from the 
thirteen saplings, which after the 
fashion of colonial forestry, Mr. Ells- 
worth planted in his yard, and nine of 
which now lift stately branches high 
in air, was not new when he moved in- 
to it about 1782, and researches have 
failed to show who built so well for 
future generations ; we know little ex- 
cept that the lot was Ellsworth land 
as far back as 1665. 

A modest beginning of domestic 
life had been made on the farm in 
Wintonbury (Bloomfield), which his 
father turned over to him, when with 
no thought for the financial morrow, 
he married on December 10th, 1772, 
Miss Abigail Wolcott, eleven years his 
junior. By working industriously 
and living simply they obtained a 
right start in the world, and success 
came to the young lawyer in the pro- 
fession for which he had abandoned 
the theological course outlined by his 
father. His public career began as 
state's attorney in 1775, at which time 



Greeting Mrs. Sara Thomson Kinney on steps of the Ellsworth mansion 

Photo for Connecticut Mctgcudnc by V 


they removed to Hartford and as 
member of the General Assembly, be- 
fore they took up their residence in 

Nine children were rocked in turn 
in the stiff wooden cradle in the nur- 
sery, until promoted to the trundle 
bed, half hidden now as of old, under 
the big four-poster, an object lesson 
in the ways and means of our fore- 
mothers for rearing broods which of- 
ten taxed the most capacious nests. 

Five only of these sons and daugh- 
ters, Abigail, Frances and Martin, 
William Wolcott and Henry Leavitt, 
the twins, left children of their own, 
and their descendants, that is, all liv- 
ing descendants of the great jurist, 
"have united in honoring the memory 
of their common ancestor by ensuring 
the preservation of his home." The 
signatures of all accompanied the re- 
cent deed, collected from Maine to 
California, Canada to Louisiana, the 
Philippines, Europe and Japan, repre- 
senting forty great grandchildren, fif- 
ty-nine great great grandchildren and 
seventeen great great great grandchil- 
dren. Two donors of inherited 
shares, though not of Ellsworth line- 
age, and one whom collateral rela- 
tionship had moved to interest in the 
object, were also in the list, which was 
bound in Revolutionary chintz and 
homespun linen fro mold Elmwood 
stores. Could there have been a 
more gracious giving or a more 
unique gift! 

October 8th, 1903, was the day of 
the formal presentation. Mrs. Frank 
C. Porter, great granddaughter of 
the chief justice had taken the initia- 
tive on behalf of the family, and the 
regent of Connecticut, Mrs. Sara 
Thomson Kinney, acted by authority 

of the forty-four chapters of the 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion in the state. 

In the early summer Mrs. Porter 
was able to announce that every mem- 
ber of the direct family living had 
been communicated with, and was 
ready to surrender inherited right or 
to contribute to the object, a conserv- 
ative estimate of the financial value of 
the house and home lot thus generous- 
ly given being $4,000.00, enriched im- 
measurably by associations. The state 
regen twith her various committees 
chosen from the different chapters, 
which, in the meantime, made liberal 
appropriations for the purpose, then 
undertook necessary work. Floors 
were strengthened to stand the tread 
of many feet, modern drainage was 
introduced, and roomy fireplaces were 
reopened, later residents having yield- 
ed to the seductive comfort of less pic- 
turesque stoves. Within and without 
there is the glint of fresh paint and 
the halls and most of the rooms are 
newly papered, one, however, still has 
the old French block paper on its 
walls which was put on more than a 
century ago, the design of which was 
reproduced for a room of the Connec- 
ticut building at the Columbian ex- 
position. The handsome wood panel- 
ling and carving is intact, and all the 
older features are preserved, the small 
window panes, locks which for size 
and intricacy might have done duty 
in the Bastile, the front door opens at 
the tap of a brass knocker without, 
and is closed with a heavy bar within, 
and a winding stairway leads to the 
upper story. At every window mus- 
lin curtains loop back upon quaint 
hooks of glass or brass or enamel. 
And in this charming setting have 


Recent photo for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall 


been placed the contributions of the 
many interested, chosen with rare 
taste and sense of fitness. 

There are nine rooms exclusive of 
those occupied by the care taker, five 
below and four up-stairs, seven of 
them having open fireplaces, and the 
closets, oh, the closets make every 
housewife envy Abigail Wolcott Ells- 
worth her blessings! Although not 
complete, as yet, the furnishings al- 
ready afford an unexcelled opportun- 
ity for the study of colonial domestic 
life, and many of the pieces are of 
special historic interest. A number 
have been presented by the Ellsworth 
heirs and others have been loaned by 
them. In the drawing-room a beauti- 
ful Chippendale sofa stands in the 
place made its own by over a hundred 
years of occupancy. It is a present to 
the local chapter which bears her 
name, in memory of Abigail Wolcott 
Ellsworth from the descendants of a 
grand daughter who was her name- 
sake. The chapter will hold its meet- 
ings in the house. Next summer the 
sofa will be a feature of the Connec- 
ticut building at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition. Two chairs of this 
set are to be seen in the painting of 
the chief justice and his wife, by 
Earle, 1792, which canvas now hangs 
in the Wadsworth Athenaeum in 

A pedestal holds the original mod- 
el by Augur, of the marble bust of the 
jurist which is in the Supreme court 
room of the capitol at Washington. 

With some satisfaction we fail to 
recall any article of table furniture at 
Mount Vernon more imposing than 
the silver and copper coffee-urn in our 
dining room, and we wonder if Wash- 
ington were duly impressed by it when 

The mirrors that reflected their 
faces, tables and chairs are there and 
homelier things, long relegated to the 
attic, appear in honorable dustlessness 
in the spinning room ; churns, ovens, 
distaffs and reels, warming-pans and 
foot-stoves ; but most appealing of all, 
is the state bed room, upon bed and 
dressing table are covers, fresh to-day 
as when Abigail Wolcott and her sis- 
ters patiently set the stitches in that 
mavrelous . design, quilting the cotton 
into grapes and leaves and acorn sur- 
rounding a cornucopia of flowers. 

One wishes, sitting alone in the si- 
lent house, that each piece could tell 
its own story, high-boy and low-boy, 
table and chair ; buffet and "scentoire" 
and "runaround," platter and pitcher 
and caddy, rundlet and noggin and 
peel, sampler and calash and tester. 
Perhaps one may be allowed a word 
regarding the only modern article in 
the dining room. Covering the floor 
is a rag carpet woven for this purpose 
upon a loom a hundred years old, by 
a friends of the Daughters, with a lit- 
tle aid who herself has passed the sev- 
enty-sixth year stone. 

For the day of the celebration many 
articles of value were loaned, among 
them a fine oval mirror and the white 
marble clock with curious glass case, 
brought by Mr. Ellsworth from 
France ; the silver cream pitcher with 
serpent handle, a gift to his sister-in- 
law at the same time; the Ellsworth 
coat-of-arms embroidered by his 
daughter, Delia; also the Wolcott 
coat-of-arms and portraits of his son, 
Major Martin Ellsworth and wife, so- 
phia Wolcott, in whose line the home- 
stead came down. 

Of exceptional interest was the 



:>iece of Gobelin tapestry, "The Shep- 
herd," presented to the chief justice 
by Napoleon Bonaparte. When John 
Adams, who had spoken of him as 
"the firmest pillar of Washington's 
whole administration in the Senate," 
sought the same support for his own 
by appointing him envoy extraordi- 
nary and minister plenipotentiary to 
France in the troubled days of revo- 
lutionized government in both coun- 
tries. Bonaparte, then first consul, is 
said to have remarked upon seeing the 
new commissioner, "We shall have to 
make a treaty with that man." How- 
ever the resulting "convention" may 
have been regarded here, where in its 
final form it was promulgated Decem- 
ber 2 ist, 1 80 1, the ratification by 
France, where it was signed at the 

chateau of Jerome Bonaparte October 
3rd, 1800, was made the occasion for 
a love-feast, with toasts and fireworks 
and the booming of cannon, "Union 
Hall," "Salle de Washington" and 
"Salle de Franklin" being decorated 
with flags of both countries and the 
busts of American heroes, while an 
angel was represented flying with the 
olive branch from Havre de Grace to 
Philadelphia, the ports of the Ameri- 
can ministers. The tapestry was an 
expression ^ of the future Emperor's 
personal friendliness to Mr. Ells- 
worth, and was accompanied by a 
spangled satin bag for Mrs. Ells- 

Most valued of relics was the 
framed original of the letter from 
Washington to Ellsworth, oft quoted 




and always to be quoted whenever the 
lightest sketch of the latter's life is 
drawn. "Dear Sir," he says, writing 
from Philadelphia, under date of 
March 8th, 1797, with unwonted ten- 
derness, doubtless, because of the 
parting of their ways. "Before I 
leave this city, which will be within 
less than twenty-four hours, permit 
me in acknowledging receipt of 
your kind and affectionate note of the 
6th to offer you the thanks of a grate- 
ful heart for the sentiments you have 
expressed in my favor, and for those 
attentions with which you have al- 
ways honored me. In return, I pray 
you to accept all my good wishes for 
the perfect restoration of your health, 
and for all the happiness which this 
life can afford. As your official duty 
will necessarily take you southward, I 
will take the liberty of adding that 
it will always give me pleasure to see 
you at Mt. Vernon as you pass and 
repass. With unfeigned esteem and 
regard, in which Mrs. Washington 
joins me, I am always & affectionate- 
ly yours, 

Oli'r Ellsworth, eq., Chief Justice. 

One hundred and fourteen years to 
a day, almost, from that morning 
when President Washington called 
upon the Connecticut senator at his 
home, that was October 21st, accord- 
ing to his own diary; and one hun- 
dred and thirteen from that other day 
when President Adams, on the way 
to Trenton — meeting place of the gov- 
ernment instead of fever-stricken 
Philadelphia — stopped to talk over the 
mission to France with his envoy, that 
was October 3rd, so states his own rec- 
ord, and his hosts in a letter to Pick- 

ering ; on October 8th, fully two thou- 
sand persons gathered under the trees 
of Elmwood. Many of the family 
who were renouncing peculiar person- 
al rights to grant a larger privilege to 
others were present, every branch be- 
ing represented. In certain directions 
the unusual assemblage caused con- 
sternation, for around a hollowed log 
by the vine-covered arbor, the thirsty 
hens clucked indignant disapproval of 
the new order of things, and a fright- 
ened little squirrel, fleeing for refuge 
from one tall tree to another chose a 
short cut over the shoulders of the 
startled people beneath. 

The Governor of the state, His Ex- 
cellency Abiram Chamberlain, and the 
Bishop of the diocese of Connecticut, 
the Right Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster, 
whose predecessor, the first American 
bishop, was consecrated while Oliver 
Ellsworth was serving on the Govern- 
or's Council — took part in the exer- 
cises, the new homestead flag coming 
to high-mast as the Chief Executive 
and his staff were received by the state 
regent at the threshold, while standing 
in line without, the First company of 
the Governor's Foot Guard presented 
arms. No other one feature* perhaps, 
could have added so picturesquely and 
suggestively to the occasion as did the 
presence of this company. Their gor- 
geous scarlet coats, reminiscent of the 
days when we lived under the king 
and wore the colors of Her Majesty's 
own personal guard, the famous 
"Coldstreams." For did not the M Gov- 
ernour's Guard with a band of Martial 
Mustek" win the plaudits of many a 
famed contemporary of Oliver Ells- 
worth, whom they escorted ; Washing- 
ton, commander-in-chief; Knox, Laf- 
ayette, Rochambeau, Ternav, Adams, 


the President; and never since 1771, 
the date of its organization, has the 
continuity been broken of this oldest 
of volunteer military bodies in the 
United States. With Oliver Ells- 
worth's own son, too, they marched 
thrice to his inauguration as govern- 
or, and one finds recorded their ap- 
preciation of the good things provid- 
ed by the governor's lady on several 
gala days at the Washington street 
residence in Hartford. 

But more than these associations 
was in the honor of their presence. 
Governor Chamberlain voiced it for 
the men as a tribute to the memory 
of their beloved commandant, "Major 
Jack" Kinney, and to the state regent 
of Connecticut whose splendid patriot- 
ic work is a continuation of his. 

The speakers of the day had seats 
in the high "colonnade" at the south- 
west of the house, among them being 
three great grandchildren of the chief 
justice, Mr. William Webster Ells- 
worth, grandson of Governor William 
Wolcott Ellsworth, spoke in the fam- 
ily name, The Hon. Henry Ellsworth 
Taintor, grandson of Major Martin 
Ellsworth, read letters from the Pres- 
ident, Chief Justice Fuller of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, 
Chief Justice Torrance of the Supreme 
Court of the state, United States Sen- 
ator Hoar, Judge Baldwin, and Pres- 
ident Hadley of Yale University, for 
Ellsworth was a Yale man for two 
years, graduating later from Prince- 
ton. (1766.) 

Mrs. Frank C. Porter, grand- 
daughter of Frances Ellsworth, pre- 
sented the deed of the house and home 
lot, with the autographs of the don- 
ors, this being the first deed made out 
upon the property since March 13th, 

1665, when Josias Ellsworth, great 
grandfather of Oliver ( purchased the 
land from Joanna, relict of Master 
Nicholas Davison, who had it from 
Robert Saltonstall, who had it from 
Francis Stiles, agent of Sir Richard 

The acceptance of the gift was by 
the state regent, presiding on behalf 
of the Connecticut Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

Another great grandchild, Miss Au- 
gusta H. Williams, granddaughter and 
only living descendant of Abigail, old- 
est child of the chief justice, took this 
opportunity to present a pair of jew- 
elled knee-buckles in a satin-lined 
case, once his property, to the Connec- 
ticut Daughters. 

Among representatives of the fifth 
branch of the family, that of Henry 
Leavitt Ellsworth present, was Mrs. 
George Inness, Jr., whose mother, 
Mrs. Roswell Smith, as Miss Annie 
Ellsworth, sent the first message, 
"What hath God wrought," over the 
telegraph line between Washington 
and Baltimore, Prof. Morse then liv- 
ing at her father's house in Washing- 

The special address of the afternoon 
upon "Oliver Ellsworth," was by Mr. 
Arthur L. Shipman, of Hartford. 
The Benediction was by the Rev. Ros- 
coe Nelson, pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in Windsor, of which 
Oliver Ellsworth was a member. 
Singing by the consolidated chapter 
glee clubs added effectively to the mu- 
sic of the programme, their numbers 
being the sonorous Hymn of the Con- 
necticut D. A. R., and a selection of 
somewhat dissimilar character, the 
"Derby Ram," the presence of this 
gory ballad being accounted for by 


the fact that it was sung, so says tra- 
dition, to the little Ellsworths by the 
Father of his country, on that memo- 
rable visit. 

Once again the stately drawing 
room was the scene of festive hospi- 
tality as the guests were received by 
the governor and his lady and the 
state regent, while the music of a mil- 
itary band came in through the open 
windows. Before leaving, the visi- 
tors, seated at an old mahogany desk, 
registered in a sumptuous volume 
bound in blue crushed levant bearing 
the Daughters' insignia. 

The house is reached at present by 
walking or driving three-quarters of 
a mile south from Hayden's Station, 
or two miles north from Windsor Sta- 
tion, but next spring a trolley loop will 
make the place easier of access. If 
the traveler choose the Windsor route, 
it will take him past the old cemetery 
but not without a pause, for therein 
are the graves of Oliver Ellsworth, 
Abigail Wolcott Ellsworth, his wife, 
his father David, his grandfather Jon- 
athan, and his great grandfather Jos- 
ias, which on the day of the celebra- 
tion were decorated with laurel 
wreaths, the blue and white of the D. 
A. R. and the Stars and Stripes. 

Oliver Ellsworth LL. D., by the 
grace of Yale, Princeton and Dart- 
mouth, was born in Windsor, April 
29th, 1745, the son of David and Je- 
mima (Leavitt) Ellsworth. He died 
November 26th, 1807, at the home he 
loved, but from which he had jour- 
neyed often and far afield at the high 
behest of patriotism. 

Abigail Wolcott Ellsworth was 
born in South Windsor February 8th, 
1756, her parents being William and 

Abigail (Abbot) Wolcott. She died 
at the residence of her daughter, Del- 
ia, Mrs. Thomas Scott Williams, in 
Hartford, August 4th, 18 18. 

The homestead passed to Martin, 
the fourth child and oldest living son, 
two older brothers having died, and 
on to his children, the last resident, 
who died in 1901, being the widow of 
his son Frederick. 

''Hereafter,," to use the words of 
the state regent, "to the State of Con- 
necticut, the Ellsworth homestead will 
be what Mount Vernon is to the Na- 
tion, a Mecca for patriotic pilgrims, 
a shrine dedicated to all that was nob- 
lest and purest in the lives and homes 
of our forefathers and foremothers." 
"I know of no contagion more irre- 
sistible than that of generosity and 
kindness," was the testimony in her 
Ellsworth day address, of Mrs. John 
M. Holcombe, chairman of the fur- 
nishing committee, to the influence of 
this splendid gift in awakening a cor- 
responding liberality in its recipients. 

The exceptional freedom from fac- 
tional differences which the Connec- 
ticut Daughters of the American Rev- 
olution have enjoyed, under a lead- 
ership uniting them in effort and in- 
spiring to high aims, is emphasized 
by this event. Their "solidarity" as 
an eminent onlooker at the Continen- 
tal Congress termed it, has ever re- 
sulted in effective action and rich 

So only could they have been 
equipped and ready at the moment 
this noble trust sought them, and no 
better illustration could be found of 
the old lines : 
"Get thy spindle and thy distaff ready. 

And the Lord will send thee tlax." 






Formerly United States Judge of Montana 

fN comparing the lives of Jeffer- 
son and Lincoln, continuing 
my recent analogous inci- 
dents from birth to grave, the closing 
days of the two distinguished states- 
men are here presented. 

Jefferson: — At the close of his offi- 
cial duties as President, he retired 
from political life to Monticello, 
where he entertained in a delightful 
manner all who called upon him with- 
out distinction of rank, devoting his 
leisure hours to correspondence — to 
improved facilities of education, and 
to the amelioration of mankind, al- 
ways devoted to the paramount inter- 
ests of the nation under our system 
of government, as superior to any 
other form of government in the 
world. Probably no public man in 
the world's history ever wrote so 
much or as well, with so little adverse 
criticism as did Jefferson. His pen 
seemed to move along the lines of 
prophetic inspiration, covering not 
only the stirring events of his life 
period, but reaching out, and shaping 
complex relations on the destiny of 
the Republic generations after his de- 
cease. The fiftieth anniversary of 
American Independence, was to be 

celebrated in Washington, D. C, on 
the 4th of July, 1826, with great dis- 
play and rejoicing, and Jefferson was 
invited to be present as the Nation's 
guest on the ocasion. On the 24th of 
June, 1826, he wrote a letter to the 
committee, full of pathos and patriotic 
emotions, recounting the Nation's his- 
tory, for the fifty years then passing, 
which letter exhibited the full strength 
and vigor of his intellect, though suf- 
fering by disease, which had enfeebled 
his constitution. 

On the 26th day of June, two days 
after his letter, he took to his bed to 
rise no more. On the 3d day of July, 
1826, he inquired the day of the 
month, and when informed, said he 
hoped to live 'till the 50th anniversary 
of American Independence. His 
prayer was answered, and on that 
day, amid the booming of cannon, 
ringing of bells, within the hour on 
the dial plate of the signing of that 
immortal document which his own 
hand had written, his spirit took its 
flight, and within the same hour, al- 
most simultaneously by the ticking of 
the clock, John Adams, his associate 
and compatriot in all the lines leading 
up to and during the Revolution, his 


predecessor as President of the United 
States, intimate associates during 
their political history, deceased, and 
in their deaths were hardly divided. 

Adams on the morning of July 4th, 
1826, was asked if he knew what day 
it was, replied "July 4th, Indepen- 
dence day." "Independence forever" 
—"God bless it." "God bless all of 
you." After a minute or so, he said 
"Jefferson survives," which were the 
last words he uttered, and he closed 
his eyes to open them no more, seem- 
ingly conscious that as Jefferson lived 
the Republic was safe. 

For fifty years these two great 
lights of the revolutionary period had 
watched over the interest of the Na- 
tion with the anxiety of a parent over 
a child, but not always through the 
same lens of political observation. 

On the 2d of July, 1826, Jefferson 
feeling that the close of his life was 
near, with the outmost calmness con- 
versed with different members of his 
family, gave directions concerning his 
coffin and his funeral, which he was 
desirous should be at Monticello 
without any display or parade, in 
keeping with the simplicity of his 
whole public life. 

The religious life of Jefferson was 
much in accord with the doctrines of 
belief advanced by theologians of the 
present day, who have burst the 
shackles of bigotry in denominational 
dogmas which prevailed in Jefferson's 
time. The spirit of intolerance in re- 
ligious beliefs, and in denomination- 
al creeds so prevailed in his day, that 
he caused a statute to be passed in 
Virginia giving religious freedom to 
all to worship God according to the 
dictates of their conscience. For this, 
he was accused of sending the relig- 

ious element of the country to the 
bow-wows. Jefferson was a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church and a 
communicant at its altars. 

In Jefferson's monograph seal sur- 
rounding the initials of his name, was 
this motto. "Rebellion to Tyrants, is 
Obedience to God." From this sen- 
timent he never wavered in thought or 
action, and they crowned his life to 
the end. After his death there were 
found among his papers, directions 
about his funeral and words to be in- 
scribed on his tomb. His remains 
rest in a small family cemetary near 
Monticello, with a granite obelisk 
about eight feet high set on a tablet 
of marble, bearing this inscription : 
"Here lies Buried 
Thomas Jefferson." 
"Author of the Declaration of Inde- 
"Of the Statute of Virginia for Re- 
ligions Freedom." 
"And Father of the University of 

Lincoln : — He was great in the sur- 
roundings of his life, wise in thought 
— pure in action — great in achieve- 
ment. His life was rounded out with 
great deeds of individual struggles — 
with heroic achievements — with pa- 
triotic devotion to his country. 
Greater deeds in life's struggle never 
before blessed the memory of man. 
If Washington was the father of his 
country, Lincoln may be styled its 
savior. From the time he started out 
with a few pennies in his pocket, to 
grapple with the world in a wilder- 
ness of disappointments, his stops nev- 
er faltered, his courage never forsook 
him — his honesty of purpose never 
wavered. Ready to engage in any 
honest living, he entered the arena, 


fought his battles, won his victories 
and received his reward. Step by 
step he ascended the ladder from the 
lowest round to the highest pinnacle 
of fame in the world. At each ad- 
vanced step, his mind expanded, his 
individuality strengthened, and his 
self reliance seemed to be the gift of 

Like Washington and Jefferson, he 
was re-elected his own successor to 
finish up the work so well begun. 
Events followed in rapid succession. 
Grant pushed Lee into the wilderness. 
Sherman marched to the sea, Confed- 
erate armies retreated in confusion, 
the President of the Confederacy and 
his cabinet of advisors fled from its 
capitol. April 3, 1865, colored sol- 
diers under Gen. Wetzel entered Rich- 
mond, the Capital of the Confederacy, 
and raised the United States flag over 
the city. 

April 4th, 1865, one month to a 
day from Lincoln's second inaugura- 
tion, he entered the Confederate Cap- 
ital and his feet pressed the floors of 
the Confederate Mansion where 
schemes had been plotted against the 
life of the Nation. April 9th, 1865, 
General Lee surrendered his sword to 
General Grant. April 14th, 1865, tne 
anniversary of the pulling down of 
the flag over Sumter, it was raised 
again over its battered walls, and a 
National Jubilee, celebrated within 
its inclosure on the event of its res- 
titution, with Henry Ward Beecher as 
orator, and brave Gen. Anderson who 
had defended the flag and the fort, 
as master of ceremonies on its resto- 

The war was ended — peace re- 
stored — union of states secured — gov- 
ernment established, and remission of 

political sins extended to all who 
would pass under its flag, with mal- 
ice toward none and charity for all. 
On Good Friday, 1865, the Christian 
Anniversary of the Crucifixion of the 
Saviour on Calvary, Lincoln was as- 
sassinated and his life work ended. 
As shadows of the cross at Calvary, 
on the Crucifixion of the Saviour 
darkened the world, so the assassina- 
tion of Lincoln, shadowed in gloom 
and sorrow this Nation, as the light of 
his life went out. 

His funeral cortege, one of the 
grandest the world ever saw, moved 
from his death bed scenes at the Cap- 
itol, to his final resting place amid sur- 
roundings of his early struggles and 
triumphs in life. His remains there 
rest with a crown of glory effulgent 
over the Nation, never to be eclipsed 
by the rising sun of any hnman being 
whoever trod the ways of life. His 
remains rest in consecrated soil at 
Springfield, Illinois, where people still 
weep at the sepulcher and bedew it 
with tears. Great in life, consecrat- 
ed in death, with angels of the cove- 
nant to guard his memory, 'till the 
seal of the tomb is broken, the stones 
rolled away from the door, and he 
comes forth from its darkness into 
realms of light beyond the river. 

The tomb of Lincoln is one of the 
notable tombs of the world, built by 
voluntary contributions by the people 
in every state and territory of the 
Union, irrespective of color or nation- 
alities, at a cost of over $200,000. 

As news of the death of Lincoln 
flashed over the country, the heart of 
a colored woman who had been a 
slave, bursting with grief, said: "The 
colored people have lost their best 
friend in the death of Mr. Lincoln, 


and they ought to build a monument 
to his memory, and I will give $5.00 
out of my wages towards it." The 
suggestion swept over the country. 
Contributions began to be made, an 
organization was effected, and as 
money flowed in, plans were matured 
for its construction. Over 60,000 
Sunday school children from every 
known form of denominational wor- 
ship contributed to its construction. 
Their names, place of residence, dates 
and sums given, were recorded in a 
separate journal. Names of all con- 
tributions with amounts ; messages of 
condolence from every civilized nation 
of the globe received ; keepsakes, his- 
toric mementoes, and articles used by. 
or associated with the memory of Lin- 
coln, were deposited in a Memorial 
hall prepared for that purpose in the 
tomb structure. This hall is 32^ feet 
long, by 24 feet wide in the clear. 

Tomb of Lincoln: — The ground 
plan of the structure is 119^ feet 
long from north to south, the tomb 
shaft in the center 72^2 feet square 
with a circular projection surround- 
ing it. The statue of Lincoln is 10 
feet high. About seven feet below 
this pedestal are bronze groups of 
statuary 7^ feet high representing in- 
fantry, cavalry, artillery, marine, all 
of similar dimensions, each of the 
four, special gifts by citizens of Chi- 
cago, Boston, New York, and Phila- 
delphia, each costing $1,500 and other 
national emblems upon the structure. 
Below and around these figures is a 
representation of all the states of the 
Union, with their coat of arms and 
state mottoes upon the edifice, all con- 
nected with a mystic chain linked to- 
gether, so that none should be lost 
from a cemented union. This tomb 

stands as a representation of national 
fidelity to its distinguished dead. In- 
scription upon the tomb : 
"With malice towards none, charity 
for all." 

Having considered on parallel lines, 
some leading features in the lives of 
Jefferson and Lincoln, I return to a 
chapter in Lincoln's history, woven 
into the life of the Nation, which has 
no parallel in all the annals of time. 
February, 1861, was a memorable 
epoch in the history of this Nation. 
Lincoln had been chosen President of 
the United States in a constitutional 
way. Threats of assassination, anc} 
prevention to take the oath of office 
were banded from saloon to the street 
and from street corners, relegated in- 
to hot beds of treason, to formulate 
plans, and mature plots. Seven states 
had seceded from the Union, and es- 
tablished a southern confederacy with 
governmental machinery in working 
order. Senators and members of Con- 
gress had vacated their seats at the 
capitol. Departments of government 
at Washington were honeycombed 
with treason. Imbecility and weak- 
kneed decrepitude trembled at the 
White House. National credit im- 
paired — treasury empty — the navy 
scattered into foreign waters, and the 
government on the ragged edge of dis- 

If the patriotic spirit of Jefferson or 
of Jackson had been at the helm, in- 
cipient stages of treason and rebellion, 
would have been nipped in the bud, 
and much blood and treasure save<! to 
the Nation, that was expended in its 
effort to conquer a peace, and to re- 
unite the broken links in the chain of 
national unity. 

General Scott was loyal to the g 


ernment. He marshalled the troops, 
and rode his prancing steed at their 
head through the streets of Washing- 
ton as a show of lingering national 

Seward, to be Secretary of State 
under Lincoln, was at his post in 
Washington, cognizant of impending 
danger to Lincoln and his cabinet ad- 

Trusty sentinels were on the out- 
posts of observation — detective agents 
visiting secret gatherings in midnight 
halls, following out threads of infor- 
mation to thwart the execution of ma- 
turing plots. 

Lincoln, still at his home in Spring- 
field, was in possession of all the facts 
imperiling his life. He had agreed, 
that on his way to Washington, he 
would address the legislature of Penn- 
sylvania at Harrisburg, and raise the 
flag over Independence Hall in Phila- 
delphia on Washington's Birthday. 

February nth, 1861, one day be- 
fore the anniversary of his birth, he 
left his Springfield home on his way 
to Washington. Springfield people 
turned out enmasse to wave adieu, 
and bid him God speed on his way. 
As he entered the car, they stood with 
uncovered, bowed heads, in silent 
prayer for his safety. His ten days' 
trip from Springfield to Philadelphia, 
by way of Albany and New York, was 
one of the grandest ovations ever ac- 
corded to man on this continent. Peo- 
ple lined the railroad tracks from sta- 
tion to station to catch a glimpse of 
the man, in whom was centered the 
hope to save the government and re- 
deem the Nation. Mayors welcomed 
him to city hospitalities, governors 
welcomed him beneath triumphal 
arches to legislative halls, where his 

patriotic addresses were incorporated 
into the life and energies of the states 
through which he passed. Arriving 
in Philadelphia he met Frederick W. 
Seward, sent by his father and Gen. 
Scott to apprise him of threatened im- 
pending danger, and to avoid expos- 
ure, by the flag raising. Lincoln re- 
plied, "Both of these engagements I 
will keep it if it costs me my life." 
Nothing daunted, he raised the flag, 
and spoke to the people of the prin- 
ciples embodied in the Declaration of 
Independence, which had been pro- 
mulgated from that hall nearly one 
hundred years before. 

It was a remarkable speech. Classi- 
cal in elegance of diction — patriotic 
and forceful in expression — conclusive 
in argument, and yet so melting in 
pathos, that it touched all hearts of his 
hearers, and paralyzed the arm of the 
assassin ready to strike the fatal blow. 
In closing he said : "Now, my friends, 
can this country be saved on this ba- 
sis? If it can, I will consider myself 
one of the happiest men in the world 
if I can help to save it. If it cannot 
be saved upon that principle, it will 
be truly awful; but if this country 
cannot be saved without giving up 
that principle, I was about to say, I 
would rather be assassinated on this 
spot than surrender it." 

No martyr ever went to the stake 
amid the flashing of fiercer fires with 
greater courage, or with firmer trust 
in an over-ruling Providence than did 
Lincoln. The plots were, assassina- 
tion by the dagger or bullet in Phila- 
delphia, failing this, to be kidnapped 
from the train passing through Balti- 
more, forced onto a vessel lying in 
wait at the wharf, carried out and 
drowned in unknown waters in the 


sea. Telegraph wires were cut to pre- 
vent intelligence of his movements. 
From Philadelphia he went to Harris- 
burg, addressed the legislature, took a 
special train for Washington. Rail- 
road tracks were patroled to insure 
safety, and he arrived in Washington, 
at early dawn, without the knowledge 
of those seeking his destruction, and 
the perilous journey was ended. 

The sun rose clear in the morning, 
and loyal hearts all over the country 
beat in unison at his safe transit. 

I close this paper, in the words of 
Lincoln, as he stepped upon the car 
at Springfield, on his last trip to 
Washington, above alluded to. From 
its platform, he spoke as follows: 
Friends' — No one not in my posi- 
tion, can realize the sadness I feel at 
this parting. To this people I owe 
all that I am. Here I have lived more 
than a quarter of a century; here my 
children were born, and here one of 
them lies buried. I know not how 
soon I shall see you again. I go to 

assume a task more difficult than that 
which has devolved upon any man 
since the days of Washington. He 
never could have succeeded, except 
for the aid of Divine Providence, up- 
on which he at all times relied. I feel 
that I cannot succeed without the 
same Divine blessing which sustained 
him, and on the same Almighty Be- 
ing, I place my reliance for support 
and I hope you, my friends, will pray 
that I may receive that Divine As- 
sistance without which I cannot suc- 
ceed, but with which success is cer- 
tain. Again I bid you an affectionate 

These were the last words the lips 
of Lincoln ever uttered to his beloved 
people in Springfield. But his spirit, 
speaking from the tomb, accents 
words and thoughts that will circuit 
the globe on to the end of time, under 
a restored union, cemented in peace 
and prosperity through his instru- 



JOKL N. 3NO, M. A. 

^CONNECTICUT towns, their 
l^U formation and naming, has 
been an interesting subject 
for investigation. As religious 

or moral principle was a pre- 
dominant factor in early New Eng- 
land life the new communities were 
generally developments of religious 
societies, and new townships were the 
offsprings of overgrown parishes. To 
state the principle broadly, New Eng- 
land government was merely applied 
Congregationalism ; local self-gov- 
ernment expressed by the town meet- 
ing; a conservative democracy, dis- 
tinct from mob rule and anarchy on 
the one hand, or monarchy or bossism 
on the other ; elective, as each church 
chose its own minister, without ec- 
clesiastical aristocracy of bishops or 
lords spiritual, or higher appointing 
power. This is said merely in cur- 
sory mention of various forms and 
not respective merits of church gov- 

The principle of naming was first, 
historical ; that is, from towns in Eng- 
land, as Hartford (Hertford), Wind- 
sor, New Haven, New London. Lat- 
er it became geographcial or descrip- 
tive, and after breaking away from the 
mother country it became biographical 
and names were given in honor of 

their leaders. Many names were the 
perpetuation of parish names, while 
others were newly christened at the 
incorporation of the town. To trace 
these is both entertaining and of his- 
torical value. 

Andover parish containing parts of 
Hebron and Coventry was incorporat- 
ed as a town in 1848, and the name is 
directly from Andover in Hampshire, 
England. Ansonia, incorporated 1889, 
was named from Anson G. Phelps, 
senior partner in firm of Phelps, 
Dodge & Co., which established the 
place. Asproom, "high, lofty." As- 
sawog, "place between." Bantam, 
from peantum, "he prays or is pray- 
ing." Ashford, incorporated 1714, 
was named from one of the numerous 
towns of that name in England. 
Avon, incorporated from Farming- 
ton in 1830, is from the British Avon, 
meaning a river. 

Barkhamsted, incorporated in 1779, 
was named from Barkhamsted in 
Herefordshire. Berlin, incorporated 
from Farmington in 1785, was named 
from Berlin in Prussia. Bethany, a 
parish of Woodbridge, incorporated 
in 1832, is Hebrew, meaning "house 
of dates" (fruit). Beacon Falls, in- 
corporated 1 87 1, taken from Bethany. 
Oxford, Seymour and Naugatuck, is 



descriptive. Bethel, incorporated 
from Danbury, in 1855, comes 
from the Hebrew ''house of God." 
Bethlehem, incorporated from Wood- 
bury in 1737, is Hebrew, meaning 
"house of bread." Birmingham (bor- 
ough) was named from Birmingham, 
England. Bloomfield, incorporated 
from Windsor, Farmington and 
Simsbury in 1835, possibly came from 
an old Hartford family but originally 
it was an English town name, mean- 
ing "blooming field." Bolton, incor- 
porated in 1720, was christened from 
six old English towns of the same 
name. Bozrah, incorporated from 
Norwich in 1786, is from the Hebrew, 
meaning "an enclosure." Branford, 
settled under New Haven jurisdiction 
in 1644, incorporated from New Ha- 
ven in 1685 is derived from England. 
Bridgeport, incorporated from Strat- 
ford in 1 82 1, explains itself. Bridge- 
water parish, incorporated from New 
Milford in 1856, was named from a 
bridge on the boundary. Bristol, in- 
corporated from Farmington in 1785, 
was named from Bristol, England, 
meaning bridge place. Brookfield 
was incorporated in 1788 from New 
Milford, Danbury and Newtown. 
Brooklyn, incorporated from Pom- 
fret and Canterbury in 1786, was 
named as a society in 1754, from 
Brooklyn, New York, or brook-line. 
Burlington, from Bristol-Farmington 
in 1806, is English. 

Canaan, incorporated in 1739 is 
Hebrew, meaning low land. Canter- 
bury, incorporated from Plainfield in 
1703, is from English, town of the 
Kentish men. Canton, incorporated 
from Canton, China. Chaplin, incor- 
porated in 1822, was named from 
Deacon Benjamin Chaplin, a promi- 

nent citizen. Chatham, incorporated 
from Middietown in I/67, was named 
from Chatham, England. Cheshire, 
a parish incorporated from Wailing- 
ford in 1780, is named from the Eng- 
lish county, Cheshire. Chester, a par- 
ish in Saybrook, incorporated in 1836, 
is from Chester, England. Clin- 
ton, incorporated in 1838 from 
Killingworth, probably comes from 
Governor Dewitt Clinton, Coiches- 
ter, settled in 1701, was named 
from Clinton, England. Colebrook, 
named 1699, is English. Columbia, 
incorporated from Lebanon in 1779. is 
from the poetical naive of the United 

Cheesechankamuck, Eastern branch 
of Farmington river, "great fishing 
place at the wier." 

Chicomico, from she or che, 
"great" and komnk, or comaco, 
"house" or "inclosed place." 

Cobalt, from mines of cobalt. 

Cocoosing, "where owls are." 

Connecticut, from Quonoktacut, "a 
river whose water is driven in waves 
by tides or winds," or "land on the 
long tidal river." 

Cowantacuck, "pine woodland." 

Cornwall, settled in 1740, is named 
from the southwest county of Eng- 
land, meaning Wales of the Cornavil 
Coventry, settled in 1700. was named 
in 171 1 from Coventry in England 
Cromwell, incorporated from Middle- 
town in 185 1. is from Oliver Crom- 

Danbury, settled 1685, and named 
in 1887, is from Danbury, England, 
meaning a Dane city. Darien. incor- 
porated from Stamford in 18 jo. is 
named from the Isthmus Darien. or 
Panama. Derby, named in 1075, is 
English, meaning deer abode. Dur- 



ham, incorporated 1708, is English, 
meaning deer hamlet. 

Eastford, incorporated 1847, means 
the east part of Ashford. Easton, 
meaning east part of Weston, was in- 
corporated in 1845. Ellington, in- 
corporated from East Windsor in 
1786 , is an English town name. 
En (d) field was named and granted 
from Springfield in 1683, annexed to 
Connecticut, 1749. Essex, parish in- 
corporated from Saybrook in 1854, is 
an English county. 

Fairfield, settled in 1639, is a name 
descriptive of the tract. Farmington, 
settled in 1644, means farming town. 
Franklin, incorporated from Norwich 
in 1786, is from Benjamin Franklin. 

Glastonbury, incorporated from 
Wethersfield in 1690, is from an Eng- 
lish town. Goshen, incorporated in 
1739, is from the Goshen in Egypt. 
Granby, incorporated from Simsbury 
in 1786, is from a town in England. 
Greenwich, settled by Dutch in 1640, 
is from a town name in England. 
Griswold, incorporated from Preston 
in 181 5, is a personal name, Governor 
Roger Griswold. Groton, incorporat- 
ed from New London in 1704, is the 
name of an English town. Guilford, 
settled 1639, named in 1643, ls ^ rom 
Guilford, England, capitol of Surrey 
from whence came some of the Guil- 
ford folk. 

Haddam, incorporated 1668, is 
from Haddam, England; (East Had- 
dam 1734). Hamden, from New Ha- 
ven in 1786, is named from Patriot J. 
Hampden, early spelling of town 
name. Hampton, incorporated from 
Windham, in Pomfret, Brooklyn, 
Canterbury and Mansfield, 1786, was 
originally Kennedy parish ; it is Eng- 
lish. Hadlyme, combination of 

names of two townships in which it 
is situated, Haddam and Lyme. 

Hazardville, for Colonel Hazard, 
owner of powder works. 

Higganum, corruption of Indian 
word, Tomheganompakut, "at the 
tomahawk rock." 

Flockanum, "hook-shaped" because 
of change in course of river at this 

Humphreysville, for Hon. David 

Hartford, settled 1635, * s named 
from Hertford, England. (East 
Hartford, incorporated 1783). Hart- 
land, incorporated 1761, is from Hart 
(ford) land. Harwinton, incorporat- 
ed 1737, is from (Har)tford, 
(Win)dsor, and Farming (ton). Heb- 
ron, incorporated 1708, is Hebrew, 
meaning enclosure. Huntington, in- 
corporated 1789, is either significant 
as hunting town ; or from Huntington, 
England. i 

Kent, incorporated 1739, is from a 
county in England. Killingly, incor- 
porated 1708, is also believed to be 
English. Killingworth, incorporated 
1667, was first Kenilworth from Ken- 
ilworth in Warwickshire. Konkapot, 
for John Konkapot, chief of Stock- 
bridge Indians. Lebanon, incorporat- 
ed 1700, is Hebrew, meaning white. 
Ledyard, incorporated 1836, is named 
from Colonel and John Ledyard. Lis- 
bon, incorporated from Norwich in 
1786, is from the Portuguese capitol. 
Litchfield, incorporated 1719, is Eng- 
lish meaning Lichfield, field of 
corpses, a place for burning heretics. 
Lyme, from Saybrook, in 1667, is 
named from Lyme, England. East 
Lyme from Lyme, was incorporated 

Madison, from Guilford, in 1826, 



is named from President James Madi- 
son. Manchester, incorporated from 
East Hartford in 1823, is English, 
meaning a district camp. Mansfield, 
incorporated 1702, is named from 
Major Moses Mansfield, who owned 
part of the tract. Marlborough, in- 
corporated from Colchester, Glaston- 
bury, and Hebron in 1803, is named 
from Marlborough, Massachusetts. 
Meriden, incorporated from Walling- 
ford in 1806, was once an Indian 
"merry den." Middlebury, incorpo- 
rated 1807, from Waterbury, Wood- 
bury and Southbury, is named from 
its position relative to these towns. 
Middletown, incorporated 1651, is 
named from its position. Milford, 
settled 1639, from Yorkshire and Es- 
sex, England, is named from Milford, 
England. Monroe, incorporated from 
Huntington in 1823, is named from 
James Monroe. Montville, incorpo- 
rated from New London in 1786, 
means mountain village. 

Mashamoquet, "near the great 
mountain," or "at the great fishing 

Mashapaug, "standing water." 
Massapeag, "great water land." 
Mianus, corruption of name of In- 
dian chief Mayanno, "he who gathers 

Moodus, contraction of Indian Ma- 
chomoodus, "place of noises." 

Moosup, for Indian sachem, "Maus- 

Mystic, from Missi, "great," and 
tuk, "tidal river;" hence, "great riv- 

Morris, incorporated 1859 from 
Litchfield, derives its name from 
James Morris. 

Naugatuck, incorporated 1844, in 

an Indian fish-place meaning "fork of 

Natcharig, "land between," or "in 
the middle." 

Naubuc, corruption of Indian, 
upauk "flooded." 

Nepaug, "waters," or "fresh pond." 

Niantic, "at the point of land on 
a tidal river." 

Noank, from Nayang, "point of 

New Britain, incorporated from 
Berlin in 1850, comes from Britain. 
New Canaan was incorporated from 
Canaan parish in Norwalk and Stam- 
ford in 1 80 1. New Fairfield was in- 
corporated from Fairfield, 1740. 
New Hartford was incorporated from 
Hartford in 1738. New Haven, set- 
tled 1638 was named in 1640 from a 
town in England, and is mother town 
of Fair Haven, North Haven, East 
Haven and West Haven. New Lon- 
don, settled 1646, was named from 
London, England, in 1658. New 
Milford was settled chiefly from Mil- 
ford and incorporated 17 12. New- 
town, incorporated 171 1. means new- 
town. Newington, incorporated 1871 
from Wethersfield, is from Newing- 
ington, England. Norfolk, incorpo- 
rated 1758, is from an English county. 
North Branford is from Branford in 
183 1. North Haven is from New- 
Haven in 1786. North Stonington is 
from Stonington in 1807. Norwalk, 
incorporated 165 1, Barber says is 
"north walk," other writers say it is 
so named because when purchased 
from Indians the northern boundary 
was to extend northward from the 
sea, one day's walk, according to the 
Indian way of marking distance. 
Norwich, settled 1660, chiefly by 
James Fitch's congregation from 



Saybrook, derives its name from Nor- 
wich, England. Orange was taken 
from West Haven and Milford in 
1822 and named from William of 
Orange, William III of England. 

Oxford was separated from Derby 
and Southbury, incorporated 1798, 
and comes from the old English uni- 
versity town. Oneco, for son of Un- 
cas — Mohegan sachem. Orange, for 
William IV., Prince of Orange. 

Plain-field, incorporated 1699, is ap- 
parently descriptive of a tract. 
Plain-ville, incorporated from Far- 
mington in 1869, was originally 
"Great Plain." Plymouth, from Wa- 
tertown in 1795, is named from Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, and that from 
a town at the mouth of the Plym river 
in Southern England. Pomfret, 
named 1713, was named from Pom- 
fret, England ; old Ponte-fract, or 
"broken bridge." Port-land is a de- 
scriptive name incorporated from 
Chatham in 1841. Preston, named 
1687, probably from New Preston, 
England. Prospect, incorporated 1827 
from Cheshire and Waterbury, is 
named from its prospect. Putnam, 
incorporated from Killingly, Thomp- 
son and Pomfret in 1855, is named 
from General Israel Putnam. Pah- 
cupog, from Papke-paug, "pure water 
pond." Pattaquonk, "round place." 
Pauquepaug, from Papke-paug, "pure 
water pond." Pequabuck, "clear or 
open pond." Pequannock, "land nat- 
urally clear and open." Pochaug, 
"where they divide in two." Pom- 
peraug, "place of offering." Pontoo- 
suc, "falls on the brook." Poqueta- 
nuck, "land open or broken up." Po- 
quonoc, "cleared land." Quidnic, 
"place at the end of the hill." Quin- 
nebaug, "long pond." 

Redding, (Reading) incorporated 
from Fairfield, 1767, is named from 
Colonel John Read, an early settler. 
Ridge-field, incorporated 1709, is a 
name descriptive. Rox-bury, incor- 
porated from Wood-bury in 1796, may 
be descriptive of rocks as in the case 
of Woodbury ; or from Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. Rocky Hill, incorpo- 
rated 1843 from Wethersfield, is 
named from one of its hills. 

Salem, incorporated from Colches- 
ter, Lyme and Montville in 1819, is 
Hebrew, meaning "peace." Salis- 
bury, incorporated 1741, is named 
from a settler near the center. Say- 
brook, settled 1635, is named from 
Lords Say and Brook. Scotland, in- 
corporated from Windham in 1859, 
was named by its first settler, Ma- 
goun, after his native country. Sey- 
mour, incorporated from Derby in 
1850, was named from Thomas A. 
Seymour, then governor. Sharon, 
incorporated in 1739, is Hebrew, 
meaning a plain. Sherman, incorpo- 
rated 1802 from New Fairfield, was 
named from Roger Sherman. Sims- 
bury, named 1670, incorporated 1692 
from Windsor, was named from 
"Sim" (i. e. Simon) Wolcott. Som- 
ers, incorporated by Massachusetts in 
1734, was named from Lord Somers 
and annexed to Connecticut 1749, 
South-bury is from south part of 
Wood-bury, incorporated 1787. South- 
ington is from south part of Farm- 
ington, incorporated 1779. Stafford, 
settled 1 719, is probably named from 
Staffordshire, England. Stamford, 
settled 1640, was named in 1641 from 
Stamford in England. Sterling, in- 
corporated from Volnntown in 1794, 
is named from Dr. John Sterling, a 
resident. Stonington, incorporated 



by Massachusets in 1658, means a 
stony town, Stratford, settled 1639, 
is named from Stratford, England. 
Suffield was southwest part of Spring- 
field, was settled 1670, and annexed 
to Connecticut in 1749, and means 
south fields. South Windsor was in- 
corporated from East Windsor in 


Thomaston, incorporated 1875 from 
Plymouth, is named from Seth Thom- 
as. Thompson, incorporated 1785, is 
named from its chief early owner. 
Tolland, named 171 5, north part own- 
ed by Windsor men, is named from 
England. Torrington, incorporated 
1740, is named from an English vil- 
lage, Trumbull, ("North Stratford,) in- 
corporated 1797, is named from Jon- 
athan Trumbull. 

Union, incorporated 1734, means a 
union of lands. 

Vernon, settled 17 16, was incorpo- 
rated from Bolton in 1808. Volun- 
town, was given to volunteers in the 
Narragansett war and named in 1708. 

Wallingford, named in 1670, is 
named from Wallingford, England. 
Warren, incorporated from Kent in 
1786, was named from Samuel War- 
ren. Washington, incorporated 1779 
was named from General George 
Washington. Waterbury, named 
1686, is a name descriptive. Water- 
ford, from New London, in 1801, is 
a, name descriptive. Watertown, in- 

corporated from Waterbury 1780, is 
a name descriptive. West-brook is 
from west part of Saybrook, incorpo- 
rated 1840. Weston was incorporat- 
ed from west part of Fairfield in 1787. 
Westport was incorporated from Fair- 
field, Norwalk and Weston in 1835. 
Wethersfield, settled 1634, was named 
in 1637 from Wethersfield in Suffolk- 
shire. Willington, bought by eight 
men in 1720, was named from Well- 
ington, (English). Wilton, incorpo- 
rated from Norwalk in 1802, is a 
town-name in England. Winchester, 
incorporated 1771, is a name of an 
English town. Windham, incorporat- 
ed 1692, is named from Windham in 
Sussex, England. Windsor, named 
1637, is from Windsor, near London. 
Windsor Locks, incorporated 1854, is 
descriptive. Woodbridge, incorporat- 
ed 1784, is named from Benjamin 
Woodbridge, its first pastor. Wol- 
cott, incorporated from Sonthington 
and Waterbury in 1796, is named 
from Governor Oliver Wolcott. 
Woodbury, named 1674, means town 
of woods. West Hartford is from 
Hartford, 1854. Woodstock, incor- 
porated 1690, is named from Wood- 
stock, in England, a town near Ox- 

Thus may be comprehended the pe- 
culiar system of nomenclature in the 
early days of Connecticut. 


t id not bow 
faitbfuli? we 
interpret our 
creeb but bow 
trul$ we treat 
— goo& fceebs 
live long* 





"Iron Mining in Connecticut" and an article on "Salisbury " have been presented in the Connecticut 
Magazine, but the beautiful little village of Lakeville, in the lower Berkshires, has never before been made 
the subject of a separate historical article. Mr. Rudd, who is a genealogist and a close student of record*, 
has developed an entirely new interest in one of the most romantic spots in the state. Many of the illus- 
trations were taken from photographs made especially for this article by D. H. Oakes. of Lakeville, while 
others are by courtesy of the Central New England Railroad, which extends through the Bcenee men- 
tioned. — Editok 

ANTIQUITY lends romance to 
story and while some of the 
river towns may excel in this 
quality, there can be nothing 
more picturesque in history than the 
days of disputed territory when state- 
making was a business. Salisbury, 
with its northern boundary forming 
the line which separates Connecticut 
from Massachusetts, and its western 
limits stepping from Connecticut into 
New York state, holds a unique claim 
to political distinction. Having been 
now in one state and then in another, 
its narration is interwoven with terri- 
torial controversies. In the not long 
ago when everything on the other side 
of the Hudson river was the great wil- 
derness, Robert Livingston was grant- 
ed patent by Governor Dongan, July 
22, 1686, to a tract of land to be used 
as a manor ; its extreme eastern point 
extended into the present Salisbury 
center and the Livingston estate in- 
cluded a considerable portion of the 
western part of the town. Livingston, 
the founder of one of the best known 
American families, and foremost 

among the astute land grabbers of 
his time, claimed this small triangular 
extension into Connecticut by right 
of purchase from the Indians. In 
1 71 5 Governor Hunter continued 
Dongan's patent to Livingston in 
every particular so that we may infer 
the anomalous condition of affairs in 
this then neglected corner, when it 
was possible for a portion oi the pro - 
ince of New York to overlap the col- 
ony of Connecticut some four miles. 

Livingston himself was present at 
the marking o\ this eastern bound, a 
large pitch pine tree in a cleared field 
of Thomas Baylis, — in the year 1715. 
and it is more than probable that he 
was the first white man in the present 
village of Lakeville. He also tenac 
iously held to intrusions into the col- 
ony of Massachusetts Bay. Incidental 
to that dispute of jurisdiction just 
prior to the Revolution, there was 
abduction, riot and bloodshed, the 
records oi which read more like tales 
oi the Scottish Highlands than those 
<^\ America. 

In view of the grant to Livingston. 


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Home of Luther Holley, Esq., and descendants 

until 1850— Later known as Wononsco House 

annex — Torn down in 1899 

it is now clear why the first settlement 
in Salisbury along the Housatonic 
was made by the Dutch. John Dyck- 
man and other Palatines merely moved 
farther east in what they still sup- 
posed was their ''legitimate province." 
They had lived on the bank of a river, 
— the Hudson, and pushed on until 
they came to the next one, — the 
Housatonic, and there stopped. This 
was about the year 171 9, and from 
that time Lakeville lay in the line of 
travel between the rivers. 

Difficulties almost immediately en- 
sued, arising from the conflicting of 
purchases from the Indians, with 
grants made to individuals by the 
Colony. Among these grants which 
numbered at least twelve before the 
sale of the town as a distinct political 
division, were those to Thomas 
Knowles and Andrew Hinman of 
Woodbury, Connecticut, and Thomas 
Lamb of Weatogue. 

In 1732 the General Assembly, hav- 
ing at length determined upon a reg- 
ular course of settlement for the 
western lands, laid out several towns, 
among them Town M., which was 
sold at public auction at Hartford in 
May, 1738, and which according to 
the recorded entry of that date, "is 
hereafter named, and shall forever 
hereafter be called Salisbury." 

The sale of the town to those pur- 
chasers who thereby became its orig- 
inal proprietors, was exclusive of 
prior grants by the Colony. 

At the present time sufficient study 
as to the geographical application of 
the grants has not been given to define 
their exact location, yet it is certain 
that a great part if not all of Lakeville 
and its immediate vicinity was includ- 
ed in the Knowles-Lamb grants. 
Knowles and Hinman never lived in 
Salisbury, but Lamb did. He was 
probably a Massachusetts man and a 
shrewd adventurer. Almost beyond 
question he was the first English set- 
tler of Salisbury. It is believed that 
he first lived at Lime Rock, and later 
near the present Hotchkiss School. 
Foreseeing the natural advantages of 
the unsettled waste, he secured prac- 
tically all the available water powers, 
and hundreds of acres of the most 
feasible land. Lamb's biography is 
elusive. The date of his arrival is 
uncertain, as he first purchased land 
of the Indians, and for all his import- 
ant land speculations, he is seldom 
mentioned on the records after 1745. 
and is last heard of in 1761, when he 
was a mariner on the coast of North 

He bought of Knowles and Hinman 
portions of their grants, contiguous 
to his own, and may be said to have 
owned Lakeville. Into this tract 
came the first real settler of Lakeville, 
Cornelius Knickerbocker, a brother oi 
[ohn Knickerbocker, one oi the set- 


Built by Col. Joshua Porter and occupied by him 
until his death in 18*3 




tiers on the Housatonic. On May 
18, 1738, "Thomas Lamb of Wea- 
togue,'' sold to Cornelius Knicker- 
bocker, two acres of land "lying at or 
near ye place called Wonuncopoague- 
cok." The deed recites that one cor- 
ner of this lot was seven rods distant 
from Knickerbocker's dwelling house, 
and the bounds corroborate, in a gen- 
eral way, Judge Church's assertion 
that the home of this pioneer stood on 
the upper end of the "flat-iron" which 
was transformed into a park a few 
years ago. It is probable that Knick- 
erbocker originally squatted on this 
land, or hired it of Lamb, for several 
years prior to his purchase, so without 
taking too great liberty with dates, it 
may be said that the actual settlement 
of Lakeville was begun in 1730. 

Knickerbocker made other purchases 
of Lamb and by the year 1748, owned 
a farm of over one hundred acres. 
In that year he sold it all to Captain 
John Sprague of Sharon, (who built 
the first frame house in that town) 
and removed to Sharon, where he 

died March 3, 177^, aged 84 years. 
In 1753 this property had so appre- 
ciated in value that it brought 8,ooo£ 
old tenor, or about $3,500 oi our cur- 
rency to Sprague and his sou. ou their 
sale of it to Daniel Morris, who came 
into Lakeville from \ew llaveu. 
Within ten years Morris moved on 
into Berkshire, and Joshua Porter be- 
came the owner oi the earliest historic 
part of the village. 

About 1740 Benajah Williams be- 
came the owner oi another valuable 
farm in the vicinity, and the settlement 
of the place increased rapidly in the 
decade following. 

At this point rises the chief cause 
oi the existence oi 1 akeville. as a 
center oi population. - its relation to 
the mining oi won ore. which has been 
productive oi wealth and general 
prosperity from the early years of the 
settlement. It may never be known 
who first struck ore. but that mining 

he year 1734 is 

was begun about 

The outlet oi 1 .ake Wononscopomuc 




Erected in 1808 by father of one of Connecticut's distinguished governors— Now residence of Postmaster 

Hubert Williams. 

was flanked at short distances by two 
of Salisbury's richest mines, the old 
Ore Hill, a mile to the southwest, 
granted to Daniel Bissell of Windsor 
in 1 73 1, and the Davis mine, or Hen- 
dricks as it was formerly called, half 
a mile to the northwest. Lamb ap- 
parently did not utilize this water 
power for the manufacture of iron, 
but sold it in 1748 to Benajah Wil- 
liams, Josiah Stoddard and William 
Spencer who soon built a small forge 
on their purchase. After several 
changes of ownership it passed into 
the hands of Leonard Owen and was 
known for a few years as Owen's Iron 
Works. In 1762 Owen passed his title 
to Colonel John Hazeltine, a Massa- 
chusetts iron maker, Samuel and 
Elisha Forbes of Canaan, and Ethan 
Allen of Cornwall. 

These owners enlarged the works 
and built a blast furnace, reputed to 
have been the first one operated in 
Connecticut, which could produce 

some two and a half tons of iron in 
twenty-four hours. This furnace was 
a vast improvement upon the primitive 
forge which produced about one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of iron at a 
time, from a so-called refining fire 
similar to an ordinary smithy. The 
mechanical apparatus of the new furn- 
ace was of course very simple. 

A breast-wheel driven by the stream 
from the lake, operated rude bellows 
which fanned hundreds of bushels of 
charcoal into an intense heat, that re- 
duced the crude ore to a molten mass. 
The heavy iron naturally sought the 
lowest level of the hearth and flowed 
out through the tap in the dam stone 
first into the Jong broad "sow" chan- 
nels and thence into the smaller con- 
necting "pigs," allowing the lighter 
foreign substances to flow like lava 
over the top of the stone and be di- 
verted, crystalizing as it cooled into a 
bluish green cinder, much in demand 
for dressing roads. 




In 1765 Charles and George Cald- 
well of Hartford purchased the furn- 
ace, and Allen soon moved on into the 
New Hampshire, where fame awaited 
him. Ethan Allen was twenty-five 
years old when he became a resident 
of Lakeville, and in his few years so- 
journ left no special impress on the 
place. This was the formative period 
of his manhood, and it seems as if his 
mind and soul and body imperceptibly 
absorbed through contact with the last- 
ing riches of the earth those qualities 
of strength, elasticity, endurance and 
utility that made him figuratively and 
his handiwork literally, refined metal. 
After he became conspicuous among 
Americans, the people of Lakeville 
realized that a man of unusual capac- 
ity had lived among them, and per- 
petuated his name from generation to 
generation bv pointing out "Ethan 
Allen's Well." 

Of the six Allen brothers, Ira and 
Heman earned celebrity that would 
have been considerable had it not boon 
in such close comparison with the 
more remarkable doings of Ethan. 
Levi Allen, who was also at one time 
part owner in the family property in 
Lakeville became, strangely enough, a 
Tory sympathizer, and the closest 
blood ties did not prevent Ethan from 
petitioning the Vermont Court of Con- 

fiscation in 1779, to confiscate his 
brother's holdings in that state. 

Taking Lakeville as a center, the 
region included in a ten-mile radius 
was most emphatically concerned very 
deeply with the settlement of the fu- 
ture state of Vermont, beginning about 
the year 1765. Among the sixty town- 
ship charters comprising a part of the 
New Hampshire grants, granted in 
1761 by Benning Wentworth, Gover- 
nor of New Hampshire, those of Mid- 
dlebury, Salisbury and New Haven. 
Vermont were "granted to a party of 
gentlemen residing largely in Salis- 
bury, Litchfield County, Connecticut." 
John Evarts of Salisbury (Lakeville) 
penetrated as far as Otter creek, Ver- 
gennes, and surveyed the three town- 
ships. In the spring of 1766, John 
Chipman and fifteen other young men 
of Salisbury, went into the new ter- 





Near the site where the homestead of Ethan Allen, hero of Ticonderoga once stood 

ritory, building a road as they went. 
Several years later Ethan and Ira 
Allen followed Chipman and in 1774 
Thomas Chittenden settled at a point 
even farther north than his predeces- 
sors. These men were the very fore- 
front of the indomitable fight for 
state rights made by the settlers on 
the grants, and none were more prom- 
inent than Ethan Allen, Thomas Chit- 
tenden, first Governor of the state in 
1778, and Ira Allen, the first state 

Accustomed as we are to think of 
the "Green Mountain Boys" as a rep- 
resentative body of Vermonters, it is 
none the less true that many members 
of that indomitable band were men 
from the neighboring states who were 
in constant communication with Allen, 
Baker, Warner, and others of the act- 
ual granters. Heman Allen was one 
of them, in full accord with the policy 
of his older brother, and a patriot of 
the same stamp. Although a resident 
of Lakeville, he was commissioned by 

the Continental Congress, Inly z~ . 
1775, Captain of the 7th Company of 
Colonel Warner's regiment of Green 
Mountain Boys. He left his affairs 
in Lakeville in the hands oi an agent 
and went to participate in the initial 
campaign along Lakes George and 
Champlain, and over the Canadian 
border. One authority states that his 
own company was recruited in Salis- 
bury, but this does not yet appear. 

A glance at the report of the elec- 
tion of officers of Warner's regiment, 
submitted to the New York Provincial 
Congress in July. 1775. shows that 
Wait Hopkins o\ Ainenia. New York. 
was also a captain, and that the fol- 
lowing men. either natives or s< 
time residents o\ Salisbury, held com- 
missions, — Lieutenants Ira Mien. 
James Claghorn. John Chipman. ] 
Sawyer and Joshua Stanton. It will 
be remembered that Ethan Allen was 
taken prisoner in an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to capture Montreal in Septem- 
ber. 1775. lie was put in irons and 

Lower reservoir of Lakeville Water Company on Burton Brook 



Spacious verandas of the Wononsco House — Opposite is the post-oftiee and the village stores 

taken to England, thence back to Hal- 
ifax Prison and eventually was ex- 
changed in May, 1778, and welcomed 
back to Vermont with a popular dem- 
onstration. His brother Heman fared 
very differently. Wounded at the 
Battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777, 
he returned to his home in Lakeville, 
after Burgoyne's surrender in Octo- 
ber of that year, and lay ill of his 
wound and camp fever which had fol- 
lowed it, until May 18, 1778. One 
week to a day after Heman Allen was 
buried, Ethan Allen, just returned 
from paying his respects to General 
Washington at Valley Forge, arrived 
in Lakeville, counting upon a reunion 
with his brother, before continuing on 
his way to Vermont. 

In 1776 Heman Allen was one of 
the committee, and the sole agent by 
whom was forwarded to Congress 
the first remonstrance of the grant- 
ers in regard to the tyrannical atti- 
tude of the government of New York. 

Furthermore we learn from the ac- 
count book of Ira Allen, state treasu- 
rer, that on November 20, 1777 he 
paid "John Knickerbocker for copy- 
ing the constitution for the press" 
eighteen shillings, and on November 
26 he charged his expense for three 
days "going from Salisbury to Hart- 
ford to get the constitution printed*'. 
Thus it was that the original draft oi 
the constitution under which the gov- 
ernment of Vermont was administer- 
ed for nearly sixty years, was prepar- 
ed for the printer within a stone's 
throw of Lake Wononscopomuc 

The Allen homestead stood near 
the well before mentioned on part of 
what was known a hundred years ago 
as "furnace lot", now approximately 
bounded by the roadway leading from 
the lake to Bates' corner, thence to 
Dr. Knight's house, thence a straight 
line to the lake, and along the shore 
to the plaee o\ beginning. 

In the fall following the death of 




Scene of historic assemblies in the days of the making of the nation— Now residence of George Coffing 

Warner, Esq., of the New York bar 




Captain Allen it was sold to William 
Kelcey who sold it to Elijah Bennet, 
and he sold it in 1779 to Doctors Lem- 
uel and William Wheeler. In 1782 
William Wheeler became sole owner 
and some six years later sold it to 
Peter Farnam. From Farnam it pas- 
sed to James Benton in 1795, and from 
him to Dr. Samuel Rockwell in 1798, 
and John M. Holley, Esq. purchased 
it of Rockwell in 1801. In this house 
Alexander H. Holley was born Aug- 
ust 12, 1804. The deduction of title 
is given merely to show how this one 
house was a home to at least nine dif- 
ferent families of our early settlers, 
within a period of thirty-three years. 

By the year 1768 the furnace neigh- 
borhood began to take on the appear- 
ance of a village. Dr. Joshua Porter 
had already been settled in the prac- 
tice of medicine for some ten years. 
Timothy Chittenden and others had 
built homes, and gradual growth was 
evident despite the tide of emigration 
to Vermont. In this year there ap- 
pears an interesting figure, Richard 
Smith, the successor of the Caldwell's 
in the ownership of the furnace. This 
gentleman, a reputed Englishman, 
was of Boston at the time of his pur- 
chase. A man of large means and 
philanthropic ideas, he was well con- 
sidered, and at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, when he is said to have 
returned to England temporarily, his 
property was not confiscated but was 
occupied by the state, and used for 
the furtherance of the cause of Inde- 

In 1 77 1 some thirty-five citizens of 
the town subscribed 50^ for the estab- 
lishment of a library. Smith is be- 
lieved to have added a liberal contri- 
bution, and attended to the purchase 
of the collection, which was named in 
his honor, the Smith Library. This 
collection of the best books of the day 
was of incalculable value in eking out 
the scanty education of many of our 
prominent men. Efforts which have 
been made to learn Smith's subse- 
quent career have resulted only in 
showing that he was resident in New 


London, Connecticut, in 1784. in New 
York city in 1788, and in London. 
England, in 1791. 

As has been said the furnace was 
used by the state in producing muni- 
tions of war. Rather than attempt to 
estimate, from what may be a biased 
standpoint, the importance of this 
manufactory at that time, is quoted 
the following passage from Stuart's 
"Life of Jonathan Trumbull," publish- 
ed in 1859: — "These works at Salis- 
bury- — that secluded town in the 
northwest corner of Connecticut 
celebrated to this day for its rich and 
productive iron mines — where deep 
limestone valleys lapping elevated 
granite hills, lakes kissing the foot oi 
mountains, and huge clefts in gaping 
rocks, strangely break and diversity 
the landscape — occupied the anxious 
attention of Trumbull and his council. 
not only at the period (February, 
1776) of which we now speak, but 


35 1 

One of Lakeville's leading business men 

during the entire course of the Revo- 
lutionary war. There for the use not 
only of Connecticut, but of the United 
States at large, cannon were to be 
cast, from time to time with quickest 
speed, and cannon balls, and bomb 
shells, swivels, anchors, grapeshot, 
and hand grenades for vessels of war, 
iron pots and receivers for the manu- 
facture of sulphur, kettles for camp 
use, pig iron for the fabrication of 
steel, wrought iron for musket bar- 
rels, and various other articles vital 
to the defense of the country. And 
to keep the furnace in blast, ore dig- 
gers, colliers, firemen, moulders, foun- 
ders, overseers, and guards — exempt- 
ed all from ordinary military service 
— were to be procured from time to 
time, and furnished with clothing, 
subsistence and provisions, and money 
from the pay table. Woodlands for 
coal, teams for transportation, black 
lead, sulphur, and other articles es- 
sential to the foundry, were to be pro- 

cured — deed once — to facilitate its 
operations, a bridge was to be built 
across the Housatonic from Salisbury 
to Canaan." 

Trumbull, therefore, in the general 
superintendence of a foundry thus 
vital to America, and thus requiring 
attention, had much to do — and it is 
plain, from memorials that remain, 
that his own energy, particularly, pro- 
moted its success. Much of the time 
he had an express running from his 
door at Lebanon, to bear his own, or 
the orders of himself and Council, to 
its overseer, Joshua Porter, or to its 
managers, Henshaw and Whitney. 
The cannon from this famous estab- 
lishment, its shot, its munitions, gen- 
erally for military and naval use : it 
fell to him, very often, at his own 
discretion, to distribute, now to the 
selectmen of towns, or to posts upon 
the coast, now to armed vessels in 
the Sound, or to points of defence 
without the state, and now to sell 



HON. MYEON HOLLEY 1779-1841 


EEV. HORACE HOLLEY LL. D. 1 78 1 -- 1 82 7 

NEWMAN HOLLEY 1785-1857 




for cash, or exchange them, as was 
sometimes the case, for West India 
goods that were in demand for 
workmen, or for the soldiery of Con- 
necticut. The brown hematite of Sal- 
isbury's "Old Ore Hill," and that 
furnace upon the outlet of its Lake 
Wononscopomuc — which the hero of 
Ticonderoga, Ethan Allen, was one 
of the first to establish, — will ever be 
associated, in the minds of those who 
know the facts, with the Governor's 
management, and with his name." 

John Jay was at Salisbury on July 
29, 1776, as agent for the New York 
Convention, in the purchase of war 
supplies, and other men whose names 
are now household words, paid visits 
to Lakeville, that attest the importance 
in which the furnace was held. 

The largest cannon cast here during 
the Revolution were 18-pounders of 
about a ton in weight. The furnace 
of that day had no facilities for mak- 
ing larger single castings than these. 
In 1778 such improvements had been 
made that a number of 32-pounders 
were cast for the United States Navy 
and the State of New York, some of 

which, say Holley and Coffing in an in- 
teresting letter on this subject ad- 
dressed in 18 1 3 to Commodore Bain- 
bridge, "it is believed were used by 
Commodore Truxton at sea." These 
cannon were cast solid, and then 
bored and tested near Barnet's old 
saw mill. They were big guns for 
those days, for in 1820, the maximum 
size of cannon in most of our forts 
was a 24-pounder. 

In 1784 Smith sold his furnace to 
Joseph Whiting. From him it passed 
to William Neilson of New York city, 
who in 1799 sold it to Luther Holley, 
Esq. From 1 810 to 1832, the year the 
last blast was made, it was operated 
by the firm of Holley & Coffing, — 
John M. Holley of Lakeville and John 
C. Coffing of Salisbury Center. In 
1843 Alexander H. Holley tore the 
furnace down to make room for his 
pocket cutlery manufactory, which be- 
gan operations the next year. 

It has been carefully estimated that 
one-half of the male population of Sal- 
isbury, of military age, did actual ser- 
vice in the field during the course of 
the Revolutionarv war. Lakeville 



Member of New York Bar 





furnished her full share both of sol- 
diers, and those who, by reason of ad- 
vanced age or infirmity, could only 
stand behind the soldiers. 

The "little towns" of Connecticut 
were not so comparatively little then 
as now, and Salisbury spread upon 
her Four Records, on August 22, 
1774, a vindication of the right to free 
government, her approval of the spirit 

asserted in the Resolutions adopted by 
the General Assembly, and other res- 
olutions to the number of six. One of 
these was the appointment of a com- 
mittee, the chairman of which, Heze- 
kiah Fitch, Esq., Captain Timothy 
Chittenden and Lot Norton, Esq., may 
be called Lakeville men, to collect 
subscriptions for "our poor brothers 
of Boston now suffering for us." An- 
other resolution provided for a Com- 
mittee of Correspondence of five mem- 
bers, four of whom, Colonel Joshua 
Porter, chairman, Hezekiah Fitch, 
Esq., Dr. Lemuel Wheeler and Mr. 
Josiah Stoddard were of Lakeville. 
The final resolution was that a copy 
of the proceedings be transmitted to 
the Delegates of the General Con- 

Among the notable Revolutionary 
soldiers accredited to Lakeville was 
Adonijah Strong, First Lieutenant of 
Bigelow's Artillery Company which 
was the first artillery company raised 
in Connecticut. He succeeded to the 

KB^- » - HK?* 


;■•■ ■ 



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III U : 









Lieutenant-Governor of Connecticut 1804-1887— Governor 1857-1858 

law practice and Jabez Swift, and was 
the ancestor of a family well known 
both in this state and elsewhere, owed 
his title of Colonel to having held 
commission as Commandant of the 
Fourteenth Regiment of Connecticut 
Militia in the year 1800. 

The service record of four sons of 
Josiah Stoddard, Esq., whose farm 
was on the south shore of the lake, 
deserves mention. Luther Stoddard, 
the eldest son, rose to the rank of 
major of infantry. Josiah Stoddard, 
the second son, was a captain in the 
Second Light Dragoons Continental 
Army body, of which Elisha Sheldon 

and Samuel Blagden, both of Salis- 
bury, were colonel and lieutenant-col- 
onel, respectively. Darius Stoddard, 
the third son, was a surgeon during 
the war, and Samuel Stoddard, the 
fourth son, was a non-commissioned 
officer in the Connecticut line. An- 
other soldier was Colonel Joshua Por- 
ter; no other citizen of Salisbury was 
more in the public eye during, deed 
for years after, the war. His pub- 
lic service was so varied that a re- 
capitulation of it is almost a curiosity. 
He graduated at Yale in 1754. settled 
in Lakeville in 1757. and practiced 
medicine for fifty years. He was a 

3 6 ° 






selectman of the town twenty years ; 
a justice of peace thirty-five years ; an 
associate judge of the county court 
thirteen years ; chief judge of the same 
court sixteen years ; judge of probate 
for the district of Sharon thirty-seven 
years ; member of the General Assem- 
bly fifty-one state sessions ; lieutenant- 
colonel of militia in the engagements 
at Peekskill, Saratoga, and elsewhere 
in the year 1777; state superintendent 
of the furnace and member of the' 

State Council of Safety one year. He 
died at the age of ninety-five, in full 
possession of his faculties. 

Limited space prevents the presen- 
tation of even brief biographies of 
many such well-known citizens of the 
past as Hezekiah Fitch, Esq., Joseph 
Canfield, Esq., Judge Martin Strong, 
Moore Chittenden, Philander Wheel- 
er, Esq., William C. Sterling, John 
G. Mitchell, Esq., and others. 
J One of Lakeville's most distin- 

LOT NORTON, IKT, 1733-1810 LOT NORTON, 2ND, 1769-I847 LOT NORTON, 3RD, 1803-1880 


o «r 

W Hi 

H 42. 

W 5 

O 53. 



JARED S. HARRISON 1786-1864. GEORGE WOOD 1815-1882 
Colonel 13th Regiment Militia 1827 


2ND C. V. H. A. 

Brevet Brigadier General 

guished citizens was Elisha Sterling, 
lawyer, magistrate, politician, and 
gentleman of wide culture. In 1816 
he was one of the four major-generals 
in the militia establishment of the 
state. Samuel Church, Chief Justice 

of Connecticut at the time of his death 
in 1854, was a resident of Lakeville 
for nearly forty years. His invaluable 
historical address, delivered on the 
centennial of the town in 1 841, is a 
lasting memorial. Luther Holley, 

feet above sea level— Erected on Bear Mountain in 1885, eight miles from Lakeville. by 
Robbins BattelLpf Norfolk— Mt. Everett in Massachusetts in the distance 

3 6 4 


SAMUEL S. BOBBINS 1804-1894 

Esq., the founder of the Lakeville fam- 
ily of that name, came to Lakeville in 
1776, as the village schoolmaster. 
Toward the close of the war he enter- 
ed into trade, and for many years he 
was a successful merchant and iron 
master. His homestead, for some 
thirty years, was the old house torn 
down in 1899, and generally known in 
recent times as the Wononsco House 

Luther Llolley was the father of 
six sons, all of whom became promi- 
nent. John Milton and Newman lived 
and died in Lakeville. Horace enter- 
ed the Congregational ministry, but 
became a Unitarian, and was for nine 
years pastor of the Hollis street church 
of Boston. After that he was, for an- 
other period of nine years, president 
of Transylvania University at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, an institution which 
was in a flourishing condition during 
his term of office. He died at sea on 
the passage from New Orleans to 
New York. Myron was identified 
with the settlement of western New 
York, and was the commissioner in 
charge of the construction of the Erie 
canal. He figured in the anti-masonic 

convulsion of 1830, was one of the 
early abolitionists, and the most effec- 
tive founder of the Liberty or Anti- 
Slavery Party which had considerable 
political significance in the early for- 
ties, and which some authorities assert 
was the acorn from which has grown 
the Republican oak. Edward O., re- 
moved to Hudson, New York, and 
was at one time sheriff of Columbia 
county. Orville L., the youngest of 
the brothers, was a lawyer by profes- 
sion, and a writer of considerable abil- 
ity. He was for several years Survey- 
or General of New York state. Alex- 
ander H. Holley, second son of John 
Milton Holley, was intimately con- 
nected with all the activities of this 
locality for more than fifty years, and 
a sketch of his life appeared in a re- 
cent number of this magazine. His 
son, Alexander L. Holley, whose me- 
chanical ability evinced itself in his 
boyhood years in Lakeville, secured 
an international reputation through 
his introduction of the Bessemer steel 
process into this country, and his 
treatises on ordnance and armor. He 
died in middle life, just as the labor 
of years was beginning to bear returns 





of honor and wealth. Frederick Hol- 
ley, one of the sons of Newman Hol- 
ley, Esq., spent his whole life in Lake- 
ville, and was a representative farmer. 
Augustus and Peter Buell Porter 
were sons of Colonel Joshua Porter. 
The name of Augustus Porter of Ni- 
agara Falls, is associated with the en- 
tire history of permanent settlement 
and progress in western New York. 
His surveys of the "Holland Pur- 
chase" and later of the "Western Re- 
serve" were of incalculable value in 
opening that whole territory. Peter 
B. Porter, also of Niagara, was a 
member of Congress, Secretary of 
New York state, Commissioner on the 
boundary between the states and the 
British possessions, and Secretary of 
War during a part of the administra- 
iton of John Quincy Adams. He oc- 
cupied a conspicuous place in the War 
of 1 81 2, especially in the Battle of 
Fort Erie, and was brevetted major- 
general soon after Lundy's Lane. Lot 
Norton first, born in Farmington, was 
a son of Thomas Norton of that town, 
an original proprietor of Salisbury. 
He settled on a farm between Lake- 

ville and Lime Rock, near the hill 
which took its name from him. Both 
he, his son Lot Norton, second, and 
his grandson, Lot Norton, third, were 
town magistrates and representatives 
in the General Assembly, and were 
among the most influential citizens. 

The late Samuel S. Robbins, though 
a native of Canaan, was largely inter- 
ested in the iron industries at Falls 
Village, Lime Rock, and elsewhere. 
He moved from Lime Rock to Lake- 
ville in 1859, and was of the firm of 
Robbins, Burrall & Company, bankers, 
established in 1874. Mr. Robbins 1 
widow, Mrs. Sally Porter Holley Rob- 
bins, now in her ninety-third year, has 
the distinction of being the oldest liv- 
ing native of Lakeville. 

Robert Bostwiek, at Hudson. New 
York, was another iron worker of the 
old school. His activities covered 
a considerable area, as he was the 
managing member of the Sharon Val- 
ley Iron Company, and an active di- 
rector of the Iron Bank of Falls Vil- 
lage. He moved to Lakeville from 
Mt. Riga furnace in 1847. 

The late George Chittenden Dodee 



was another citizen widely known in 
this locality. His home was on Dodge 
Hill in Lakeville, now more commonly 
known as Bostwick Hill. Mr. Dodge 
-experienced trying changes of fortune 
and died within the memory of the 
present generation. The picture of 
him which appears in this article is 
said to represent him in a peculiarly 
characteristic attitude. 

Walter R. Whittlesey, a member of 
one of the best known families in the 
north part of Salisbury, spent a good 
part of his life in Lakeville. He was 
the first treasurer of the Salisbury 
Savings Society, and held the office 
for seventeen years. In 1850 he built 
the house which is now the residence 
of Mr. George B. Burrall. 

Dr. Henry M. Knight came to Lake- 
ville in 1 85 1 from his birthplace, Staf- 
ford Springs, this state. His life work 
was the amelioration of the condition 
of one class of mental and physical 
unfortunates, and from his untiring 
labors grew the Connecticut School 
for Imbeciles. 

Among other physicians in Lake- 
ville during the last century, were I Jr. 
Henry Fish, who moved to Lee, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1845, Dr. Asabel Hum- 
phrey, and Dr. William J. Barry who 
came from Hartford and practiced 
here from 1835 to 1846, when he re- 
turned to that city. About the time 
of his departure, Dr. Benjamin Welch. 
a native of Norfolk, began practice. 
He was a particularly skillful surgeon. 
He would have made a fortune out of 
manufacturing splints after a patent 
process of his own, if he had pushed 
the enterprise with greater energy. 

Among the most familiar local in- 
dustrial concerns was the partnership 
of Tupper and Wood, carriage maker- 
and blacksmiths. The firm name was 
popularly transposed to "Wood an' 
Tupper," a combination which more 
nearly conformed to the Yankee no- 
tion of euphony and slurring pronun- 
ciation. Growing children also acquir- 
ed "Wood an' Tupper" with ease, 
from its .phonetic resemblance to 


3 68 




PETER FARNAM 1 756- 1 8 1 7 


i 797-1 803 

wooden dipper, painfully associated 
with the wash-basin in the kitchen 
sink. Lorenzo Tupper and George 
Wood were the partners, and curious- 
ly enough they were born within a 
year of each other and died within a 
year of each other. "Colonel" Tupper 
was a man of affairs, magistrate, rep- 
resentative, postmaster, stationmaster, 
and judge of probate. He was con- 
spicuous for many years as a "trying" 
justice of the peace, an office of great 
local importance until recent years, 
and by reason of his familiarity with 
the conduct of civil cases, he was fre- 
quently appointed by probate courts 
a commissioner on estates, and by the 
superior court a committee in civil 
cases outside of his own jurisdiction. 
A late chief justice of Connecticut 
once remarked, that for quickness of 
perception, clearness of statement and 
fairness of judgment, he had never 
met Judge Tupper's equal. 

Peter Farnam, of more than usual 
education, kept a well-known hostelry 
for some years, and was the first post- 
master appointed in Salisbury. Two 
of his grandsons, John F. and Elisha 
W. Cleveland, were born in Copoke, 
X. Y., but passed many years in Salis- 
bury. This was especially true of John 
F. Cleveland, who was frequently an 
officer of the town, and lived on his 
fine farm on Town Hill. Dr. Cleve- 

land practiced medicine in New York 
city for some years. He returned to 
Lakeville in 1856, but was not in reg- 
ular practice after that year. 




The Hon. John H. Hubbard was 
born on Town Hill, and practiced law 
in Lakeville from 1826 to 1855, when 
he removed to the county seat. His 
nephew, General James Hubbard, at- 
tained the highest rank of any Salis- 
bury man in the Civil War, and died 
some years ago in Washington, D. C. 

Captain Oren H. Knight was an- 
other of the famous "Second Connec- 
ticut Heavies," and died before he was 
thirty, of wounds received near Pet- 
ersburg, Virginia. 

Colonel Jared S. Harrison Held var- 
ious positions of trust in the gift of 
the town. He moved into the village 
from the "Harrison District" a year 
or two before his death. 

In 1825 there were not more than 
forty dwellings, stores and public 
buildings in Lakeville. Twenty-five 
vears later the number had nearly 
doubled. In 1825 there was only one 
house on the east side of Main street 
between the points now occupied by 
the estate of J. M. Miller and the Da- 
vis Digging Company's railway siding. 

The name, Lakeville, was recogniz- 

ed by the post office department in 
1846, at which time the name, Furn- 
ace Village, by which it had been 
known for some years, was discarded. 
In early times the village was fre- 
quently called Salisbury Furnace, or 
more often simply Salisbury, as a 
part of the town. The increased ac- 
cessability afforded by the railroads 
has had much to do with what growth 
the village has enjoyed. The old 
Housatonic railroad was extended 
north from New Milford in 1842, and 
furnished Lakeville with a connection 
at Falls Village. Just ten years later 
trains began to run over the New 
York and Harlem railroad between 
New York and Chatham, and Miller- 
ton came into existence. Ex-Govern- 
or Holley was an active promoter of 
the Harlem extension north of Dover, 
and was also deeply interested in 
building the Connecticut Western 
railroad, which was opened in 1871 
and gave Lakeville a station of its 
own. Indeed the Connecticut Western 
owed much to the enterprise of the 
citizens of Salisbury who subscribed 

GEORGE C. DODGE '1815-1890 




Died in service 1864 

one hundred and three thousand dol- 
lars, an amount which exceeded by 
over twenty-five thousand dollars that 

raised among the citizens of any other 
town along the line. 

In the course of this catalogue of 
facts, hardly a word has been written 
about the scenery of Salisbury. The 
beauty of it must be seen to be real- 
ized, and felt to be loved with the af- 
fection of those who are born in the 
midst of it. 

From the first, and especially since 
the Salisbury letters appeared in Hen- 
ry Ward Beecher's "Star Papers," 
this has been a region to which have 
journeyed those whose solace is the 
hills. Its simple annals can interest 
only those who are mindful of the 
struggles and achievements of the 
forefathers, but its natural beauty and 
the life of its recently established 
schools, constitute a direct claim upon 
the notice of the world at large. 

In a summary that demands the di- 
vorce of fiction from fact, our icono- 
clastic battery must be trained for a 
paragraph upon that pathetic vestige 
of the so-called "Montgomery House" 
on Town Hill. 

This notable landmark, indissolubly 




HON. JOHN H. HUBBARD 1804-1872 
Member of Congress 1863-1867. 

connected, in the popular mind, with 
General Richard Montgomery, was 
originally a pretentious mansion, built 
in 1773 by Jabez Swift, Esq., a native 
of Cornwall, this county, and the ear- 
liest settled lawyer in Salisbury. 
Swift's plans and purse were not com- 
mensurate, and the house which he 
built, but was unable to complete in all 
its details, was long known as "Swift's 
Folly." In the same year, 1773, Mont- 

gomery married Janet Livingston and 
was living at Rhinebeck on the Hud- 
son when he was called into the Con- 
tinental service in June, 1775. In the 
month of December, following, Mont- 
gomery fell at Quebec. Jabez Swift 
also died at the beginning of the war, 
and in 1776, Robert Livingston, who 
had interest in Salisbury iron mines 
and without doubt was familiar with 
the unsurpassed view from the sum- 
mit of Town Hill, bought "Swift's 
Folly" from Heman Swift, brother of 

Another year passed, and the Brit- 
ish under General Vaughan advanced 
up the Hudson, ravaging the country 
as they advanced, and burned Cler- 
mont, the lower manor of the Living- 
ston's. The occupants of Clermont, 
among them the widow of Montgom- 
ery, sought refuge on the out-of-the- 
way estate recently bought by their 
kinsman, and there lived a few weeks, 
until their safe return to the manor 
was practicable. 

From a perusal of these facts and a 
history of Montgomery prior to his 
marriage, it is evident that if he even 
so much as saw "Swift's Folly," it 
must have been on some casual visit 
to Salisbury. 

So, having pointed out the rude 
path cut by the pioneers, Mr. Eaton 
now describes the educational and 
commercial conditions of today. 








HE hill section of Connecticut 
gives this historic State a 
claim to distinction for its 
scenic beauty. Appropriately 
titled "The American Switzerland," 
the Southern Berkshires and the 
Litchfield hills have become the Mecca 
of those who love the wildwood and 
the lake. The invigorating atmos- 
phere of the mountain heights has 
given it wide renown, and the beauti- 
ful winding drives under the branches 
of towering maples are lined with 
summer homes and educational insti- 
tutions, its climatic changes having 
made it the center of some of the best 
educational institutions in this coun- 
try. In the center of the village is the 
quaint country thoroughfare with its 
mercantile establishments and its hos- 
pitable merchant men. 

Though apparently remote from 
the main lines of travel, Lakeville is 

easy of access from New York and 
other central points. It lies between 
the Harlem division of the New York 
Central and the Berkshire division of 
the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford railroads. Connection is made 
with the former at Millerton, N. Y., 
(four miles distant) by the Central 
New England railway which passes 
through Lakeville, and with the latter 
by the same road at Canaan, nine 
miles distant. The Berkshire division 
also has a station at Falls Village, 
about four miles drive from Lakeville. 
The run from New York city to Mil- 
lerton occupies about two hours and a 
quarter, and during the summer sea- 
son there is through car service be- 
tween New York and Lakeville. The 
round trip fare by this route is $4.00. 
The Central New England railway 
also affords direct connection with 
Poughkeepsie on the west and Hart- 
ford on the east. 




On a hill overlooking- the village, 
standing against a background of deep 
foilage, is the magnificent building 
of the Taconic School, the outgrowth 
of a little school that occupied a cot- 
tage during the first three years of its 
existence. The capacity of this school 
since its occupancy four years ago has 
been so taxed by the increasing num- 
ber of pupils that action is soon to be 
taken toward enlarging the school's 
facilities by the construction of addi- 
tional buildings on the property. 

The presiding head is Miss Lilian 
Dixon, under whose careful manage- 
ment the school has acquired a recog- 
nition throughout the country among 
parents who desire to afford their 
daughters the simple, healthful, earn- 
est life that leads to the development 
of noble womanhood. 

The routine enables each student 
to receive attention necessary to her 
highest mental and physical develop- 
ment, and in case of any backwardness 
resulting from a pupil's illness, she 

is provided with individual instruc- 
tion as well as a course of special 
physical exercise. By its proximity 
to the Hotchkiss School, its pupils 
gain the advantage of access to many 
valuable lectures and enjoyable enter- 
tainments at that institution, whose 
head master, Mr. Edward G. Coy. is 
one of the Board of Directors of the 
Taconic School. 

Its cheerful and dignified home-like 
environments are combined with edu- 
cational advantages equal to those of 
any school in the country. All its in- 
structors are specialists in their de- 
partments, and nearly all are college 
graduates. To their aid, come once 
each year the members of the Advis- 
ory Board, Director Dewey from the 
Chicago University. President Wool- 
ley from Mt. Holyoke College. Dean 
Sanders from Yale and Professor 
Calkins from Wellesley. who contrib- 
ute to the management the results of 
their experiences in broader fields. 




The Hotchkiss School, an endowed 
school for boys, is devoted by the 
statutes of foundation exclusively to 
preparation for college and university. 
It was founded in 1891 by Mrs. Maria 
H. Hotchkiss, a native of Salisbury, 
and was opened for instruction on 
October 19th, 1892. It was at first 
limited to 50 rooms, but additional 
accommodations were soon called for 
and the number of rooms was doubled. 
In 1894 the number was still further 
increased by the erection of masters' 
cottages, and the present attendance, 
including day scholars, is 164. The 
total attendance since the opening has 
been about 700. The pupils have rep- 
resented every section of our own 
country and several foreign coun- 
tries, and have continued their 
studies in the foremost colleges and 
universities of the country. There are 
14 instructors, as follows : Head Mas- 
ter, Edward G. Coy, M. A., Greek; 
Masters, J. Garner Estill, M. A., 
Mathematics ; Rev. Huber Gray 
Buehler, M. A., English; Walter H. 
Buell, M. A., French and German ; 
John Edmund Barss, M. A., Latin ; 

Otto F. Monahan, Physical Training; 
James Denman Meeker, B. A., Greek ; 
Leslie D. Bissell, Ph. D., Physics ; 
George Willis Creelman, B. A., Latin 
and Mathematics ; Alfred Bates Hall, 
B. A., History; Oscar A. Beverstock r 
B. A., English and French ; Henry H. 
Conover, M.S., Mathematics ; Edwin 
Wilkes Van Deusen, A. M., Greek and 
Latin ; William Mason Evans, M. A., 

The master in Physical Training 
has absolute authority and supervision 
over the playgrounds and all the ath- 
letics of the school. The school is 
divided for indoor athletics into the 
Olympian and Pithian societies, which 
have their annual prize competition 
the latter part of February. 

The Agora and The Forum are 
rival societies devoted to literary and 
oratorical training. 

The St. Luke's Society was organ- 
ized to promote Christian fellowship 
and sustain the religious life of the 
school. The school maintains its own 
Sunday services. 

The Library contains more than 
fifteen hundred volumes. 




The Course of Study is organized 
into departments of instruction, each 
in charge of an expert. It covers four 
years and prepares for both Classical 
and Scientific requirements. 

The government and discipline are 
intended to be wholly in the interest 
of trustworthy boys, and are conduct- 
ed on a theory that a boy's sense of 
honor should be respected and en- 
couraged to the utmost degree. 
Every boy must room alone. The 
annual charge — covering tuition, 
board, rent and care of furnished 
room, heating, and electric light — 
is seven hundred dollars. A limited 
number of scholarships are available 
for ambitious boys of high character 
but slender means. 

The school is situated on high 
ground on the borders of Lake Won- 
onscopomuc, and commands one of 
the most delightful outlooks in New- 
England. The Main Buildings have 
a frontage of 324 feet. They include 
Chapel, School Study for the younger 
boys, class rooms, Laboratory, Library 
and Reading Room, dormitories for 
50 boys, Offices, Gymnasium with 
swimming pool and bathrooms. 

Members of the two upper classes, 
room, so far as possible, in Bissell 

The Trustees of the School are : 
Professor Andrew W. Phillips, Pres- 
ident, New Haven ; Ex-President 
Timothy Dwight, New Haven ; Chas. 
H. Bissell, Lakeville ; George B. Bur- 
rall, Lakeville; Milo B. Richardson. 
Lime Rock; Edwin W. Spurr. Falls 
Village ; William Bissell, M. D.. Lake- 
ville; Edward G. Coy, Secretary. 
Lakeville ; Morris W. Seymour. 
Bridgeport; Rev. John G. Goddard, 
Salisbury; Robert Scoville. Chapin- 

During the school year. 1902-1903, 
an attempt was made to raise a special 
endowment fund of one hundred 
thousand dollars. Of this sum about 
fifty thousand dollars has been alread} 

Through the liberality of George 
F. Baker, Esq., President of the Pirst 
National Bank of New York, the 
school has acquired an athletic field 
of about twelve acres, thoroughly pre- 
pared for the regular sports of the 




With property of two hundred acres in the 
Connecticut Highlands 

The town of Salisbury bids fair to 
become as noted for its schools as it is 
already for its beautiful scenery. Sit- 
uated on the hill overlooking Twin 
Lakes, is a new building, a good ex- 
ample of colonial architecture, St. 
Austin's School for boys. It is most 
fortunate in its location, for it com- 
mands views of astonishing grandeur 
in every direction. Happy the boys 
who are initiated into the mysteries 
of classic authors and mathematical 
problems amid so much of the beauty 
of Nature, which teaches lessons of 
eternal value without effort on the 
part of her pupils. There are the 
waters of Washinee and Washining 
to bathe and boat in, streams to fish 
in, cave's and glens to explore, and 
there is, above all, the strength for 
work and play that is enjoyed by those 

who live in the hills. This school has 
accommodations for only a limited 
number. It is perfect in its equip- 
ment. The buildings are new, and in 
every detail they show not only archi- 
tectural beauty but admirable provis- 
ion for the needs of a boarding school. 
In one wing are the school rooms, 
laboratory and gymnasium ; in the 
main building are the dormitories, liv- 
ing rooms for masters and boys, lock- 
er rooms and chapel ; in another wing 
are the dining room, kitchen, servants' 
quarters and infirmary. All parts are 
under one roof, and, both in construc- 
tion and decoration, everything sug- 
gests the comfortable country house 
rather than an educational institution. 
The school property consists of 
nearly two hundred acres. Part of 
this is devoted to the uses of a farm, 



The site commands magnificent stretches of landscape in all directions 





which supplies the school with milk 
and vegetables. A part much appre- 
ciated by the boys is woodland, and a 
part is graded for a ball field and 
tennis courts. 

In such institutions, no matter how 
excellent the buildings and how com- 
plete the equipment, and these in the 
case of St. Austin's are wonderfully 
perfect, the school's worth depends 
very largely on the directing influ- 
ence. The head master, the Rev. Geo. 
E. Quaile, is a clergyman of the Epis- 
copal church, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, and experienced in 
such responsible work as he is now 
conducting. He was for seven years 
head master of St. Austin's School 
in Staten Island, N. Y., and through 
that connection the school has gained 
the interest of some of the leading 
churchmen of New York, as well as 
of Connecticut. 




Copies of The Connecticut Maga- 
zine of this issue are on sale exclusive- 
ly at the pharmacy of E. A. Eldridge, 
in the new Holley Block. The busi- 
ness which Mr. Eldridge now owns 
was established in 1895 by E. R. La 
Place, and five years later was pur- 
chased by Mr. Eldridge. 

The drug store occupies the site of 
the old one-story building originally 
occupied as a grocery store. The old 
building was moved to the south in 
1894 to make place for the new Hol- 
ley Block. The store is located in the 
northern end of the Holley Block, on 
the corner of the street leading to the 
depot. It has a frontage of 30 feet 
with handsome display windows, and 
a depth of over 60 feet. The fixtures 

are the most modern and afford an air 
of cheerfulness and comfort through- 
out. The store is finely equipped with 
electric lights and acetylene gas, and 
is heated by steam. 

Mr. Eldridge is one of Lakeville's 
best known citizens and has built up a 
thriving business. Besides the usual 
line of medicines and druggist's sup- 
plies, his stock includes a fine assort- 
ment of confectionery, and a variety 
of the best brands of cigars, tobacco 
and smokers' supplies, dainty station- 
ery and photographic materials, a 
large line of musical sundries and sec- 
ular and sacred songs. 

Anticipating the needs of the many 
fishing parties during the summer 
months, Mr. Eldridge also carries in 
stock an ample line of fishing tackle. 





In the center of the little village, 
surrounded on all sides by scenes of 
wild and picturesque grandeur, equip- 
ped with everything that makes life 
comfortable and recreation pleasant,, 
is a hostelry that is thronged during 
the summer months with guests from 
all parts of the country, drawn thither 
by the wonderful restorative powers 
of the highlands of Connecticut. 

The New Wononsco, owned and 
conducted for the past 12 years by 
Mr. E. L. Peabody, is a model resort 
for the tired, city-worn business men 
and their families. Open the year 
round, it has become known as one of 
the most attractive, commercial and 
summer hotels in western Connecti- 
cut. With accommodations for eighty 
guests, and in addition several com- 

modious and well furnished cottages, 
the Wononsco transforms Lakeville in 
the summer months into a scene of 
gaiety, with concerts, hops and golf, 
tally-ho, boating and fishing parties, 
and all the comforts that are obtain- 
able in city life. Lakeville is a veri- 
table paradise in the Connecticut hills, 
and the Wononsco extends a cheerful 
home greeting to recreating parties 
after a day in the mountains, on the 
lakes or on the golf course. And now 
as the snow flies and the rugged 
mountains rise like great white spec- 
tres against the gray December skies, 
the Wononsco is entertaining its win- 
ter outing parties, for the scenery is 
just as grand and inspiring in the 
brisk winter months in these high alti- 
tudes as it is when the landscape is 


3 8r 


clothed in the rich verdure of summer. 
The Wononsco's wide open fireplaces 
blaze with great crackling logs and 
the spacious parlors extend cheer and 
comfort to its guests. 

Such outside sports as hunting, 
sleighing, skating, coasting, and fishing 
through the clear crystal ice of the 
Lake Wononscopomuc furnish an in- 
vigorating pastime, and the evenings 
around the fireplace pass all too soon 
after a healthful and satisfying day is 

The sun parlor of the Wononsco, 
an illustration of which is herewith 
produced, is lavish with its palms and 
potted plants. The handsome new ad- 
dition to the hotel, constructed a few 
years ago, practically doubles the ca- 

pacity of the house, and includes the 
commodious and well-lighted dining- 
room, which will seat over ioo guests. 

The Wononsco stables house 20 
well-groomed horses and many stylish 
carriages. The depot, post office, bank 
and telegraph office are within a few- 
hundred yards of the hotel and long 
distance and local telephones in the 
hotel office are at the service of the 
guests. The cuisine is excellent and 
the water supply is from a crystal 
mountain spring. 

Mr. Peabody is conversant with 
property values in Lakeville, and 
transacts a general real estate business 
throughout the locality, engaging 
largely in the sale of lands and the 
rental of summer cottages. 

3 8 2 






The A. F. Roberts Co., Inc., are 
the successors to the business founded 
in '65 by Mr. A. F. Roberts. Started 
on a small scale as a country grocery, 
the business has gradually expanded 
to its present stage, a modern fancy 
grocery and dry goods establishment, 
catering to the finest trade. Connect- 
ed with the building shown in the ac- 
companying cut, is a new cold storage 
plant, just erected, and used in con- 
nection with the fruit and vegetable 

The officers are A. F. Roberts, 
President, and A. C. Roberts, Treas- 

Three of Lakeville's enterprising 
citizens are identified in the thriving 
business house of A. H. Heaton & 
Co., viz. : A. H. Heaton, H. L. Bar- 
nett, and Dr. George H. Knight. The 
partnership was begun in 1899, suc- 
ceeding the G. W. Hall Co. The firm 
occupies the entire three floors and 
basement of the building shown in the 
accompanying illustration, the floor 

space of the main store being 40x60 
feet. The Company handles a large 
line of men's furnishing goods and 
clothing, house furnishing goods, car- 
pets and furniture, fine china, etc., 
has its own upholstering department 
and also engages in picture' framing. 
The store is located on Wheeler street, 
facing the park. 

Lakeville's only jeweler is D. H. 
Oakes, who is located with A. H. 
Heaton & Co. on Wheeler street. Mr. 
Oakes began business in Lakeville in 
1895. The development of the private 
schools in the locality and the gradual 
increase in the population of the vil- 
lage has greatly stimulated the de- 
mand along this line. Mr. Oakes car- 
ries a complete line of watches, clocks, 
jewelry, silverware, and optical goods, 
and does a large repairing business 
as well. Mr. Oakes is an expert with 
the camera, and we acknowledge his 
valuable services to The Connecticut 
Magazine in his photographic work 



for illustrating this article. He has 
many valuable negatives and prints of 
scenes in and about Lakeville on sale 
at his store. 

The banking house of Robbins, 
Burrall & Co. was organized in 1874, 
and has since conducted successfully 
a general banking business similar to 
a national bank in every respect with 
the exception of issuing notes. Messrs. 
Burrall and Norton are the managers, 
and Mr. H. B. Callender is teller. 
The firm handles only high grade se- 
curities and never speculates. 

The Salisbury Savings Society was 
chartered in 1848 and has occupied its 
present building since 1864. Mr. 
George B. Burrall has held the posi- 
tion of president for over forty years, 
and T. L. Norton has been treasurer 
for thirty-five years. John C. Holley, 
son of the late Governor Holley, and 
his sister, the present Mrs. Rudd, 
were the first depositors, and G. B. 
Burrall was third on the list, which 
has numbered nearly eleven thousand. 
The present number of open accounts 

is twenty-four hundred, representing 

The Holley Block, built in 1895 by 
the Holley Mfg. Co., stands upon the 
site of the general store conducted at 
different periods by A. H. Holley, 
Holley & Co., William Jones, Griggs, 
Chapin, and Bissell and Bartram. 

The block has a frontage of 100 feet 
on Main street, and is 64 feet deep. 
It is lighted in part by electricity, and 
in part by acetylene gas from the plant 
of The Lakeville Gas Co. 

The first floor is occupied by the p< >st 
office, and the stores of H. J. Bissell, 
E. E. Bartram and E. A. Eldridge ; 
on the second floor are four dwelling 
rooms and Union Hall. The latter is 
the meeting place of O. H. Knight 
Post, G. A. R., Hiram Eddy Camp, S. 
of V., O. H. Knight W. R. C, Court 
Wononsco, F. of A., and its auxiliary, 
the Circle of Lady Foresters, and the 
Camp of Modern Woodmen of Amer- 

The third floor is occupied exclu- 
sively by Montgomery Lodge, F. & 




A. M., chartered in 1783, and Hema- 
tite Chapter, Royal Arch Masons. 
The Masonic Hall is considered one 
of the best equipped in the State. 

In 1844 Alexander H. Holley erect- 
ed a factory upon the site of the old 
furnace, and began to manufacture 
pocket cutlery. In 1846 Nathan W. 
Merwin was taken into partnership, 
and Holley & Merwin conducted the 
business until 1850, when George B. 
Burrall became a partner and the firm 
name was changed to Holley & Co. 
In 1854 Holley & Co. was merged 
into the Holley Mfg. Co., which was 
incorporated in that year. 

Governor Holley was president of 
the Company until his death in 1887. 
His successors were the late John L. 
Merwin and Milton H. Robbins. 

George B. Burrall was secretary 
from 1854 to 1866, and treasurer from 
1866 to 1883. He was also general 
agent or manager for a number of 

The late William B. Rudd was 
elected secretary in 1866, and treas- 

urer in 1883, and held these offices, 
as well as that of manager at the time 
of his death in 1901. 

Although this concern has been sur- 
passed in point of size by many of the 
large manufactories of recent years,, 
it retains its reputation for the high- 
est quality of product, and is recog- 
nized locally as one of the chief fac- 
tors in the prosperity of Lakeville for 
over half a century. 

This industry has been the means 
of introducing a new element into the 
population in the persons of English- 
men from Sheffield, the great cutlery 
center. The usual number of em- 
ployees is between forty and fifty, and! 
at the present time over 60 per cent, 
are of English birth or parentage. 

The original factory built in 1844 
is still occupied, and is beyond ques- 
tion the only building in America 
which has been used continuously and' 
exclusively for nearly sixty years in 
the manufacture of pocket knives. 
The main factory, an illustration of 
which appears, was built in 1866. 

Manufacturers of Pocket Cutlery 




Photographs taken for The Connecticut Magazine 
by Frank M. Johnson 

THE science of building has 
during the past few years 
received a wonderful im- 
petus. In no line of the world's work 
is greater skill and ingenuity being 
exerted. While it is but a few years 
ago that this was a sparsely settled 
territory with now and then a country 
farmhouse, it is estimated today that 
there are nearly 210,000 homes in 

Connecticut and about 17,000,000 in 
the entire United States. In the course 
of evolution the home, too, has under- 
gone marvelous changes. Mr. Mark- 
ham in an article in another part of 
this magazine tells an interesting 
story of life before the burning log 
at the fireside of sixty-five years ago. 
In contrasting the old with the mod- 
ern there can be no better example of 

3 86 



the constructors' skill of today than 
Highland Court, in which is embodied 
all that is recent in the annals of in- 
vention. This massive structure, 
which was over two years in process 
of construction, is an imposing edifice 
of red brick, laid in Flemish bond 
with white mortar and trimmed with 
white marble. Its interior is a study 
in the decorators' art being of dull 
finish red birch, and containing about 
450 rooms. The building is planned 
in the form of a letter H with numer- 
ous lighted courts, the main entrance 
being radiant under a ceiling of gold 
leaf, and the thousands of electric 
lights blending with the beauty of the 

In Oriental splendor the drawing 
room, hung with costly tapestry and 

Japanese leather, delicately illustrates 
the modern art culture ; its Venetian 
iron light casting a red glow over the 
rich tiling of the mantel and the hand- 
frescoing of the ceiling. 

The dining hall, with its side walls 
of old ivory finish and its ceilings of 
panels in gold leaf irradescent with 
200 electric bulbs glistening from the 
projecting cornices overhead, seats 
over 100 guests. 

The hallways, carpeted in maroon 
velvet, lead to 75 suites, varying in 
size from one room and batt to eight 
rooms and bath, many of them being 
models in art furnishing and all of 
them exemplifying the modern ideas 
in domesticity, being replete with prod- 
ucts of recent inventive genius ; — 
electric and gas lights, call bells, and 
private telephones. There are open 
fireplaces supplying heat through gas 
process; there is a long distanced tel- 
ephone switchboard just off from the 
main hall at the entrance, connecting 
with every apartment, under the man- 
agement of a competent operator; the 
entire building is heated by the Broo- 
mell Vapor system, using cast iron 
sectional boilers of more than 10,000 
feet capacity, only eight ounces pres- 
sure is required as the system is oper- 
ated without air valves and is abso- 
lutely noiseless. 

In the basement are metallic dry- 
rooms heated by steam ; there are 
dumb waiters for delivery purposes 
and modern passenger elevator ser- 
vice; with private sanitary bathrooms 
wainscoted with white polished mar- 
ble and having marble floors. 

The kitchen is equipped with all the 
twentieth century facilities for hygi- 
enic cooking; there is a French steel 



range, hard-coal boilers, steam tables 
and closets for dish warming, auto- 
matic coffee urns, private bakery, and 
cold storage plant. 

There is not a building in Connecti- 
cut which more forcibly reflects the 
tendency of contemporary life. The 
problems of living are here met and 
solved. Not only comfort, but intel- 
lectual enjoyment is provided, and or- 
chestral concerts are given in the din- 
ing hall Wednesday evenings, while 
through the winter months literary 
entertainments and musicals are to be 

Highland Court was built by the 
Highland Court corporation, — incor- 
porated under the laws of Connecticut, 
especially for the purpose of con- 
structing this immense building. Mrs. 
Elizabeth G. G. Merrow is president, 
and George W. Merrow, secretary 
and treasurer. 

Not only the building but the din- 
ing room also is under the direct con- 
trol of the corporation. Mr. Merrow 
resides at 34 Forest street, and is sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Merrow 
Machine Company, located at 28 
Laurel street, where they make spec- 
ialties in overseaming machines of the 
highest efficiency. 

Mr. George S. Brigham is super- 
intendent, and owing to his extensive 
experience in the hotel and catering 
business brings much of value to the 
owners of the building as well as its 
many patrons. Owing to the fact 
that people from the surrounding 
towns may find here elaborately fur- 
nished apartments where they may 
spend the winter months suites have 
been suitably arranged for housekeep- 

ing with all the conveniences of mod- 
ern times. 

In going into further detail and in 
placing this architectural accomplish- 
ment on record, mention should be 
made of the men to whom are due the 
credit for this revelation in modern 
home life. 

The architects, Lewis D. Bayley 
and D. Parsons Goodrich, have again 
demonstrated their ability to perceive 
modern necessities. This firm was 
established in May, 1897, Mr. Bayley 
coming to Hartford from Louisville, 
Ky., and Mr. Goodrich from Boston, 
both being experts in their profession. 
They soon evolved a large and influ- 
ential clientele. Among the note- 
worthy structures erected from their 
plans are Lenox Court, the "Har- 
vard," the "Belden," the recent alter- 
ations in the State Capitol Building 
under Governor George E. Louns- 
bury, and many fine private residences 
in Hartford and vicinity. Mr. Good- 
rich studied his profession at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, and in the offices of H. H. Rich- 
ardson and McKim, Mead and White. 
Mr. Bayley has just returned from an 
extended European tour, during 
which he has been making a study of 
the noted architecture of England, 
France, Holland and Belgium. 

The hardware used in the construc- 
tion and in the present organization of 
Highland Court is from the estab- 
lished house of Clapp and Treat, most 
noteworthy in its line of business. 
This house was established in the fall 
of 1883, by J. C. Stockwell, and its 
first location was on North Main 
street. In April, 1883, it was moved 


to its present site ; and in the following 
December it was purchased by J. Allen 
Youngs, who was succeeded by the 
present firm in 1887. The premises 
occupied by the concern contain up- 
wards of four thousand square feet of 
floor-space, and the firm carries on an 
extensive business throughout this 
section. The individual members are 
Messrs. George I. Clapp and Irving 
C. Treat, both of whom have long 
been identified with the business life 
of the city. 

Further description of the heating 
arrangement will be of value to all 
prospective builders. The aforemen- 
tioned Backus heaters, resembling 
fireplaces, convey gas through pipe 
into burner under the boiler or log, 
which contains sufficient water when 

converted into steam to fill the sur- 
rounding radiator. The pressure of 
the gas when it enters the burner 
takes in sufficient air to make perfect 
combustion and increases the volume 
of flame and heating capacity about 
sixteen times. This heat is applied to 
produce steam from the small bod} 
of water contained in the log or boiler. 
which distributes the heat over the 
radiating surface as one is to seven- 
teen hundred. The air of the room 
or rooms, attracted by the flame comes 
in contact with the surface, becomes 
heated and a constant circulation is 
therefore created, the dust, microbes 
and organic matter being destroyed 
by fire and leaving the air absolutely 
pure They are the most economical 
heaters on the market and by simply 


burning gas they give the comforts 
and cheerfulness of an open fire and 
are highly recommended by physi- 
cians and endorsed by users in gen- 
eral. The Backus heaters are in 
many of the finest private homes and 
apartment houses in the city and de- 
livered and set up range from $30.00 
up. The Backus heaters are manu- 
factured by the Backus Company of 
Brandon, Vt., and sold in this locality 
exclusively by Brown, Thomson & 
Co., of Hartford. 

One of the greatest demands in 
modern building is the sanitary sys- 
tem of plumbing and in this expert 
skill was solicited, the responsibility 
being with Mark J. Hanlon and 
James J. Murphy, upon whose repu- 
tation and previous work reliance was 

safely placed. 

"It has been the aim of the owners 
to furnish the very best plumbing pro- 
curable, and we have made an exhaus- 
tive search with this end in view," 
states the contractors. Highland 
Court stands as a model in sanitary 
plumbing and adds another accom- 
plishment to the firm of Hanlon and 
Murphy of 280 Asylum street, Hart- 
ford, who were also the plumbers for 
the Travelers Insurance Company's 
building, the City Mission in this 
city, St. Mary's Church and the Gen- 
eral hospital of New Britain, also the 
New Britain Grammar School 

The efficient Broomell heating plant 
for the entire building was installed 
by the Hartford Heating Company 
under the superintendency of John J. 


McKenna, recognized as one of the 
most expert in this line of construc- 
tion. The president and treasurer of 
the Company is Mr. R. W. Farmer, 
and the concern has many buildings 
commending its workmanship, includ- 
ing the Harvard, Lenox Court and 
the Universalist building. They have 
also installed the Vacuum system for 
exhaust steam in many of the finest 
structures in the State, and make a 
specialty of factory business. 

The cooking apparatus, which has 
already been mentioned in a descrip- 
tion of the kitchen, cannot be ex- 
celled. It is the Hub range system 
by Smith and Anthony, 48 Union 
street, Boston, the only house in the 
country in this line of business oper- 

ating their own brass and iron factor- 
ies. They have fitted up many of the 
largest hotels and institutions in the 
country and under the severest 
their efficiency ami durability have 
been fully proven. 

Highland Court also presents .1 
revolution in window fixtures, using 
the new combination window lock 
manufactured by the International 
Burglar Proof Sash and Balance and 
Lock Co., o\ Providence, R. 1.. through 
its selling agents J. C. Indwell and 
Company, 237 Asylum street. Hart- 
ford. It is a simple device by which 
windows may be opened or closed Im- 
pressing a button and are effectually 
balanced ami automatically locked in 
any position. The windows can be 




left securely locked at any height ; 
there are no ropes or metal strips 
used and it does not interfere with the 
removal of sash for any purpose. It 
is entirely concealed from view, and 
requires no special construction, it 
being possible to apply it to old build- 

The window screening at Highland 
Court has been an interesting prob- 
lem, it being necessary to thoroughly 
protect 871 windows. It has been 
most effectually solved by Mr. G. W. 
Fernside, of 60 Temple street, Hart- 
ford. This enterprise was founded 
nearly a quarter of a century ago and 
has been under the able management 
of Mr. Fernside since January, 1903. 
His practical knowledge and his 
thorough factory equipment of mod- 

ern machinery and skilled workmen 
have all been used advantageously in 
the building of Highland Court. 

The magnificent scheme of decora- 
tion, which has been completely out- 
lined, is by Rueger & Saling of 63 
Prospect street, Hartford. It re- 
flects the handiwork of the true ar- 
tist and they have recently been treat- 
ing the Masonic Hall at Glastonbury. 
Mr. Emil Rueger is at present in 
Europe and upon his return will intro- 
duce into the decorators' art in Con- 
necticut many of the old-world ef- 
fects, Mr. Paul Saling being in charge 
of the home work. 

In returning to the magnificent 
furnishings of the apartments it may 
be said that the art arrangement be- 
speaks the culture of the designers. 
From the colonial furniture and the 
art pieces in the reception room and 
private apartments to the stately ar- 
rangement of the dining room, the 
firm of C. C. Fuller and Company of 
Hartford has given its decorative 
knowledge. The beauty and the re- 
fined atmosphere is largely due to 
their tasteful suggestions. 

Draperies and carpets referred to 
come from the oldest and largest 
house in its line in Connecticut, — The 
Charles R. Hart Company, 894-902 
Main street. It was established in 
1846, by Sugden & Co., continuing 
the business of Catlin & Co., dissolved, 
with which Mr. Sugden had been as- 
sociated as a partner. In 1864, Mr. 
Charles R. Hart became a partner in 
the concern ; and in 1865, he and Mr. 
L. B. Merriam, together with Mr. 
Sugden, formed the firm of Hart. 


Merriam & Co., and in 1888, the or- 
ganization of the present firm was ef- 
fected. It was incorporated in March, 
1897, with a capitalization of $30,000. 
The officers are : G. W. Curtis, 
president, and S. A. Bacon, secretary 
and treasurer. The directors are: 
G. W. Curtis, S. A. Bacon and F. C. 

The harmonious effects and treat- 
ment are upheld in even the smallest 
detail and in the dining room the 
crockery, which was made to order, 
contains the monogram of Highland 
Court in every piece. The cutglass 

and the silverware arc also decorated 
with the distinguishing mark ami on 
the linen it is interwoven by hand. 
The crockery and glassware are of a 
Mellen & Hewes design and were 
manufactured through this well- 
known concern. Mr. Dwigfat X 
Hewes oi the firm has been president 
of the Hartford Business Men'- \ 
ciation and the reputation oi the 
house which has long been established 
is further augmented at Highland 

The table linen adds great 1\ to the 
effect of the dining room. It is made 




from a special design through Sage, 
Allen & Co., and each piece is em- 
broidered with the Highland Court 
monogram. The linen for the entire 
house, including the blankets and 
counterpanes, is from the same firm, 


manufactured for them by the best 
mills in the country. The house 
which has an established reputation 
was given full authority in supplying 
the linen necessities for Highland 





Photographs taken for The Connecticut Magazine 
by Herbert Randall 

THERE is a true romance to 
the colonial days ; there is a 
stability of character, a 
strength of purpose, a well-defined 
plan of action that gives it position as 
one of the most important epochs in 
history. The qualities which made 
possible the building of the greatest 
republic in the world are well worthy 
of preservation. Every colonial home 
teaches its lesson of endurance, for- 
bearance, patriotism. The return to 
the colonial architecture, and the co- 
lonial designs in the furnishings, is 
one of the best signs of an enduring 
respect for those who made possible 
the luxuries of today. 

About the time when Thomas 
Hooker was laying the foundation 
upon which the Constitution of the 
United States was built, Aquilla 
Chase came from Cornwall, England, 
and settled in Jlampden, Massachu- 
setts, in 1640, thus founding one of 
the most influential and loyal families 
in America. 

It is with a deep regard for the past 
that one of his descendants has linked 
these memories with the present in 
4;he erection of a home embodying the 
best qualities of both periods. The 
residence of George L. Chase, presi- 
dent of the Hartford Fire Insurance 
Company, erected at the corner of 

Asylum avenue and Willard street, 
Hartford, in 1896, reflects a broad 
treatment of colonial architecture. 
Its strongest feature is the atmos- 
phere of colonial hospitality in its six- 
teen spacious rooms. The lower floor 
and hallway are furnished throughout 
in rich Flemish oak with hardwood 
floors. The delicacy of treatment 
gives it a cultured art tcne. The fur- 
niture in the drawing room is entirely 
of gilt, with rich upholstering, and 
the draperies and hangings are a 
blending of green and pink, while the 
ceiling and sidewalls are in delicate 
harmony. Costly bric-a-brac and 
vases are used in decoration, one 
work of the potter's art from Vienna 
being valued at $500. 

Mahogany is almost synonymous 
with solidity, and is closely associated 
with the art idea of our fore tat hers. 
From the drawing room an archway 
leads into a rear parlor, containing 
rare pieces of this rich mahogany 
furniture, and the paintings by the 
late Albert Bierstadt o\ New York, 
a painter of reputation : several of 
them being gifts from the artist, who 
was a close friend o\ the family. 

Connecting with the roar parlor is 
the den, with its fireplace decorated 
in green tile, ami its quiet, dignified 
furnishings of oak. 






The dining room is of Flemish oak 
with a large fireplace in brownish tile 
extending to the ceiling, matching the 
woodwork. The walls are of figured 
burlap and there are closets contain- 
ing rare china. 

Mr. Chase, although the chief ex- 
ecutive of one of the most substantial 
insurance organizations in the world, 
is much interested in books, and his 
cozy library on the second floor, over- 
looking Asylum avenue, contains 
hundreds of well-selected volumes of 
history, travel, biography and books 
of reference. In the library hangs 
a picture done in crayon by a protege 
of Mr. Chase which represents the ar- 
tist's handiwork at the age of sixteen 
years. It is drawn from life, a sister 
cf the little genius being a model. 

The development of the abilities of 
the young artist is progressing under 
the direction of Mr. Chase. 

In adjoining rooms are the sleeping 
apartments, and on the third floor is 
an ample billiard room. The house 
throughout is lighted by electricity 
and heated by hot water with baths 
on all floors; every window oi the 
residence is set with French plate 
glass. The architect is Edward T. 
Hapgood, of Hartford, who is recog- 
nized as one of the ablest students of 
colonial designs in this country. The 
Connecticut building at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, 
which is a reproduction of the home 
of the Poetess Sigourney, is one of 
Mr. Hapgood's most recent architec- 
tural achievements. 

Couitesy "The Successful American'" 




Conducted by Edwin Stanley Welles 

This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries 
lould be as precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his 
jrsonal attention to questions relating to Hartford records free of charge. Extended investigations 
ill be made by him for reasonable compensation. 

Persons having old family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are 
quested to communicate with him with reference to printing them. 

Anything that will help to enhance the value and usefulness of this department will be gladly 

Readers are earnestly requested toco-operate with the editor in answering queries, many of 
nich can only be answered by resource to original records. 

Querists are requested to write clearly all names of persons and places so that they cannot be 
isunderstood, and to write on only one side of the paper. Queries will be inserted in the order in 
hich they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CONNECT- 
:UT MAGAZINE, Hartford, marked Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office 
Idress— Editor. 


Meach. My great-grandfather, 
Capt. Aaron Meach, was a cap- 
tain in the Revolutionary war, 
and commanded the Ga'ley Rain- 
bow and Lion with a man by the 
name of P. House, two guns and 
thirty men. I am informed that 
one of his daughters, Abigail 
Meach, married a Hewitt some- 
where near Hartford, Conn. 
Capt. Aaron Meach must have 
died east, for the reason that he 
never came west with the rest of 
the family, and a daughter of 
Abigail M. Hewitt, was my 
grandmother and married Charles 
Adolphus Haller in 1818 in 
Boonsboro, Maryland. 

She died January 17, 1881, in 
Lanark, Carroll County, Illinois. 
She was born near Hartford, 
Conn., in 1 800. 

I would like to know where 
Capt. Aaron Meach lived, mar- 
ried and died. Who were his 

parents and who was his wife? 
What about the Hewitt family in 
Conn. ? They were in Middlesex 
county, Conn., in London county. 
Virginia, and at last settled in or 
near Leesburg, Virginia. 

Edward E. Haller, 

Forreston, Illinois. 

(a) Samuel 2 Williams, of Gro- 
ton, Conn., married 2nd, Mrs. 
Margaret Huntington Tracy, oi 
Norwich, Conn., .May 28, 175* 
and had children as on Groton 
records. Samuel 2 was son of 
Samuel 1 of Groton. Where did 
he come from? Does he belong 
to the line of Robert Williams, 
Roxbury, Mass.. the same as the 
Stonington family Who was 
first wife of Samuel 2 Williams 

He had children. Samuel b. 
1746, Oliver b. 1748. Christopher 
b. 1750, Lucy b. 1752, Esther b 
1754/ Where wore they horn 



and who was their mother? 
Were they born in Mass., and de- 
scendants of Capt. Isaac Wil- 
liams, of Newton, Mass.? 
(b) Bishop. Also wanted an- 
cestors of Abigail Bishop, of New 
Haven, b. Sept. 24, .-1758, who m. 
in 1778 Asa Todd, son of Ger- 
show Todd, of New Haven; also 
ancestors of Gershom's wife, 
Catherine Mix b. 1729 and ances- 
tors of wife of Michael Todd, 
Elizabeth Brown, daughter of 
Eleazar Brown, who died prior 
to 1720. 

John Oliver Williams, 
161 West 75th St., 
New York City. 

Holcombe, as she was mother of 
Cynthia Holcombe, born 1779- 
80, who married in 1800, Wil- 
liam Matson, of Simsbury. 

Wanted, the full name and pa- 
rentage of the father of Cynthia 
Holcombe, who was the second 
husband of Lydia Humphrey, 
(b) Hills. Wanted, the pa- 
rents of Hannah Hills, born Feb. 
26, 1730, died Feb. 28, 1754, who 
married March 22, 1749, James 
Stanclift 3rd of Middletown, 
Conn., as his first wife. 

He married second Susannah 

Herbert C. Andrews, 

Flagstaff, Arizona. 

53. Beebe. Ebenezer Beebe, of 
Lyme, baptized Oct. 29, 1704, 
died 1783. Where was he bap- 
tized? Where did he die and 
where was he buried? Is his 
will in existence? Where was 
his son Abijah born in 1729? 
Abijah is said to have married 
Grace Smith. When and where 
did the ceremony take place? 
Stuart C. Wade, 
121 West 90th St., 
New York City. 

54- (a) Humphrey-Holcombe. Ly- 
dia Humphrey, daughter of Jo- 
seph Humphrey, Jr., of Simsbury, 
Conn., and his wife, Margaret 
Case, married Ezekiel Tuller, of 
Simsbury, son of Samuel, born 
Aug. 23, 1747, and by him was 
mother of Ezekiel, John, Levi, 
Anna, and Lydia fuller. Her 
husband died "in the Revolution- 
ary army." Lydia Humphrey 
appears to have married second a 

55. Smith. Our family trace to 
Richard Smith, one of the first 
settlers of Lyme, who died about 
1700. In the 17th century there 
were Richard Smith, Sr., and Jr. 
in Wethersfield, as a note in Hol- 
lister's History informs me. Was 
Richard Smith, Jr., of Wethers- 
field the Richard Smith who 
helped settle Lyme? 

Reuben H. Smith, 
Thomaston, Conn. 
Answer. More or less con- 
fusion exists about the various 
Richard Smiths of that period, 
but it seems unlikely that Rich- 
ard, of Lyme, was Richard, Jr., 
of Wethersfield; possibly an ex- 
amination of the early Lyme land 
records might disclose where 
Richard of that town came from. 

56. Fillmore. Will any one of that 
name or acquaintance please 
write that fact to George P. Al- 
len, North Woodburv, Conn., and 



learn from him what will be of 
interest to them. 

(a) Turner. Can any one 
give information of the family of 
John Turner, son of John and 
Patience (Bolles) Turner, who 
married Bathsheba Whipple and 
removed from Montville to Nova 
Scotia, about 1760? I wish to 
locate him in Nova Scotia and 
should be glad to hear from de- 
scendants, if any. 

(b) Lester. Who were the pa- 
rents of Isaac Lester who mar- 
ried Amy Fargo, of Montville, 
before 1760, and had Ann, Isaac, 
Elihu, Norman, Amy, Anna? 

(c) Squire. Asa Squire, it is 
said, was an emigrant from Scot- 
land to Connecticut. He had 
children, Jesse b. 1760, and Eu- 
nice, Asa and Jesse Squire are on 
the Revolutionary rolls, both in 
Connecticut and New York, and 
Jesse, after the war, settled in 
Hillsdale, Columbia county, New 

Wanted data of Asa Squire, 
name of wife, residence, and oth- 
er children, if any. 

Miss Anna Hazelton, 
202 Juneau Avenue, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Heath-Rising. Who were the 
ancestors of Joseph Heath, born 
April 6, 1753, in Tolland Coun- 
ty, Conn., died June 21, 1830, at 
Galesville, Washington county, 
N. Y., and of his wife, Mabel 
Rising, born Oct. 17, 1756, in 
Tolland County, Conn., died Oct. 
29, 1820, Galesville, Washington 
ton Countv, N. Y. 

They moved to the town of 
Greenwich, Washington County.. 
N. Y., about 1780, from Tolland 
County, Conn. 

Howard F. Heath, 
9240 Harbor Ave., 

Chicago, 111. 

59. Nichols. In glancing through 
"Character Sketches of the 
Daughters of the Revolution," I 
came across the following pas- 
sage in a monograph entitled 
Mary Clark Hull, which reads as 
follows: "Joseph Hull married 
the daughter of Isaac Nichols of 
Fairfield," and quotes the history 
of Derby as authority. Now let 
us see whether the ensuing au- 
thorities verify such a statement. 

Savage's Genealogical Diction- 
ary says "Caleb Nichols in his 
will of Aug. 6, 1690, names 
among his other children his 
daughter Mary." 

Caleb, son of the foregoing Ca- 
leb, in his will of March 6, 1706, 
names his brothers Abraham and 
Samuel and sisters, Abigail Mar- 
tin, Mary Hull, Phebe Knell and 
Hannah Nichols. 

Cothren's History of Wood- 
bury says "Mary, daughter of Ca- 
leb Nichols, married Hull." 

The History of Fairfield 
(Schenck) says, "Mary d. of Ca- 
leb Nichols m. Joseph Hull." 

The late Rev. Benj. L. Swan in 
his authoritative and valuable 
Genealogical Notes deposited 
with the Fairfield Historical So- 
ciety, says "Mary d. of Caleb 
Nichols m. Joseph Hull 1691, died 

The History of Stratford (Or- 



cutt) which was compiled by the 
same author as that of the His- 
tory of Derby several years sub- 
sequently, says "Mary d. of Ca- 
leb Nichols m. Joseph Hull. 

The History of Derby (Or- 
cutt) says "Mary probably 
daughter of Isaac Nichols, Jr., 
married Joseph Hull January 20, 

Now in view of the foregoing 
data, I should be greatly pleased 
to be informed as to the correct- 
ness of the latter. 

I might add that out of eight 
children born to said Mary and 
Joseph Hull, according to the 
records, six were named after 
Caleb's children and one after 
Caleb himself. 

Walter Nichols, 
540 State St., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

60. Ingraham-Caniield. Judith In- 
graham married Canfield. 

What was his Christian name? 
He is said to have been a prom- 
inent officer in the War of the 
evolution. Their children were, 
Elisha, Silas, Philander, Thad- 
deus and Graham. 

Fred A. Canfield, 
Dover, New Jersey. 

fto. Ingraham-Caniield. Judith In- 
graham married Canfield. 

What was his Chrsitian name? 
He is said to have ben a promi- 
nent officer in the War of the 
Revolution. Their children 

were, Elisha, Silas, Philander, 
Thaddeus and Graham. 

Fred A. Canfield, 
Dover, New Jersey. 

61. Silsby Family. 

(?) Silsby-Benedict. Abijah 
Silsby married Mary Benedict 
July or Aug. 1792, at Stamford 
Conn., and I want names of the 
parents of both, including mai- 
den names of their mothers 
dates, places of the birth and 
death of Abijah and Mary with 
a list of their children. 

(b) Weed-Silsby. Timothy 
Weed married Sarah Silsby at 
Ridgefield, Conn., Dec. 11, 1777, 
and I want names of the parents 
of both including maiden names 
of their mothers, dates and places 
of the birth and death of Timothy 
and Sarah, with a list of their 

(c) Bene die t-Silsby. Mathew 
Benedict married Abigail Silsby 
April 17, 1763, at Stamford.. 
Conn. They resided for a time 
at Ridgefield, Conn. About 1773 
they moved to Stockbridge, 
Mass., where Mathew died 1777. 
I need dates on this family and 
would like to correspond with 
some of their descendants. 

(d) Silsby-C arp enter. . . John 
Silsby married Huldah or Hulah 
Carpenter at Windham, Conn., | 
May 12, 1746. I want names of I 
her parents including maiden 
name of her mother, also date] 
and place of birth and death of I 
Huldah with list of her children, j 

(e) Silsby-Allen. Jonathan Sils-j 
by married Lydia Allen at Wind- 1 
ham, Conn., Mar. 1, 1715. Ij 
want names of her parents in- 1 
eluding maiden name of her I 
mother, also dates and places ofl 
birth and death of Lydia with 1 
list of her children. 



(f) Silsby -Randall. Jonathan 
Silsby married Abigail Randall 
at Colchester, Conn., April 26, 
1733. I want names of her pa- 
rents including maiden name of 
her mother, dates and places of 
birth and death of Abigail, with 
list of her children. 

(g) Collson-Silsby. Moses Col- 
son married Sarah Silsby at 
Windham, Conn., April 10, 1766. 
I want names of the parents of 
Moses, including maiden name of 
his mother, dates and places of 
birth and death of Moses. 

(h) Moulton-Collson. Wanted 
names of parents including mai- 
den name of mother, date and 
place of birth, date and place of 
death, date and place of marriage, 

also given name of Moul- 

ton who married Sarah (Silsby) 
Collson, widow of Moses, 
(i) Boardman-Silsby. Wanted 
names of parents including mai- 
den name of mother, date and 
place of birth, date and place of 
death and marriage of William 
Boardman who married Elizabeth 

(k) Silsby-Silsbu. Every one of 
this name or any one whose an- 
cestor bore it, without regard to 
form of spelling, are requested to 
correspond with Geo. H. Silsby, 
Concord, N. H., who is collecting 
data for a genealogy of this fam- 

62. St. John. Noah St. John bom 
1768, died 1854, married Betsey 
Waterbury, born 1769, died 1857. 
I should like to know the name 
of Noah's father with particulars, 
when and where born, to whom, 

when and where married, list of 
children, and when and where 

David St. John, 
256 State St., 
Hackensack, New Jersey. 

63. Hummiston. I am anxious to 
find some trace of Abram Hum- 
miston or Humiston who settled 
in or about Warren, Litchfield 
County, Conn., some time be- 
tween 1800 and 1810. One son, 
Lewis, was born, I think, in War- 
ren. I would like a record of his 
birth and also of the naturaliza- 
tion papers of Abram, who was, I 
think, a Scotchman. 

We think Abram was married 
in this country and if so, would 
like to know where, when and to 

Mrs. Roy F. Wallace, 

220 Pavone Ave., 
Benton Harbor, Michigan. 

64. Roberts. Wanted ancestry of 
my grandfather, Abel Roberts, of 
Middletown, Conn., born Novem- 
ber 27, 1762. 

Mrs. Lewis H. Todd, 

Stratford, Conn. 

65. Gilmorc. Wanted ancestry of 
Betsy Gilmore, wife of Guidon 
Welch, Jr. She was the daugh- 
ter of Rhoda Snow and Gil- 
more. I don't know his first 
name or where his native place 
was. The Snows were from 
Ashford, Conn. Rhoda, daugh- 
ter of William and Mary John- 
son Snow, was born Jan. 28, 
1777; her daughter, Betsy Gil- 
more, married Guidon Welch, Jr., 



June 5, 1823, the ceremony being 
performed by Rev. Philo Judson. 
Ashford Town Records. I have 
the Welch family as far back as 
1683, and wish to find all I can 
about the Gilmores. 

Mrs. H. N- Hyde, 

83 North St. 
Willimantic,- Conn. 


To No. 28 (c) May- June, 1901. 

Canfield. Jemima Canfield, daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah and Alice (Hine) 
1707, in Milford, Conn., and died 
October 11, 1795, in New Mil- 
ford, Conn. ; she married John 
Bostwick Jan. 18, 1723, and had 
six children : Jesse, Edward, Mat- 
thew, John, Gilbert and Nathan. 
Her father, Jeremiah Canfield, 
son of Thomas and Phebe 
(Treat) Canfield, was baptized 
Sept. 28, 1662, in Milford, Conn., 
and died March 18, 1739-40, in 
New Milford, Conn. 

He married Alice Hine, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Hine and had Jer- 
emiah, Azariah, Alice, Zeriah, 
Mary, Samuel, Thomas, Jemima, 
Zerubbabel and Joseph. 

Fred'k A. Canfield, 

Dover, N. J. 

To No. 36 (a) December, 1902. 

Goodsell. Abigail Goodsell was 
the wife of Samuel Goodsell, and 
mother of John and William. 
John was baptized Jan. 8 3 

William was baptized Nov. 22, 


D. N. Gaines, 
East Hartland, Conn. 

To 47 (b) February-March, 1903. 
Judd. Deacon Thomas Judd 
came from England 1633-34. 
He first settled at Cambridge, 
Mass., removed to Hartford in 
1636. His name is on the 
Founders Monument at Hart- 

He moved to Farmington 
about 1644 and was one of the 
84 original proprietors of Far- 
mington. He was deputy to the 
General Court sixteen sessions. 

Children : William, Elizabeth, 
Thomas, born 1638, John 1640, 
Benjamin 1642, Mary 1644, Ruth 
1647, Philip 1649, Samuel 1651. 

John Judd, third son of Dea- 
con Thomas Judd, born 1640, 
married Mary Howkins, daugh- 
ter of Anthony Howkins. He 
was representative to the General 
Court many times ; was a lieuten- 
ant in the Indian wars. He died 
in Farmington 171 5, aged 75. 

His children, Elizabeth, 1670, 

married Hart, Joseph, b. 

1684, died in infancy, and John b. 

Third Generation : Anthony 
Judd, son of Lieut. John Judd 
and his wife, Mary Howkins, 
married Susanna Woodford, June 
26, 1707. He was one of the 
"seven pillars" of the Kensing- 
ton church, and a representative 
to the General court many times. 

His children were, Amos, Ith- 
iel, Lydia, Phineas (?), John, 
David, Susanna, born Sept. 8, 
1726. Susanna married first, 
Samuel Seymour, second, his 
cousin, Elikim Seymour, 

This Susanna Judd Seymour is 
my great grandmother, after 



whom I was named. She was a 
notable woman in the family, was 
a widow the second time and 
lived with her son, my grand- 
father, Jonathan Seymour. 

Some where I have seen it stat- 
ed that Isabel Brown, the wife of 
Anthony Howkins, was the 
daughter of Peter Browne, of the 
Mayflower, who was a descend- 
ant of Sir Peter Browne. Can 
you tell me? There has been a 
good deal of confusion in regard 
to Anthony Howkins and Capt. 
Anthony Hawkins, who married 
a daughter of Gov. Thomas 
Welles. Ruth, daughter of An- 
thony Hawkins, married Capt. 
Thomas Hart, of Farmington. I 
am also one of their descendants, 
Thos. Hart and wife being my 
great, great, great, great grand- 

Can you give me a concise 

statement in regard to Anthony 
Howkins and Capt. Anthony 
Hawkins, their wives and chil- 

I think each of the men had 
two wives and children by each 
wife. Can you give me the 
names of wives and children? 
Susan A. Seymour Moulton 

1053 West Broad St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

To 48 (b) February-March, 1903. 
Curtiss. John Curtiss, of Strat- 
ford, Conn., b